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measuring carbon footprint_richards

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  • 1. Calculating the Carbon Footprint of Development Projects Lynn Richards US EPA Smart Growth Program June 13th 2008 CNU 17 - Experiencing the New Urbanism
  • 2. What are you counting? • Construction • Building Energy Use • Transportation Related Emissions – Residential – Office – Retail, Entertainment & Services – Manufacturing, Distribution Facilities, etc.
  • 3. Difference in CO2 Emissions - High vs. Low Density Residential Development 6.0 5.0 4.0 Metric Tons of CO2 Low Density 3.0 High Density 2.0 1.0 0.0 Construction Building Operations Transportation Source – Norman et al (2006) “Comparing High & Low Residential Density”
  • 4. Where do the transportation reductions come from? • Where and How you build – Easy access to retail, services, entertainment = more walking and biking for non-work trips – Safe routes to school = fewer drop-off trips – Proximity to transit = less commuting by car – Regional Accessibility = shorter car trips • E.g. driving 1 mile vs. 3 miles to the grocery store
  • 5. The Five D’s • Density • Diversity of Land Use Types • Neighborhood Design • Distance to Transit • Access to Regional Destinations
  • 6. Neighborhood Scale D s
  • 7. (1) Residential Density 4 Units per AcreAcre 11 Units per Source: Campoli (2007) Visualizing Density, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy
  • 8. (2) Diversity of Land Use Source: EPA White Paper: The Placemaking Premium. Victor Dover. 2007. Illustrations courtesy of Dover Kohl and Partners.
  • 9. (3) Neighborhood Design - Network Connectivity
  • 10. (3) Neighborhood Design, con’t Transit & Pedestrian Friendly Design
  • 11. Regional Scale D s
  • 12. (4) Distance to Transit What Kind of Transit Are You Accessing? LA Philadelphia Atlanta Wash. DC Chicago Boston
  • 13. How Close are You to the Station? Source – Cervero (2006) Office Development, Rail Transit, and Commuting Choices
  • 14. (5) Proximity to Destinations
  • 15. Arlington, VA– (4) Distance to Transit and (5) Regional Destinations M M Lower Density Zoning Lower M Density M Zoning M
  • 16. Doubling of Each D Reduces VMT by… n s tio it s a an tin Tr es D o et ty al y nc rsi on n sit ig a e gi ist en es iv Re D D D D 0% -2% -4% -6% -8% -10% -12% -14% -16% Source – Ewing (2009) Travel and the Built Environment - A Meta-Analysis
  • 17. Different Modeling Approaches • Simple adjustment factors (aka back of the envelope) • Analysis using baseline data from census or regional transportation models • Sketch planning models (INDEX, Places, etc) • Site-level analysis combined with a regional transportation model run (Atlanta Station INDEX + ARC Model--standard regional travel model)
  • 18. Mixed Use Trip Generation Tool • National Study of Mixed Use Areas – 239 mixed use developments – In six different regions – Over 30,000 trip records • Resulting Tool More Accurately Accounts for… – Trips that stay on site – Trips that leave, but use transit – Trips that leave, but are on-foot
  • 19. Example: Traditional Residential and Office Project • 100 Acres • 200 Single Family Homes • 40,000 sq ft Supermarket • 5,000 sq ft Fast Food Restaurant • 200,000 sq ft office building
  • 20. Traditional Residential, Office, Retail Project 10,000 Daily Trips
  • 21. Smaller Grocery Store and Different Retail / Residential Configuration (apply density, diversity, and design) • 100 Acres • 100 Single Family Homes • 100 Multi Family Homes • 30,000 sq ft Supermarket • 5,000 sq ft Sit Down Restaurant • 10,000 sq ft Health Club • 200,000 sq ft office building
  • 22. Smaller Grocery Store and Different Retail 8,000 Daily Trips
  • 23. Better Local and Regional Accessibility (apply distance to transit and regional destination) • Same land use configuration M M • Double M intersection M density on site • 500,000 jobs M within a 30 min transit trip • 50,000 jobs within 1 mile
  • 24. Better Local and Regional Accessibility 6,500 Daily Trips
  • 25. An Example: Tysons Corner / Dulles Metro Extension
  • 26. Existing Conditions…
  • 27. Planned Future… Source: PB PlaceMaking “Tysons Corner: Path to the 21st Century: Draft Summary of Findings” Prepared for Tysons Land Use Task Force 27 February 2008
  • 28. Tysons: What’s the GHG Impact? • Households built somewhere else in Fairfax County – 0.5 Million Metric Tons CO2 per year • Increased transit share for work trips – 1.6 Million Metric Tons CO2 per year • Retail and other trips staying “on-site” – 0.2 Million Metric Tons CO2 per year • Total = 2.3 Million Metric Tons CO2 per year – More than double the reductions from Fairfax County‘s current Climate Action Plan – About ¼ of the emissions from a coal fired power plant (annual)
  • 29. Take Away Points… • Where and how you grow can reduce carbon footprint • Good development can be a strategy to help communities meet their carbon reduction goals • Some tools exist, more are needed– its an emerging area
  • 30. Thank You Lynn Richards, EPA’s Smart Growth Program 202-566-2858 Richards.Lynn@epa.gov But who you *really* want: John Thomas, resident transportation geek 202 566 1285 Thomas.john@epa.gov