CNU's New Tools for Low-Carbon/High-Performance Development - Parolek CNU 17

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Current climate planning needs better tools for showing how urban design and development locations impact energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and other environmental factors. New urbanists are developing an approach based on place-types as this breakthrough tool. Learn about the CNU model, which shows how recognizable place types are the building blocks of regions that determine resulting VMT and other aspects of environmental and energy performance.
Daniel Parolek, AIA,, Principal , Opticos Design, Inc.
Joe DiStefano, Associate, Calthorpe Associates
Victor Dover, Principal , Dover, Kohl & Partners

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CNU's New Tools for Low-Carbon/High-Performance Development - Parolek CNU 17

  1. 1. CNU Sustainability Initiative: High- Performance Places CNU 17 Friday June 12, 2009 Denver, Colorado
  2. 2. How do you get from this to high-quality places? CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  3. 3. Context Setting: Land Use Patterns (Need for Change) 1. Land use patterns play a critical role in meeting climate challenge 2. Many additional benefits of smarter land use decisions • Environmental, fiscal, community sustainability • Air quality, energy use, water use, infrastructure costs, food ag land protection, etc. CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  4. 4. Context Setting: Regulatory 1. Global: Kyoto and other those to follow 2. States: Setting state-wide mandates • CA: AB 32 and SB 375-New regional and local planning targets for green house gas reductions 3. Feds: Sharpening teeth 4. This leaves local agencies asking how to implement • Current planning and regulatory tools have proven to be ineffective • System based on land use needs to be rethought CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  5. 5. Getting Beyond a Failed System: A Place Types Approach 1. What is missing in sustainable communities discussion: The important role of urban design/town planning and the components that make great places. Not just about numbers and uses 2. How do we get beyond a land use color on a map or in a model for predictable implementation of high quality, high-performance places? CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  6. 6. What is a Place Type? Dan’s Interpretation Sto 1. Based on physical form and Dis Pref character of place primarily rather Reg than land use Perf bor • Ex. Downtown, Traditional Reg Neighborhood, etc 2. Two different kinds: Place type k menu • High-performance place types c Performance Characteristics • Conventional place types (low- Carbon Emissions Transportation-related performing) Building-related Air Quality CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places Energy
  7. 7. Building Blocks 1. Physical Size 2. Transect Zones 3. Mix of Uses 4. Building Types 5. Thoroughfare Types 6. Integration of Transit 7. Parking Management 8. Regional Connectivity 9. Others TBD CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  8. 8. Potential Performance Measures: Tied to Modeling 1. Carbon Emissions 2. Air Quality 3. Energy 4. Water Use 5. Public Health 6. Fiscal Impacts CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  9. 9. “Mock Up” of Potential Content Place Type X: Downtown Center Transect Zones: T4-T5 Stormwater management Building Blocks District-wide basis not site by site Physical size parameters Preferred BMPs p Min. size xx acres T6 p xxxx Max. size xx acres xxxx Intensity thresholds Regional Connectivity Min. residential densities xx du/acre Performs best when surrounded by a minimum of xx neigh- Heights 2-5 stories u borhoods u Transect zones included Regional connecting streets T4-T5 T5 Mix of Uses - - Commercial/Retail/Services Min. square feet/%/or sf Max. square feet/%/or sf Civic/Public Uses k k Min. xx acres or square feet T4 Max. xx acres or square feet Intent Residential Uses c The Downtown Center Place Type provides a vibrant Min. xx acres or square feet c Performance Characteristics mixed-use environment with a physical form that clearly Max. xx acres or square feet defines the public realm (area between the buildings). Carbon Emissions It is an appropriate location for major civic uses, profes- Other Uses Transportation-related sional offices, local and regionally-focused retail, and Min. xx acres or square feet Building-related T3 urban residential. A small network of streets and blocks o Building Types o provides its framework. The environmental benefits of Air Quality the built environment take precedence over the natural Put list of applicable types here environment, although plentiful public spaces are pro- Necessary mix of types: “Blending” vided through well-designed and landscaped streets and Circulation the appropriate inclusion of other civic spaces such as plazas and squares. The integration of transit is a critical Put list of applicable thoroughfare types here Energy component of the way this place type functions from Intersection density m m a performance standpoint. Streets should be designed T2 Parking management program primarily to accomodate pedestrian activity and transit; automobile circulation should be secondary. Therefore, Max. requirements LOS thresholds should not be used in these place types. Parking permits Due to the intensity of development, a comprehensive Water Metering Parking Management Program needs to be implemented in order for these places to function appropriately. It Notes: Max. is important to design these place types with regional Integration of transit context in mind, and to ensure that they do not func- Min. transit necessary tion in isolation. This place type can overlay an existing Health T1 Location downtown for preservation or transformation purposes, or can be applied to the creation of new centers in un- developed areas. The same program and physical form parameters apply to either condition. CNU Climate Change Initiative: High-Performance Place Type Manual 2 CNU Climate Change Initiative: High-Performance Place Type Manual 3 CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  10. 10. Potential Applications 1. State-wide: Enabling legislation 2. Region: Framework for regional plans 3. City-wide: Framework for comprehensive plans, tie directly back in to zoning codes if transect is the Organizing Principle CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  11. 11. What is a Place Type? Dan’s Interpretation Sto 1. Based on physical form and Dis Pref character of place primarily rather Reg than land use Perf bor • Ex. Downtown, Traditional Reg Neighborhood, etc 2. Two different kinds: Place type k menu • High-performance place types c Performance Characteristics • Conventional place types (low- Carbon Emissions Transportation-related performing) Building-related Air Quality CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places Energy
  12. 12. Other Applications/Interpretations CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  13. 13. Reconnecting America’s Place Types CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  14. 14. Sacramento, CA Blueprint Plan RESIDENTIAL “BUILDING” TYPES NON-URBAN “LAND USE” TYPES MIXED-USE “PLACE” TYPES A I Rural Residential Agriculture Low-Density Mixed-Use Center or Corridor O • 3 acre average lot size (range is from (residential focus) 1 acre to 20 acres and above) Mix of: PLACE • 160 acre chip = 53 dwellings • 50% Single Family Small Lot • 35% Attached Units (townhouses/rowhouses, B J Single-Family Large Lot Forest condominiums/apartments, mixed use; 1 to 3 story buildings) Type Menu • 8,500 square feet average lot size (range from 3,000 square feet to • 15% Retail 5,400 square feet) • 160 acre chip = 2,024 dwelling units; • 160 acre chip = 574 dwellings 1,020 employees K Open Space C Single-Family Small Lot (passive-use areas, no development Medium-Density Mixed-Use Center or Corridor (residential focus) P allowed) • 4,000 square feet average lot size (range from 5400 square feet to 4,000 Mix of: square feet) • 5% Single Family Small Lot • 160 acre chip = 1,220 dwellings • 80% Attached Units L Parks (townhouses/rowhouses, (active use for recreation) D condominiums/apartments, mixed use; Attached Residential 2 to 4 story buildings) (townhouse/rowhouse, condominium/ • 15% Retail apartment, mixed use) (2 to 5 story buildings) • 160 acre chip = 3,932 dwelling units; 1,020 employees • 30 dwelling units per acre average (range of 16 units to 100 units per acre) • 160 acre chip = 3,840 dwelling units High-Density Mixed-Use Center or Corridor (residential focus) Q RESIDENTIAL “PLACE” TYPES Mix of: EMPLOYMENT “BUILDING” TYPES Medium-Density Mixed Residential • 80% Attached Units E M Retail Mix of: (townhouses/rowhouses, condominiums/apartments, mixed use; • 50 employees per acre average • 48% Single Family Large Lot 3 to 6 story buildings) (1 to 2 story buildings) • 30% Single Family Small Lot • 5% Retail • 160 acre chip = 6,800 employees • 12% Attached Units • 15% Office (townhouses/rowhouses, F condominiums/apartments, mixed use) • 160 acre chip = 6,116 dwelling units; Office 3,400 employees • 150 employees per acre average • 10% Retail (2 to 10 story buildings, average • 160 acre chip = 1,045 dwelling units; 4 stories) 680 employees Employment Focus Mixed-Use Center or Corridor R • 160 acre chip = 20,400 employees Mix of: High-Density Mixed Residential G • 20% Attached Units Industrial N Mix of (townhouses/rowhouses, • 20 employees per acre average • 15% Single Family Large Lot condominiums/apartments, mixed use; (1 story buildings) 3 to 6 story buildings) • 45% Single Family Small Lot Sacramento Area • 160 acre chip = 2,720 employees • 30% Retail • 25% Attached Units Council of • 50% Office Governments (townhouses/rowhouses, H Public/Quasi-Public condominiums/apartments, mixed use) • 160 acre chip = 876 dwelling units; (schools, government office buildings, • 15% Retail 12,240 employees churches) • 160 acre chip = 1,475 dwelling units; 1,020 • 20 employees per acre average employees (1 to 3 story buildings typical) • 160 acre chip = 2,720 employees Valley Vision CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  15. 15. University of British Columbia CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  16. 16. Chris Leinberger: “Footloose and Fancy Free” 1. Downtown 2. Downtown Adjacent 3. Suburban Town Center 4. Suburban Redevelopment 5. Greenfield CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  17. 17. Smart Code Module PLACE TYPES SMARTCODE MODULE EDITED BY D U A N Y P L A T E R -Z Y B E R K & C O . FROM THE SMART GROWTH STRATEGY REGIONAL LIVABILITY FOOTPRINT PROJECT _____________________________________________ Architectural codes must give buildings a sense of place, of climate, of history, and of limits. Doug Kelbaugh CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  18. 18. Role for New Urbanists 1. New Urbanists experience in creating such high quality, high- performance places is unmatched • We understand the details and components of place • We bring a multi-disciplinary approach • Understand the obstacles currently in place 2. We know that the details do matter CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  19. 19. Questions to Frame the Conversation: 1. Is this a valid effort to spend time on? 2. What has worked and what has not worked? What is the role of land use within place types? 3. How many are too many? 4. What is the physical size parameter? 5. Is a corridor a place type or is it within another place type? Does it perform differently in modeling than a non-corridor? 6. What is the role of agriculture within place types? 7. What is the relationship with the Transect? 8. Is the intent of CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places
  20. 20. CNU Sustainability Initiative HIgh-Performance Places

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