Cnu 17 Sustainable Transit Networks Lieberman

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  • 1. What we’ll cover • Types of transit networks and their attributes • Transit networks and placemaking • Interaction between roadway networks and transit networks
  • 2. What’s a transit network? Transit Network: the spatial configuration of the individual lines of a transit system
  • 3. What’s a sustainable transit network? 1. Enabling: people can travel without depending on private vehicles 2. Efficient: consumes least amount of resources for what you get 3. Fast: allows for timely travel 4. Affordable: can be maintained in all economic climates
  • 4. Transit Network Typologies Amorphous Radial Grid Hub and Spoke
  • 5. Transit Network Typologies
  • 6. Amorphous Networks
  • 7. Amorphous Networks
  • 8. Amorphous Networks • Confusing • Difficult to coordinate transfers • Not a network that you’d ordinarily design • May be all that can be done on older street patterns
  • 9. Radial Networks
  • 10. Radial Networks
  • 11. Radial Networks
  • 12. Radial Networks
  • 13. Radial Networks
  • 14. Radial Networks • Ideal for serving one central activity center • Inflexible to changes in activity locations • Access any point on network with a single transfer • Can require out-of-direction travel • Poor continuity on grid street systems
  • 15. Grid Networks
  • 16. Grid Networks
  • 17. Grid Networks ¼ mile walk Spacing: 0.5 mile or less
  • 18. Grid Networks Frequency: 12 minutes or less
  • 19. Grid Networks • Ideal for area wide coverage • Needs high density to justify frequent service • Best suited to grid street networks • Greater likelihood of transfers • Not convenient in low-density areas
  • 20. Hub and Spoke Networks
  • 21. Hub and Spoke Networks
  • 22. Hub and Spoke Networks
  • 23. Hub and Spoke Networks
  • 24. 95% 5% CBD
  • 25. Hub and Spoke Networks • Ideal for serving many activity centers • Less frequent service can still be attractive • Relatively economical to operate • Timed transfers are essential • Transfer facilities should be of high quality
  • 26. Transit Network Typologies Enabling Efficient to center Fast elsewhere Affordable
  • 27. local bus rapid transit commuter rail
  • 28. Transit Networks and Placemaking
  • 29. Transit Networks and Placemaking Amorphous Radial Grid Hub and Spoke
  • 30. Transit Networks and Placemaking bus line rail line CBD
  • 31. Transit Networks and Placemaking 4 localities accessed directly TOD? CBD
  • 32. Transit Networks and Placemaking 7 localities accessed directly TOD? CBD
  • 33. Roadway vs. Transit Networks Most forms of transit – but not all –are dependent on the roadway network
  • 34. Roadway vs. Transit Networks Surface transit needs roadways to access potential riders
  • 35. Roadway vs. Transit Networks Potential riders need streets and sidewalks to access transit
  • 36. Roadway vs. Transit Networks Connectivity and Density of the roadway network are critical to transit
  • 37. Network Connectivity
  • 38. Network Connectivity
  • 39. Network Connectivity
  • 40. Network Connectivity
  • 41. Network Connectivity
  • 42. Network Density 1/4 mile
  • 43. Network Density
  • 44. Network Density 1/2 mile
  • 45. Conclusions • Networks are unseen; understand the big picture before tinkering with the details • Sustainable transit networks must be enabling, efficient, fast, and affordable
  • 46. Conclusions • To serve one principle activity node: - Radial transit network is best • To serve many dispersed activity nodes:
  • 47. Conclusions • To serve one principle activity node: - Radial transit network is best • To serve many dispersed activity nodes: – Grid: frequent transit service in dense areas with grid street system – Hub-and-Spoke: for most other situations
  • 48. Conclusions • Connectivity: connected streets permit transit to reach riders and riders to reach transit • Density: streets suitable for transit service should be spaced every half mile to ensure an easy walk to transit
  • 49. Conclusions • Intense activities should be located near a transit network’s points of confluence