What we’ll cover


   • Types of transit networks and their
     attributes
   • Transit networks and placemaking
   • Int...
What’s a transit network?


   Transit Network: the spatial configuration
   of the individual lines of a transit system
What’s a sustainable transit network?


   1. Enabling: people can travel without
      depending on private vehicles
   2...
Transit Network Typologies




  Amorphous   Radial   Grid   Hub and Spoke
Transit Network Typologies
Amorphous Networks
Amorphous Networks
Amorphous Networks


  • Confusing
  • Difficult to coordinate transfers
  • Not a network that you’d ordinarily
    desig...
Radial Networks
Radial Networks
Radial Networks
Radial Networks
Radial Networks
Radial Networks

   • Ideal for serving one central activity
     center
   • Inflexible to changes in activity locations
...
Grid Networks
Grid Networks
Grid Networks




                              ¼ mile walk




            Spacing: 0.5 mile or less
Grid Networks




         Frequency: 12 minutes or less
Grid Networks


   • Ideal for area wide coverage
   • Needs high density to justify frequent
     service
   • Best suite...
Hub and Spoke Networks
Hub and Spoke Networks
Hub and Spoke Networks
Hub and Spoke Networks
95%



 5%


      CBD
Hub and Spoke Networks


  • Ideal for serving many activity centers
  • Less frequent service can still be
    attractive...
Transit Network Typologies



    Enabling

     Efficient
                  to center
        Fast      elsewhere




   ...
local bus




rapid transit




 commuter
    rail
Transit Networks and Placemaking
Transit Networks and Placemaking




  Amorphous   Radial    Grid   Hub and Spoke
Transit Networks and Placemaking



           bus line




             rail line




                                   ...
Transit Networks and Placemaking



                           4 localities accessed directly



          TOD?




      ...
Transit Networks and Placemaking



                           7 localities accessed directly




                   TOD?
...
Roadway vs. Transit Networks


                 Most forms of transit – but
                 not all –are dependent on
   ...
Roadway vs. Transit Networks



                     Surface transit
                     needs roadways
                 ...
Roadway vs. Transit Networks



   Potential riders
   need streets and
   sidewalks to
   access transit
Roadway vs. Transit Networks



   Connectivity and
   Density of the
   roadway network
   are critical to
   transit
Network Connectivity
Network Connectivity
Network Connectivity
Network Connectivity
Network Connectivity
Network Density




                  1/4 mile
Network Density
Network Density




                  1/2 mile
Conclusions


  • Networks are unseen; understand
    the big picture before tinkering with
    the details
  • Sustainabl...
Conclusions


  • To serve one principle activity node:
    - Radial transit network is best
  • To serve many dispersed a...
Conclusions


  • To serve one principle activity node:
    - Radial transit network is best
  • To serve many dispersed a...
Conclusions


  • Connectivity: connected streets
    permit transit to reach riders and
    riders to reach transit
  • D...
Conclusions


  • Intense activities should be located
    near a transit network’s points of
    confluence
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
Cnu 17   Sustainable Transit Networks   Lieberman
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Cnu 17 Sustainable Transit Networks Lieberman

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Cnu 17 Sustainable Transit Networks Lieberman

  1. 1. What we’ll cover • Types of transit networks and their attributes • Transit networks and placemaking • Interaction between roadway networks and transit networks
  2. 2. What’s a transit network? Transit Network: the spatial configuration of the individual lines of a transit system
  3. 3. What’s a sustainable transit network? 1. Enabling: people can travel without depending on private vehicles 2. Efficient: consumes least amount of resources for what you get 3. Fast: allows for timely travel 4. Affordable: can be maintained in all economic climates
  4. 4. Transit Network Typologies Amorphous Radial Grid Hub and Spoke
  5. 5. Transit Network Typologies
  6. 6. Amorphous Networks
  7. 7. Amorphous Networks
  8. 8. Amorphous Networks • Confusing • Difficult to coordinate transfers • Not a network that you’d ordinarily design • May be all that can be done on older street patterns
  9. 9. Radial Networks
  10. 10. Radial Networks
  11. 11. Radial Networks
  12. 12. Radial Networks
  13. 13. Radial Networks
  14. 14. Radial Networks • Ideal for serving one central activity center • Inflexible to changes in activity locations • Access any point on network with a single transfer • Can require out-of-direction travel • Poor continuity on grid street systems
  15. 15. Grid Networks
  16. 16. Grid Networks
  17. 17. Grid Networks ¼ mile walk Spacing: 0.5 mile or less
  18. 18. Grid Networks Frequency: 12 minutes or less
  19. 19. Grid Networks • Ideal for area wide coverage • Needs high density to justify frequent service • Best suited to grid street networks • Greater likelihood of transfers • Not convenient in low-density areas
  20. 20. Hub and Spoke Networks
  21. 21. Hub and Spoke Networks
  22. 22. Hub and Spoke Networks
  23. 23. Hub and Spoke Networks
  24. 24. 95% 5% CBD
  25. 25. Hub and Spoke Networks • Ideal for serving many activity centers • Less frequent service can still be attractive • Relatively economical to operate • Timed transfers are essential • Transfer facilities should be of high quality
  26. 26. Transit Network Typologies Enabling Efficient to center Fast elsewhere Affordable
  27. 27. local bus rapid transit commuter rail
  28. 28. Transit Networks and Placemaking
  29. 29. Transit Networks and Placemaking Amorphous Radial Grid Hub and Spoke
  30. 30. Transit Networks and Placemaking bus line rail line CBD
  31. 31. Transit Networks and Placemaking 4 localities accessed directly TOD? CBD
  32. 32. Transit Networks and Placemaking 7 localities accessed directly TOD? CBD
  33. 33. Roadway vs. Transit Networks Most forms of transit – but not all –are dependent on the roadway network
  34. 34. Roadway vs. Transit Networks Surface transit needs roadways to access potential riders
  35. 35. Roadway vs. Transit Networks Potential riders need streets and sidewalks to access transit
  36. 36. Roadway vs. Transit Networks Connectivity and Density of the roadway network are critical to transit
  37. 37. Network Connectivity
  38. 38. Network Connectivity
  39. 39. Network Connectivity
  40. 40. Network Connectivity
  41. 41. Network Connectivity
  42. 42. Network Density 1/4 mile
  43. 43. Network Density
  44. 44. Network Density 1/2 mile
  45. 45. Conclusions • Networks are unseen; understand the big picture before tinkering with the details • Sustainable transit networks must be enabling, efficient, fast, and affordable
  46. 46. Conclusions • To serve one principle activity node: - Radial transit network is best • To serve many dispersed activity nodes:
  47. 47. Conclusions • To serve one principle activity node: - Radial transit network is best • To serve many dispersed activity nodes: – Grid: frequent transit service in dense areas with grid street system – Hub-and-Spoke: for most other situations
  48. 48. Conclusions • Connectivity: connected streets permit transit to reach riders and riders to reach transit • Density: streets suitable for transit service should be spaced every half mile to ensure an easy walk to transit
  49. 49. Conclusions • Intense activities should be located near a transit network’s points of confluence
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