Achieving Sustainability Using Form-Based Codes and the Transect - Parolek CNU 17

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Form-Based Codes have proven to be highly effective tools for enabling communities to implement their sustainability goals in many aspects ranging from reducing carbon emission by promoting compact development to promoting green infrastructure, stormwater management, and the integration of agriculture into projects. In addition, the Organizing Principle of the Transect is being used to create systems and standards for everything from complete streets and sustainable infrastructure to standards that address complex environmental thresholds at a regional scale. This session will discuss how these tools are being utilized to effectively implement various aspects of sustainability.

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  • At end of presentation want you to walk away with the idea that it is possible to do a form-based development code update. Tips to ensure it goes well.
  • Bry Sarte


    -Author of soon to be publish John Wiley and Sons book: The Green Infrastructure Guide: Sustainable Engineering-Founder of Sherwood Design Engineers (a national firm, leaders in implementing sustainable civil infrastructure and green building systems) projects that range from the sustainably-oriented site design of LEED-Platinum Berkeley School of Law, to the 5,000 acre ecological master plan for the Great Wall Villages in Northern China-Founder of 2 nonprofits SPACES (promoting emerging Artists) and the Sherwood Institute (tackling global sustainability issues at the nexus of energy and water supply)-Artist, Engineer and Author-Regisered Civic Engineer in 8 states




    Roger E. Eastman


    -Roger Eastman is currently the Zoning Code Administrator for the City of Flagstaff.
    Throughout his career he has been inspired by great historic walkable towns and neighborhoods,
    -Traditional Neighborhood District (TND) ordinance based on the SmartCode -SmartCode Sector mapping for Flagstaff's regional plan
    -Comprehensive rewrite of the City of Flagstaff’s zoning ordinance as an innovative integrated zoning code promoting Smart Growth principles and with form-based code elements within it. .




    Leslie Oberholzer


    -Principal and Director of Planning at Farr Associates, an architecture, planning, and preservation firm in Chicago.  
    .-She authored the first form-based code adopted in the State of Illinois and continues to focus on coding as a key implementation tool for sustainable communities.
    -A registered landscape architect
    -She also serves on the EPA’s model code workshop team, --She contributed to the book Sustainable Urbanism and recently co-authored the Sustainable Urbanism modules for the SmartCode.
  • FBCs are most effective in addressing item #1, FBCs started here
    Transect is a necessity for 2-7, plugged into FBCs to make most effective
  • At end of presentation want you to walk away with the idea that it is possible to do a form-based development code update. Tips to ensure it goes well.
  • FBCs are most effective in addressing item #1, FBCs started here
    Transect is a necessity for 2-7, plugged into FBCs to make most effective
  • FBCs are most effective in addressing item #1, FBCs started here
    Transect is a necessity for 2-7, plugged into FBCs to make most effective
  • FBCs are most effective in addressing item #1, FBCs started here
    Transect is a necessity for 2-7, plugged into FBCs to make most effective
  • FBCs have proven themselves effective at a project-specific scale
    Now moving on to great challenge-Showing similar signs of success
  • Ây
  • Book is defined at N, D, C-Has evovled since then.
    This is latest application
    Should be done in Comp plan process.
  • Want you to go away to day with ideas of how you can use FBCs as a tool for your communities or communities you are working in to reduce their ghg
  • Ây
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  • What exactly does this mean. I never felt good presenting it in presentations and saw it constantly referenced in articles, blogs, etc. Needed to be better.
  • Not just focus, but rather the entire framework or organizing principle for the code!
  • Not just focus, but rather the entire framework or organizing principle for the code!
  • When use:
    Columbia Pike, Peoria, IL, Farmer’s Branch
  • When use:
    Columbia Pike, Peoria, IL, Farmer’s Branch
  • Book is defined at N, D, C-Has evovled since then.
    This is latest application
    Should be done in Comp plan process.
  • These are the most common components we found that identify a successful FBC
  • Ây
  • Grass Valley: Early applic. Hybrid.
    Livermore: Promot infill. CalTrans Smart Growth grant
    Flagstaff: Translating disfunctional performance based system
  • Combining these diagrams we can look at how walkable parts of the City are
  • Walkable Downtown and Schools
  • With existing ACE stations
    at this time bus routes are not shown because the routes run too infrequently - averaging 1 hour between buses
  • Trail and Bicycle lane network connect the city’s parks and open space
  • This diagram shows those existing areas that are walkable
    In the middle of each circle is the use that walkers would go to
    Note that Downtown ACE STATION has many centers to walk to
    The Vasco road station has fewer things to walk to from the station
    So how can we add to the Walkability
  • If the existing under utilized commercial centers that are zoned Neighborhood mixed use are converted to neighborhood main streets
    Examples of these centers
    Rincon Center
    Nob Hill Center
  • Converting the auto oriented centers
    allow the option of these centers to change over to more walkable centers
    Optional FBC application
  • Need to be addressed in Comp plan.
    Change in LU
    New streets (cul de sacs) and transformed streets
    Medium density housing types around main street
  • Potential walkability
    Still a work in progress
  • These are the most common components we found that identify a successful FBC
  • Ây
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  • Regional-wide application of the transect
    Extremely advanced rural end. Most advanced to date?
  • They had started this process internally and came to us when they ran in to some road blocks
  • This scale of mixed use has not been successfully addressed within conventional zoning codes
  • Trend in past 15-20 years has been to create mixed-use zones. Most I have seen have been ineffective.
    Must clarify intent. Conv zoning has been inneffective
  • Enabling vs. regulating for predictability
  • ZOnes apply to both existing areas and to new growth/redev. sites
  • Zones apply to both existing areas and to new growth/redev. sites
    Similar to PUD process, but predetermining kit of part in regulations: Streets, zones, civic space
  • Ây
  • Book is defined at N, D, C-Has evovled since then.
    This is latest application
    Should be done in Comp plan process.
  • Wrong building type
    No street and block or civic space framework
  • Streets and block
    Blending of building types
  • And also, the Rural-to-Urban Transect.
    All of these methods have proven not only viable, but truly successful. Many of the most advanced practitioners are using a combination of the above, as all of these concepts are critical to regulating a good place.
    But, of course, today’s session is specifically on the Transect.
    Many to most of the codes we’ve seen use the Transect as either the primary organizing principle, or at least as a base educational concept.
    Yesterday, in the session on organizing principles, there was discussion of whether the Transect is a “requirement” for Form-Based Coding. The simple answer is no. Geoff Ferrell suggested that the Transect is an educational tool, but not necessarily a regulatory tool. But, the reality is that Form-Based Codes have become successful for quite a number of reasons – they are able to regulate in a prescriptive matter, they regulate critical issues that relate to making a great place, such as building form, etc., – but also because the practitioners that are creating these codes have focused on their usability - making them understandable and easy-to-use. The Transect is a understandable and effective means upon which to organize the regulations and tye them to the Regulating Plan, and, particularly in larger areas - at the citywide and larger scale, for showing how different areas in town relate to one another or don’t. It is a system that people “get” and can be used from the initial public visioning meeting all the way through the final implemented code.
    Victor, Geoff, and Dan are going to walk about how they have effectively used this tool in a variety of ever-more complicated situations and Form-Based Codes.
  • And also, the Rural-to-Urban Transect.
    All of these methods have proven not only viable, but truly successful. Many of the most advanced practitioners are using a combination of the above, as all of these concepts are critical to regulating a good place.
    But, of course, today’s session is specifically on the Transect.
    Many to most of the codes we’ve seen use the Transect as either the primary organizing principle, or at least as a base educational concept.
    Yesterday, in the session on organizing principles, there was discussion of whether the Transect is a “requirement” for Form-Based Coding. The simple answer is no. Geoff Ferrell suggested that the Transect is an educational tool, but not necessarily a regulatory tool. But, the reality is that Form-Based Codes have become successful for quite a number of reasons – they are able to regulate in a prescriptive matter, they regulate critical issues that relate to making a great place, such as building form, etc., – but also because the practitioners that are creating these codes have focused on their usability - making them understandable and easy-to-use. The Transect is a understandable and effective means upon which to organize the regulations and tye them to the Regulating Plan, and, particularly in larger areas - at the citywide and larger scale, for showing how different areas in town relate to one another or don’t. It is a system that people “get” and can be used from the initial public visioning meeting all the way through the final implemented code.
    Victor, Geoff, and Dan are going to walk about how they have effectively used this tool in a variety of ever-more complicated situations and Form-Based Codes.
  • And also, the Rural-to-Urban Transect.
    All of these methods have proven not only viable, but truly successful. Many of the most advanced practitioners are using a combination of the above, as all of these concepts are critical to regulating a good place.
    But, of course, today’s session is specifically on the Transect.
    Many to most of the codes we’ve seen use the Transect as either the primary organizing principle, or at least as a base educational concept.
    Yesterday, in the session on organizing principles, there was discussion of whether the Transect is a “requirement” for Form-Based Coding. The simple answer is no. Geoff Ferrell suggested that the Transect is an educational tool, but not necessarily a regulatory tool. But, the reality is that Form-Based Codes have become successful for quite a number of reasons – they are able to regulate in a prescriptive matter, they regulate critical issues that relate to making a great place, such as building form, etc., – but also because the practitioners that are creating these codes have focused on their usability - making them understandable and easy-to-use. The Transect is a understandable and effective means upon which to organize the regulations and tye them to the Regulating Plan, and, particularly in larger areas - at the citywide and larger scale, for showing how different areas in town relate to one another or don’t. It is a system that people “get” and can be used from the initial public visioning meeting all the way through the final implemented code.
    Victor, Geoff, and Dan are going to walk about how they have effectively used this tool in a variety of ever-more complicated situations and Form-Based Codes.
  • Streets and block
    Blending of building types: Thouses, mews houses, range of sf, courtyard
    Pedestrian Mews as exception
  • Streets and block
    Blending of building types: Thouses, mews houses, range of sf, courtyard
    Pedestrian Mews as exception
  • Achieving Sustainability Using Form-Based Codes and the Transect - Parolek CNU 17

    1. 1. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY USING FORM-BASED CODES AND THE TRANSECT Daniel Parolek Principal, Opticos Design, Inc. Bry Sarte, Principal, Sherwood Design Engineers Roger Eastman Community Code Administrator, Flagstaff, AZ Leslie Oberholtzer Dir. of Planning, Farr Associates Congress for the New Urbanism 2009 June 11th, 2009 Denver, CO daniel.parolek@opticosdesign.com
    2. 2. “Top 20 Ways to Make a Green, Smart City” #2 Replace Your Euclidean Zoning with Form-Based Codes Rob Dixon, Albuquerque developer in his keynote presentation at the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference, January 2009 Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    3. 3. Agenda 1. Introduction: why are you here? 2. Dan Parolek 3. 5-10 min. of Q&A 4. Bry Sarte 5. 5-10 min. of Q&A 6. Roger Eastman 7. Leslie Oberholtzer 8. 1-20 min. of Q&A Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    4. 4. D BTL, Property Line Form-Based Codes: J O Rethinking Zoning to G H Side Street C B Make Walkable/ A F I N M Sustainable Urbanism BTL, Property Line Sidewalk E the Default Primary Street : Form-Based Code Property Line Key Core (TC) Standards Property Line Setback Line Build-to Line (BTL) Building Area Building Placement Use Daniel Parolek Build-to Line (Distance from Property Line) Ground Floor Ser Principal, Opticos Design, Inc. Front 0' A Re Congress for the New Urbanism 2009 Side Street 0' B Pu D June 11th, 2009 Setback (Distance from Property Line) Upper Floor(s) Re Denver, CO BTL, Property Line Side 0' C *See Table 4.1 for specific uses. G daniel.parolek@opticosdesign.com Rear terfront shall be nonresidential an J O K Adjacent to NG Zone 8' D garages, or similar uses. Adjacent to any other Zone 5' D G H Building Form L Height Side Street C B Primary Street Façade built to BTL 80% min.* E Building Min. 22' Side Street Façade built to BTL 30% min.* F Building Max. 2.5 Lot Width I N 125' max. Max. to Eave/Top of Parapet 35' G A F M Lot Depth 100' max. H Ancillary Building Max. 2s *Street façades must be built to BTL along first 30' from every corner. Finish Ground Floor Level 6" ty Line Sidewalk E Notes First Floor Ceiling Height 12' Primary Street All floors must have a primary ground-floor entrance that Property Line Street Upper Floor(s) Ceiling Height 8' m
    5. 5. Areas for Addressing Sustainability 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Walkability, Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)=Walkable, urban development 2. Energy Conservation 1. Renewable Energy 2. Energy Conservation 3. Water Conservation 4. Stormwater Management 5. Green Infrastructure and Low Impact Development 6. Food Production 7. Solid Waste Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    6. 6. Areas for Addressing Sustainability 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Walkability, Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)=Walkable, urban development 2. Energy Conservation 1. Renewable Energy 2. Energy Conservation 3. Water Conservation 4. Stormwater Management 5. Green Infrastructure and Low Impact Development 6. Food Production 7. Solid Waste Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    7. 7. Areas for Addressing Sustainability 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Walkability, Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)=Walkable, urban development 2. Energy Conservation 1. Renewable Energy 2. Energy Conservation 3. Water Conservation 4. Stormwater Management 5. Green Infrastructure and Low Impact Development 6. Food Production 7. Solid Waste Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    8. 8. Areas for Addressing Sustainability 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Walkability, Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)=Walkable, urban development 2. Energy Conservation 1. Renewable Energy 2. Energy Conservation 3. Water Conservation 4. Stormwater Management 5. Green Infrastructure and Low Impact Development 6. Food Production 7. Solid Waste Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    9. 9. Applications to Create Walkable Urban Places: A Growing List 1. Downtown Master Plans 2. Transit-Oriented Development 3. Corridor Revitalization Plans 4. Neighborhood Revitalization Plans 5. Specific Plan Development Standards 6. Regional Plan Implementation 7. General Plan Implementation 8. Historic Resource Preservation Planning 9. Greyfield Redevelopment 10. University/Community Interface Plans 11. Subdivision Ordinances 12. Complete Development Code Updates 13. Model Codes 14. Regional Plan Implementation Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    10. 10. Presentation Outline 1. Why zoning reform is necessary and why Form-Based Codes 2. Creating effective mixed-use zones: Getting to complete neighborhoods 3. Small footprint density and walkable neighborhoods 4. Sustainable Cities and Regions with Form-Based Codes Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    11. 11. 1 Creating Walkable Urbanism: Where FBCs Can Be the Most Effective
    12. 12. Zoning Reform: Removing Obstacles to Walkable Urban Places Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    13. 13. Getting to Compact Development & Lower VMT “The key to substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions is to get all policies, funding, incentives, practices, rules, codes, and regulations pointing in the same direction to create the right conditions for smart growth.” “Growing Cooler” -Reid Ewing Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    14. 14. Walkable Urban vs Drivable Sub-Urban Places “..these two kinds of places appear to perform fundamentally differently in how they lay out on the ground and how they perform regarding market acceptance, financial performance, rental rates/ sales prices, tax revenue generation, and environmental sustainability. Finally, infrastructure investment, particularly in rail transit, and revised zoning regulations should be seriously considered by metropolitan area governments that are not seeing growth in this type of development pattern. ” “Option for Urbanism” -Chris Leinberger Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    15. 15. Form-Based Codes as The Effective, Proven Alternative Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    16. 16. “Top 20 Ways to Make a Green, Smart City” #2 Replace Your Euclidean Zoning with Form-Based Codes Rob Dixon, Albuquerque developer in his keynote presentation at the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference, January 2009 Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    17. 17. Form-Based Codes "As global society swings into action to reduce carbon emissions, the data ever more clearly points to the need to Form-Based Codes reduce dependence on vehicular mobility, and to remake the built environment as transit- and pedestrian-friendly places of dense economic and social interaction. Only the Form-Based A Guide for Planners, Urban Designers, Municipalities, and Developers Code can ensure such an urbanism.” Daniel G. Parolek, AIA • Karen Parolek • Paul C. Crawford, FAICP Forewords by Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk and Stefanos Polyzoides Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    18. 18. “Sustainable Urbanism” Tools for Implementation “By relating buildings back to the street and open spaces, rather than on parking lots or private yards, public spaces are redefined from the conventional automobile-oriented scale to the human or pedestrian- oriented scale. This focus allows form-based codes to guide the creation of active, sustainable neighborhoods.” Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    19. 19. Role of FBCs in Lowering Carbon Emissions (GHG) 1. They provide a complete toolkit for regulating high-quality compact, walkable, development 2. The public outreach aspect provides needed education and community buy-in 3. They regulate for predictable results 4. They provide a predictable entitlements process for developers doing the right thing 5. They have proven to be effective in all of the above Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    20. 20. Old Definition A method of regulating development to achieve a specific urban form. Form-Based Codes create a predictable public realm by controlling physical form primarily, with a lesser focus on land use, through city or county regulations. Form-Based Code Institute Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    21. 21. New Definition "Form-based codes foster predictable built results and a high-quality public realm by using physical form (rather than separation of uses) as the organizing principle for the code. They are regulations, not mere guidelines. They are adopted into city or county law. Form-based codes are an alternative to conventional zoning." Form-Based Code Institute Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    22. 22. 'N' ST Regulating Plan EAST MILITARY Regulating Places Not Uses EAST W. 2ND ST Downtown Mixed Use Master Plan Area and Parcels South of B Street SOLANO SQUARE LIBRARY WEST MILITARY 'L' ST E. 5TH ST POST CIVIC Zoning Districts CITY ELEMENTARY CENTER PARK PARK CITY HALL SCHOOL OFFICE Town Core 'K' ST K Street 'K' ST Town Core-Open YAC POOL Neighborhood General B.U.S.D. OFFICES PRIORY 'J' ST Neighborhood General - Open SCHOOL J Street 'J' ST E. 6TH ST E. 7TH ST Public & Semi-Public 'I' ST E. 4TH ST ST ST E. 3RD ST 1ST W. 2ND E. 2ND ST I Street 'I' ST 'H' ST MARIA FIELD FITZGERALD W. 2nd Street E. 2nd Street FIELD 'G' ST 1st Street RIBERO FIELD H Street E. 5TH ST 'H' ST BENICIA SEMPLE CROSSING G Street 'G' ST TURNBULL WASTE WATER PARK TREATMENT SEMPLE CT E. 2ND ST PLANT F Street 'F' ST BENICIA CITY LIMITS 'E' ST E Street 'E' ST MARINA CONDOMIUMS Form-Based Codes ST Implementing Sustainable Urbanism 1ST SOUTHAMPTON BAY D Street 'D' ST BENICIA MARINA
    23. 23. orm-Based Code Core (TC) Standards Components (min.) Form-Based Code 1. Building Form Standards 2. Regulating Plan (Non-land use D Organizing Principle) BTL, Property Line 3. Frontage Types Standards J O K 4. Block and H Subdivision Standards L 5. Public Space Standards: Civic C B Side Street Spaces and Thoroughfares I N A F M 6. Building Types Standards ine Sidewalk E (Optional) Primary Street Property Line Street Line Setback Line Form-Based Codes 1" = 15'-0" Implementing Sustainable Urbanism Line (BTL) Building Area
    24. 24. Two Completely Different Types of Zones: Do Not Try to Combine! Form-Based Zones/ Special Districts/Auto Transect Dependent Low-carbon zones High-carbon zones Lower parking requirements Higher parking requirements (More walking, access to transit) (Less walking and access to transit) Public realm = Public space Larger public and private open space required due to isolation Blended density (variety of types) “Podded” densities and uses Mixed use environments Specific Uses allowed Uses more flexible based on operational characteristics Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    25. 25. The Transect: A Shared Methodology Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    26. 26. Urban to Rural Transect l. TRANSECT ZONES DPZ: SmartCode Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    27. 27. Modified Transect-Based Form-Based Code T2 Rural T3 Sub-Urban T4 General Urban T5 Urban Center T6 Urban Core Other Whittier Uptown U-E: Uptown Edge U-G: Uptown General U-CT: Uptown Center Specific Plan City of Grass Valley NG-2: Neighborhood NG-3: Neighborhood General-3 TC: Town Core Development Code General-2 NC: Neighborhood Center NC-Flex: Neighborhood Center-Flex Miami 21 T3: Sub-Urban, with Re- T4: Urban General, with Restricted, Lim- T5: Urban Center, with T6: Urban Core, with Restricted, CI: Civic Institutional stricted, Limited, and ited, and Open subsets Restricted, Limited, and Limited, and Open subsets, and T6-8, DI: Work Place District Open subsets Open subsets -12, -24, -36, and -48 subzones based D2: Industrial District on allowable number of floors Santa Ana Renaissance UN-1: Urban UN-1: Urban Neighborhood-1 UC: Urban Center RR: Rail Station Zone R/I: Resident/Industrial Specific Plan Neighborhood-1 CDR: Corridor Benicia Downtown NG: Neighborhood NG-O: Neighborhood General-Open TC: Town Core Form-Based Code General TC-O: Town Core-Open Montgomery T2: Rural T3: Sub-Urban T4: General Urban T5: Urban Center T6: Urban Core T1: Natural SmartCode Sarasota County Edge General Core Preserve Peoria Development West Main-Local Sheridan Triangle-Neighborhood Center Warehouse District- Code Prospect Road-Neighborhood Center General West Main-Neighborhood Center Warehouse District- West Main-Local Commerce Local St. Lucie County Edge General Center Core Countryside: Rural Fringe Leander SmartCode T3: Sub-Urban T4: Neighborhood General T5: Neighborhood Center T6: Urban Core Downtown Ventura T4.1: Urban General T5.1: Neighborhood Center T6.1: Urban Core Specific Plan T4.2: Urban General 2 T4.3: Urban General 3 T4.4: Thompson Corridor Blue Springs, MO Down- T3: Sub-Urban T4: General Urban T5: Urban Center CS: Civic Space town Development Code Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    28. 28. Modified Transect-Based Form-Based Code T2 Rural T3 Sub-Urban T4 General Urban T5 Urban Center T6 Urban Core Whittier Uptown U-E: Uptown Edge U-G: Uptown General U-CT: Uptown Center Specific Plan City of Grass Valley NG-2: Neighborhood NG-3: Neighborhood General-3 TC: Town Core Development Code General-2 NC: Neighborhood Center NC-Flex: Neighborhood Center-Flex Miami 21 T3: Sub-Urban, with Re- T4: Urban General, with Restricted, Lim- T5: Urban Center, with T6: Urban Core, with Restrict stricted, Limited, and ited, and Open subsets Restricted, Limited, and Limited, and Open subsets, Open subsets Open subsets -12, -24, -36, and -48 subzon on allowable number of floo Santa Ana Renaissance UN-1: Urban UN-1: Urban Neighborhood-1 UC: Urban Center RR: Rail Station Zone Specific Plan Neighborhood-1 CDR: Corridor Benicia Downtown NG: Neighborhood NG-O: Neighborhood General-Open TC: Town Core Form-Based Code General TC-O: Town Core-Open Montgomery T2: Rural T3: Sub-Urban T4: General Urban T5: Urban Center T6: Urban Core SmartCode Sarasota County Edge General Core Peoria Development West Main-Local Sheridan Triangle-Neighborhood Center Warehouse District- Code Prospect Road-Neighborhood Center General West Main-Neighborhood Center Warehouse District- West Main-Local Commerce Local St. Lucie County Edge General Center Core Leander SmartCode T3: Sub-Urban T4: Neighborhood General T5: Neighborhood Center T6: Urban Core Downtown Ventura Specific Plan Form-Based Codes T4.1: Urban General T4.2: Urban General 2 Implementing Center T6.1: Urban Core T5.1: Neighborhood Sustainable Urbanism T4.3: Urban General 3
    29. 29. 2 Taking Form-Based Codes to Scale
    30. 30. Development Code Updates Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    31. 31. Assessing City Application of Form-Based Zones 1. Downtowns: Mandatory • Preserve, evolve or transform 2. Neighborhood Main Streets: Mandatory • Preserve, evolve or transform 3. Historic Neighborhoods: Mandatory • Preserve, evolve or transform 4. Aging strip corridors and greyfield sites: Optional or mandatory • Evolve or transform 5. Other large opportunity sites: Optional or mandatory 6. New growth areas: Optional or mandatory Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    32. 32. Testing Grounds: • City of Grass Valley (Adopted April 10, 2007) http://www.cityofgrassvalley.com/services/departments/cdd/pub_rev_docs.php#DC • Livermore, CA Development Code Update (Begun July 08) www.ci.livermore.ca.us/CDD/Planning/zoning_code_update.html • Flagstaff, AZ Development Code Update (Begun January 09) http://az-flagstaff2.civicplus.com/index.asp?NID=1416 Non-Opticos Codes: • City of Miami (Public Review Draft) http://www.miami21.org/ • Peoria, IL (Adopted June 17, 2007) http://www.heartofpeoria.com/code.html • City of Denver, CO (In progress) Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    33. 33. Assessing Where to Apply Form-Based Codes at a City-Wide Scale Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    34. 34. Assessing FBC Application: Neighborhoods/Centers Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    35. 35. with Schools MS ES ES JC ES ES MS ES ES ES PS VS HS MS CS HS CS ES PS ES ES MS ES Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    36. 36. with Transit MS ES ES JC ES ES MS ES ES ES PS VS HS MS CS HS CS ES PS ES ES MS ES Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    37. 37. Trails, Schools, Parks Legend <all other values> ZONING OS-F Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    38. 38. Walkability: Existing Legend <all other values> ZONING OS-F Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    39. 39. Short Term Convert Underutilized Commercial Legend <all other values> ZONING OS-F Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    40. 40. Mid Term Convert Auto-Oriented Neighborhood Commercial Legend <all other values> ZONING OS-F Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    41. 41. Very Long Term: Increase Connectivity, Strategically Insert New Neighborhood Main Streets Legend <all other values> ZONING OS-F Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    42. 42. Long Term Potential Walkability: FBC Focus Areas Legend <all other values> ZONING OS-F Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    43. 43. Regional Plan Implementation Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    44. 44. . Figure 1 Lake Tahoe Regional Plan Draft Land Use Map Lake Tahoe M ar let te Lake y Washoe County Ba Carson City d al er Lake Em Tahoe Douglas County e ak Placer County eL El Dorado County d ca se Ca e ra ld Ba y South Lake Tahoe Em ke La de ca se ke Ca a f La ke af La n Le F alle n Le Land Use Wilderness (T1) F alle Roadless Area (T2) General Conservation (T3) Recreation (T4) Developed Recreation (T5) LDR (T6) HDR (T7) Mixed Use (T8) Town Center (T9) Tourist (T10) 1:260,000 Special Districts (T11) 0 2 4 8 Miles Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    45. 45. . Figure 1 Draft Land Use Map Lake Tahoe Regional Plan: Transforming Auto- Dependent Development M ar let te Lake Washoe County Carson City Land Use and Transportation Lake Tahoe policies: Douglas County • Walkable, more compact / higher- Placer County El Dorado County density, mixed-use development • Bicycle and pedestrian paths • Expansion of mass transit Em e ra ld Ba y ke La de ca • Advanced technologies for se Ca ke af La automobiles n Le F alle Land Use Wilderness (T1) Roadless Area (T2) General Conservation (T3) Recreation (T4) Developed Recreation (T5) LDR (T6) HDR (T7) Mixed Use (T8) Town Center (T9) http://www.trpa.org/default.aspx?tabindex=11&tabid=130 Tourist (T10) 1:260,000 Special Districts (T11) 0 2 4 8 Miles Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    46. 46. Lake Tahoe Regional Plan TRPA’s Mandate: Reach/Protect Threshold Standards • Vegetation • Wildlife/Fisheries • Recreation • Scenic • Water Quality Resources • Air Quality • Soil Conservation • Noise !""!#$%&'()"!*")(!+,-),$%&$.!/0.,!!11!23!,'!/)4&(%! *-'%-$..!'(!56-$.6'"1!!,,)&(7$(,! Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    47. 47. Node Analysis Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    48. 48. Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    49. 49. Proposed Regional Plan Land Use T1 T2 k General Developed Wilderness Roadless Area Rural Sub-U Forest & Park Land Recreation (W) (RA) (R) (SU (GF) (DR) These areas contain ecological, These lands contain ecological, These are areas with value as These are primarily natural These are areas that are These are areas t geological, and other features of geological, and other features of natural areas, an interface areas with good potential for sparsely settled with large lot single-family hous scientific, educational, scenic scientific, educational, scenic between primitive and urban intensive outdoor recreation. single-family houses (estates). medium sized lots and historical value. Permanent and historical value. Permanent areas, with strong environmental Recreation uses are designed to The majority of the land is of the lot is landsc improvements and mechanized improvements in character with limitations on use, and with a be harmonious with the landscaped or maintained maintained natura Form-Based Codes uses are prohibited. the natural landscape and low- potential for dispersed recreation surrounding natural natural environment. Setbacks Setbacks are rela These lands are managed to impact motorized recreation are allowed. or low intensity resource management. Vegetation is Implementing Sustainable Urbanism environment. They are accessible via a variety of are deep and varied. There is minimum street connectivity, and varied and garage prominent on a la prevent the degradation of managed to ensure public safety transportation options. the areas are isolated. Streets of street elevation wilderness character. Natural and healthy forest conditions. widths vary and may or may not minimum street co
    50. 50. stricts and Transect Zones T3 T4 T5 T6 SD n Neighborhood Edge Neighborhood General Neighborhood Center Town Core Special District (NE) (NG) (NC) (T) (C) (SD) onsist of These are areas that primarily These are areas that consist of These are mixed-use areas with These are mixed-use areas with These are the most intense These are areas that because of n large to consist of single-family houses medium density housing types a vibrant public realm that a vibrant public realm that urban form areas that are their unique land use e majority on medium to small sized lots such as cottage courts, mansion provide services and amentities provide services and amentities generally designated as characteristics require special or with some existing cottage apartments, duplexes, for residents and visitors. for residents and visitors. community plan areas. These districts. Their form is ironment. courts and duplexes. The fourplexes, and triplexes on Buildings have shallow or no Buildings have shallow or no are visitor destination areas that dependent upon their purpose. deep and majority of the lot is still medium to small sized lots. setbacks, but there are regular setbacks, but there are minor have been designated to provide The purpose of this e landscaped or maintained These types are compatible in breaks in the physical form breaks in the physical form commercial and public services classification is to concentrate ercentage natural environment. Setbacks scale and form to adjacent lower- along the street edge provided along the street edge provided to the Region or have the such services for public Form-Based Codes ere is are relatively deep and varied. intensity residential, but yet by side setbacks and varied varied setbacks and frontages. potential to provide future convenience, separate ctivity, and not near Strong street connectivity is present, and the areas are intense enough to support transit. The lot is an equal setbacks and frontages. The built form covers a majority of the The built form covers a majority of the site. Strong street Implementing Sustainable Urbanism commercial and visitor services and mix use buildings with incompatible uses, and allow other noncommercial uses if rcial adjacent/proximate to balance of built form site. Strong street connectivity is connectivity is present. Streets commercial and residential they are compatible with the vary and commercial centers. Streets are andlandscaped or maintained present. Streets are narrow and are narrow and pedestrian- uses.. purpose of this classification urbs and narrow and may or may not have natural environment. Setbacks pedestrian-oriented,should oriented,should integrate wide and other goals of this Plan.
    51. 51. 3.. Making Mixed-Use Regulations Clear and Effective
    52. 52. Lack of Clarity of Intent in Mixed-Use Zones What is the intent of the Zone? Shopfront? Residential Flex? Hybrid? Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    53. 53. 2-55-020 Uses permitted. 2-55-030 Uses permitted with conditional use Livermore, CA: Neighborhood MU Zone permit approval. e 2-55-040 Minimum lot specifications and lot • Min 25% of sites floor area development regulations. shall be commercial. Can be 2-55-010 Purpose. 100%. The purposes of the NM district are: a A. To designate areas for the location of a mix- • Commercial uses in conjunction m ture of neighborhood-serving businesses and resi- with residential development dential uses; shall comprise a minimum floor B. To provide options for housing with ready access to neighborhood shops; area of 20 percent of the total C. To offer flexibility in subdivision design and d floor area up to a maximum of development; g 30 percent. D. To encourage a variety of housing types; and E. To ensure that densities shall not exceed tr • 1 spaces/ 500 sf those conforming to the general plan. In order to ro • Base densities: 1-3 du/acre to achieve these goals and to enable the city to zone in conformance with general plan densities, the NM 24-38 du/acre district is divided into the NM-1, NM-2, and NM- • No min. front setback. Max 20’ 3 zones. (Ord. 1736 § 2, 2004) n • Open space: 200 sf common, 2-55-020 Uses permitted. 100 sf private “Vertical mixed use is permitted and encouraged The following uses are permitted subject to m on site.” approval of a zoning use permit, design review as required under LPZC 5-05-110, and any other pre- e requisite permits, and conformance to all applica- ble regulations set forth in this chapter and in Form-Based Codes code: elsewhere in this Implementing Sustainable Urbanism a A. Commercial Uses. Up to 100 percent of the m
    54. 54. Livermore Center: Dying Strip Mall to Main Street Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    55. 55. Livermore Center: Dying Strip Mall to Main Street Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    56. 56. Neighborhood Main Streets Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    57. 57. Alternatives to Establish Regulatory Parameters Minimum Mix of Uses Maximum Mix of Uses Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    58. 58. Urban to Rural Transect as Starting Point l. TRANSECT ZONES Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    59. 59. Urban to Rural Transect as Starting Point l. TRANSECT ZONES T4-N T4-MS Neighborhood Main Street/Center Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    60. 60. 03.18.08 05.27.08 t Form-Based Zones: Modified Transect T3-NG T4-NG T4-NG-O T4-MS T4-MS-O T3-Neighborhood General T4-Neighborhood General T4-Neighborhood General -Open T4-Main Street T4-Main Street-Open Desired Form Desired Form Desired Form Desired Form Desired Form Residential Residential Residential Commercial/Shopfront Commercial/Shopfront General Use General Use General Use General Use General Use Residential Residential Open/Flexible: Residential, retail, general Vertical mixed-use: Retail, general Open/Flexible: Residential, retail, general commercial, services, and public uses commercial, services, and public on the commercial, services, and public uses mixed vertically and horizontally on a site ground floors with residential or commer- mixed vertically and horizontally on a site cial uses on upper floors. Intent Intent Intent Intent Intent The primary intent of this zone is to The primary intent of this zone is to build To provide an appropriate transition from To integrate vibrant, main street com- To provide an appropriate transition from protect the integrity and quality of the upon the unique characteristics of Liver- the neighborhood main street into the mercial and retail environment into the neighborhood main street into the downtown neighborhoods more's downtown neighborhoods, but to residential areas, and to provide flexible neighborhoods that will provide access residential areas, and to provide flexible allow them to evolve with medium density buildings that can allow the ground floor to day to day amenities within walking ground floor spaces in a commercial form building types such as bungalow courts, commercial uses to expand as the market distance, reinforce a potential transit stop, that can allow the ground floor "shopfront duplexes, and mansion apartments, at a desires. and serve as a focal point for the neigh- environment to expand as the market smaller scale compatible to its context. borhoods desires. Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    61. 61. Subdivision Design and Process Standards 1. Require large sites to be broken down into streets and blocks 2. Prescribe a min. and maximum mix of form-based zones needed to meet intended goals. City should establish zones. 3. Provide flexible building types to allow commercial uses to respond to market demand 4. Think carefully about the amount of commercial/retail you require: HIstoric Centers typically 20,000-40,000 5. Put maximums on parking regulations 6. Review in stages: Do not require all building design up front. Approve a plan and regulating plan. Allow building review later. Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    62. 62. Regulating Plan Draft Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    63. 63. 4 Encouraging Small Footprint Density & New Walkable Neighborhoods
    64. 64. Zoning by Residential Density is Creating Bad Places to Live Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    65. 65. How dense can single family get? 1. Wrong building type 2. No street and block framework (public realm) Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    66. 66. Density Without Amenity Density without amenity Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    67. 67. Location of density T1 NATURAL ZONE T2 RURAL ZONE T3 SUB-URBAN ZONE T4 GENERAL URBAN ZONE T5 URBAN CENTER T6 URBAN CORE ZONE ZONE SD SPECIAL DISTRICT Wrong place for density SmartCode (Image Credit: DPZ) Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    68. 68. Location of density T1 NATURAL ZONE T2 RURAL ZONE T3 SUB-URBAN ZONE T4 GENERAL URBAN ZONE T5 URBAN CENTER T6 URBAN CORE ZONE ZONE SD SPECIAL DISTRICT Right place for density SmartCode (Image Credit: DPZ) Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    69. 69. Location of density T1 NATURAL ZONE T2 RURAL ZONE T3 SUB-URBAN ZONE T4 GENERAL URBAN ZONE T5 URBAN CENTER T6 URBAN CORE ZONE ZONE SD SPECIAL DISTRICT Where Has Zoning Left the Biggest Gap? SmartCode (Image Credit: DPZ) Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    70. 70. Blended density neighborhood in King City Arboleda Specific Plan King City, CA Creekbridge Homes
    71. 71. King City, Density: How Do You Do This With Zoning? Blended CA Townhouse 18 du/acre Mews House 15 du/acre Courtyard 30 du/acre Single Family 9-13 du/acre Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    72. 72. Courtyard Housing: 30 du/acre Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    73. 73. Hercules, California • San Francisco Bay Area • Population: 19,488 • Contra Costa County • Established as company housing by the California Powder Works in 1881 Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    74. 74. Regulating Plan and Building Form Standards 3.!Main!Street! Main Street is lined with mixed-use shopfront A.!Building!Placement: buildings that are positioned at the front of each lot. It features angled parking or parallel parking Build-to-line location: 0 ft. from property and wide sidewalks. Trees in the right-of-way line Four-Lane Avenue (p. **) are optional. Colonnades are encouraged, to help Space Between 0 ft. if attached give the street narrower proportions and better Buildings: 6–10 ft. if detached Two-Lane Avenue (p. **) spatial definition. Main Street (p. **) Notes:!! B.!Building!Volume:!! Town Center Street (p. **) Bldg. Width: 16 ft. minimum 1. Appurtenances may extend beyondNeighborhood Street (p. **) the 160 ft. maximum height limit. Neighborhood Lane (p. **) 2. Building fronts are required to provide Bldg. Depth: 125 ft. maximum Two-Way Edge Drive (p. **) shelter to the sidewalk by means of at least Bldg. Height: 3 stories minimum One-Way Edge Drive (p. **) stories maximum one of the following: arcade, colonnade, 5 marquee, awning, or second-floor balcony. 55 ft. maximum 3. The alignment of floor-to-floor heights of The first floor shall be a abutting buildings is encouraged to allow for minimum of twelve (12) feet in shared use of elevators. height Development under this Code is regulated by street type. The various street types are related to each other in a hierarchical manner. When Four-Lane Avenue (p. **) these spaces intersect, the primary street frontage isTwo-Lane Avenue (p. **) order in the determined by its higher hierarchy. Mainfront of a **) The Street (p. building and its main entrance must face the Street (p. street frontage. Town Center primary **) Neighborhood Street (p. **) Neighborhood Lane (p. **) ! ! ! Two-Way Edge Drive (p. **) ! One-Way Edge Drive (p. **) This!illustration!depicts!a!district!of!streets!and!buildings!suited!to!serve!a!fine"grained!mix!of! A. Hierarchy of Street Types: uses.!The!City!expects!a!mix!of!allowed!uses!to!occur!in!all!neighborhoods!and!blocks.!The!City! ! Four-Lane Avenue will!require!a!mix!of!uses!within!buildings!along!Main!Street!and!the!Four"Lane!Avenue.!The! (Primary) ! Two-Lane Avenue Highest Example: II-6 City!will!not!require!particular!uses!nor!a!particular!distribution!of!uses,!but!will!require!the! ! Main Street This building is located at the intersection of Main July 16, 2001 Street and Town Center Street types. Main Street integration!of!residential!and!commercial!uses.!Uses!allowed!by!right!or!by!permit!or!that!are! ! Town Center Street is higher than Town Center Street in the Hierarchy prohibited!are!listed!in!Chapter!V!of!this!Code.!! of Street Types, therefore the building should follow ! Town Center Street B Main Street requirements. Central Hercules Plan and FBC (Dover, Kohl & Partners) ! Neighborhood Street (Secondary) ! Neighborhood Lane The!City!will!require!a!variety!of!architectural!styles!along!all!street!types.!However,!along! Lowest ! Two-Way Edge Drive Main!Street!and!the!Four"Lane!Avenue,!proposals!for!colonnades!will!be!scrutinized!to!ensure! ! One-Way Edge Drive adequate!sight!distance!for!automobile!drivers.! (Alleys are covered under General Provisions, as they are never fronted by main structures.) Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    75. 75. Some inspiration! New walkable neighborhood 16 du/acre Duplexes 20 du/acre Tuck under sf 15 du/acre Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    76. 76. Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    77. 77. VMT Reduction and The Central Hercules Plan -The Hercules New Town Center will result in VMT reductions of 50 to 70 million miles annually from the business as usual scenario for 2035 (2035 is the project build-out date).  Business as usual scenario means not having a town center in Hercules. -The long-term effect of the New Town Center will be to reduce VMT by 50% from an average of 50 miles per household per day to 25 miles per household per day within the New Town Center's catchment area (catchment area is a 7-minute drive to the New Town Center). -Over thirty years, reducing average daily household VMT by 25 miles will save consumers nearly half a billion dollars in gasoline.  This is approximately $850 a year per household not spent on gas (assuming a real price of $4/gallon) Data provided by Joanna Malaczynski Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    78. 78. Other Small Footprint Building Types Regulated by Form-Based Codes Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    79. 79. East Beach: Norfolk, VA Mansion Apartment- 32 units/acre Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    80. 80. East Beach: Norfolk, VA 1 space per unit-off street parking Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    81. 81. East Beach: Norfolk, VA Live-work at neighborhood center Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    82. 82. Summary 1. Refine mixed-use regulations using Form-Based Codes 2. Calibrate all supplementary/supporting regulations or standards to the transect (urban to rural) Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    83. 83. Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    84. 84. Code Resources Resources: “Form-Based Codes.” Available at opticosdesign.com Form-Based Codes Form-Based Code Institute www.formbasedcodes.org Opticos’ FBCs www.opticosdesign.com A Guide for Planners, Urban Designers, Smart Code and Transect Municipalities, and Developers www.smartcodecentral.com I will be signing my books at Daniel G. Parolek, AIA • Karen Parolek • Paul C. Crawford, FAICP Forewords by Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk and Stefanos Polyzoides the FBCI booth immediately after this session until 6:15 pm
    85. 85. Sustainability and Zoning Reform Sustainable Community Development Code A Code for the 21st Century Beta Version 1.1 Revised: 12/1/08 Sustainable Community Development Code Beta Version 1.1 Page 1 of 40 Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism
    86. 86. RMLUI Sustainable Community Development Code 4. MOBILITY & TRANSPORTATION 4.1. Transit Oriented Development Topics 4.2. Mobility Systems The proposed topics to be covered in the Sustainable Community Development Code are 4.2.1. Complete Streets listed below. Other topics are under consideration. Background research monologues 4.2.2. Pedestrian and Bicycle Systems. have been prepared for many of these topics and are available online at .law.du.edu/ . 4.2.3. Public Transit) Work is continuing on individual sections. 4.3. Parking 1. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND NATURAL RESOURCES 5. COMMUNITY 1.1. Climate Change 5.1. Community Development 1.2. Low Impact Development and Green Infrastructure 5.2. Public Participation and Community Benefits 1.3. Natural Resource Conservation/Sensitive Lands Protection 1.4. Water Conservation 6. HEALTHY NEIGHBORHOODS, HOUSING, FOOD SECURITY 1.5. Solid waste and recycling 6.1. Community Health 6.2. Affordable Housing 2. NATURAL HAZARDS 6.3. Housing Diversity and Accessibility 2.1. Floodplain Management 6.4. Food Production and Security 2.2. Wildland-Urban Interface/Wildfires 2.3. Coastal Hazards 7. ENERGY 2.4. Steep Slopes 7.1. Renewable Energy: Wind (small- and large-scale) 7.2. Renewable Energy: Solar (including solar access) 3. LAND USE AND COMMUNITY CHARACTER 7.3. Renewable Energy: Small-Scale Hydropower 3.1. Character and Aesthetics 7.4. Energy Efficiency and Conservation 3.2. Urban Form and Density 3.3. Historic Preservation 8. LIVABILITY 8.1. Noise 8.2. Lighting 8.3. visual Elements Sustainable Community Development Code Beta Version 1.1 Page 3 of 40 Form-Based Codes Implementing Sustainable Urbanism

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