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High blood pressure (which is common in older people) accounts for 70% of strokes.
A stroke occurs in a quick moment. A stroke is when blood flow to the brain is cut off.
The brain needs oxygen brought from the blood in order for brain cells to live. When brain cells die because of a stroke, so do cognitive and motor functions that are made possible because of these cells.
It often takes time for a person to heal properly from the survival of a stroke and they must be properly rehabilitated.
If stem cells could be used, it could greatly aid the brain and help the process of neuronal loss which could play a pivotal role in the onset of degenerative disorders.
“ Neural stem cell therapy has considerable potential to repopulate damaged areas of the brain.” (Bernal 2004)
Recent Studies-Research on aging using brain imaging and cognitive tests over 6 years in 145 healthy elderly subjects. By Hirohide Kada
Researchers wanted to further study brain aging on elderly adults. Over a period of 6 years 145 individuals brains and daily lives were examined.
145 elderly people who were considered to be healthy were divided into groups depending on their age.
Group A 69 years or younger and Group B 70 years or older
Each year they were given 3 tests to determine their brain status and see if there has been any decrease in cognition.
The Benton Visual retention test (BVRT) is an established visual test in Japan and examines mistakes such as distortion, rotation, misplacement and mistakes in size.
Enhanced cue recall is a test in which a person must recall certain objects in a drawing after performing an unrelated task. This test is scored upon items recalled and items that couldn’t be recalled.
A symbol test is another visual test in which numbers replace symbols.
“ Changes over time in Benton’s visual retention test (BVRT) and enhanced cued recall (ECR), both of which rely mainly on subjects memorizing figures, were seen in Group B. With the coding test, the results from the second phase (initial test) showed differences according to initial age; in addition, the differences became greater with aging. It appears that work speed is reduced with increasing age.” (Kada 2008)
“ The results of the BVRT and ECR suggest that enlargement of the Sylvian fissure and atrophy of the temporal lobe are indicators of deterioration of memory.” (Kada 2008)
This study basically showed the correlation between again and decreased brain function. It is very technical but interesting. See actual source if you are interested in more information.
Know Your Own Risk Against Aging Brain Diseases
1.__(3.5) One family member with Alzheimer’s disease or other cause of dementia
2.__(7.5) More than one family member with Alzheimer’s disease or other dementia.
3.__(2.0) A single head injury with the loss of consciousness for more than a few minutes.
4.__(2.0) Several head injuries without loss of consciousness.
5.__(4.4) Alcohol dependence or drug dependence is past or present.
6.__(2.0) Major depression diagnosed by a physician in past or present.
8.__(2.5) Heart (coronary artery) disease or heart attack (myocardial infarction or MI)
9.__(2.1) High cholesterol
10.__(2.3) High blood pressure
12.__(3.0) History of cancer or cancer treatment.
13.__(1.5) Seizures in past or present.
14.__(2.0) Limited exercise (less than 2x per week or less than 30 minutes per session)
15.__(2.0) Less than a high school education.
16.__(2.0) Jobs that do not require periodically learning new information.
17.__(2.3) Smoking cigarettes for 10 years or longer
18.__(2.5) One apolipoprotein E4 (if known)
19.__(5.0) Two apolipoprotein E4 genes (if known)
_________ TOTAL UP YOUR SCORE BY ADDING ALL CHECKED SCORES
Amen, Daniel. (2005). Making a good brain great . New York: Harmony Books.
This source was informative in that it provided an entire chapter on the aging brain. It gave me in depth facts about my research topic and gave readers ideas on how to sustain optimal brain performance and prevent brain diseases caused by age. The author is credible because he is an M.D. with many years of experience. He presents useful and objective information
Bernal, G. (2004). neural stem cells as therapeutic agents for age-related brain repair. Aging Cell , 3 (6), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4659d954-4674-4e98-b363-d178c8cc78dc%40sessionmgr115&vid=15&hid=8 doi: 10.1111/j.1474-9728.2004.00132.x
This article was very technical and sometimes hard to follow because I didn’t understand the terminology. However, it was useful to my project because it examined neurogenesis and the issue of whether the brain can repair itself. It also brings up the issue of what can be done to help the brain repair itself.
Kada, Hirohide. (2008). Research on aging using brain imaging and cognitive tests over 6 years in 145 healthy elderly subjects. PSYCHOGERIATRICS , 8 . Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4659d954-4674-4e98-b363-d178c8cc78dc%40sessionmgr115&vid=5&hid=113 doi: 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2008.00238.x
This source is peer reviewed and was very interesting and gave further insight into brain studies and conclusions. It examined a brain study conducted on elderly that evaluated cognitivity with age. This was helpful to my project because it pertained to cognitive decline from aging.
Moffett, S. (2006). The three-pound enigma . New York, New York: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.
This source was helpful because it examined the brain throughout life, and specifically had a chapter for old age. The author, who was a current medical student at the time she wrote this book gave further insight to topics such as brain functions, brain connections and Alzheimer’s disease which were vital issues for my project.
Sweeney, M. (2009). Brain the complete mind . Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society.
I used our textbook as a source because it had very useful information pertaining to my topic. Not only did it give me vital information, it gave me several topics to focus on.