Sensory disorder powerpoint


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  • Autism-Chapter Seven Dyslexia-Chapter Eight
  • Sensory disorder powerpoint

    1. 1. Christine Mager Current Issues in the Brain Psych 275
    2. 2. <ul><li>Speech: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stuttering begins between the ages of 2 and 6 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stutterers have unusual amounts of activity in the right hemisphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech therapy was used as treatment, now there are drugs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning disabilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result from faulty reception, processing, and communication of information within the brain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory, visual, tactile, taste, olfactory, vestibular, proprioceptive </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Tactile: Avoidance of touch, high pain tolerance, poor coordination, cleansing of hands and/or other body parts often, avoids particular textures in food, clothes, or other substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory: over or under reacts to loud noises, covers ears frequently, impediment of speech, evades large groups of people, repeated humming or singing to self, keen to sounds other disregard. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual: views items (toys, books, etc.) close to face, repetitive opening and shutting of doors and/or drawers, enthralled by shiny and/or reflective items (mirrors, glass, etc.), appears overly sensitive to light. </li></ul>4. Taste: Gnaws on items, prefers food either bland or extremely tasty. 5. Olfactory: does not like group settings, avoids places that are aromatic, repeatedly smells everyday household items. 6. Vestibular: panics when upside down and/or tilted to one side, seems to move awkwardly, repeatedly jumps and/or spins. 7. Proprioceptive: poor coordination, prefers rough play, gets pleasure from falling down, trouble with fine motor dexterity
    4. 4. <ul><li>Autism-developmental disorder characterized by severe communication and social interaction impairments, unusual interests, and behaviors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlexia is associated with Autism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dyslexia-learning disability that impairs the ability to process language, leading to difficulties in spelling, reading, writing, and math. </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s Syndrome-People affected have one interest which envelopes their mind and leaves no space for more age appropriate, common interests. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlexia is associated with Asperger’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyperlexia-children with above average or average IQs with word-reading ability well above what would be expected given their age and IQs. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Developmental disorder characterized by significant communication and social interaction impairments and unusual interests or behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Struggles with decoding emotional content of faces, bodies, and sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>May have problems with language, repetitive motions, impaired social skills, and self-destructive behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Can have enhanced abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have difficulty socializing with others </li></ul><ul><li>More common in men than women. </li></ul><ul><li>Autopsies have found correlations between autism and cellular anomalies in the cerebellum, hippocampus, and amygdala. There is also shrinkage of the cerebral vermis. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Affects 5 to 15% of population </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to affect males than females. </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormalities in thalamus which is where the sensory information is channeled. </li></ul><ul><li>People affected have difficulty holding sounds in short-term memory to combine them into words. </li></ul><ul><li>They struggle with decoding phonemes into words that actually have meaning. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Affected people have one interest which envelopes their mind and leaves no space for more age appropriate, common interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Milder variant of Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Affected individuals are characterized by social isolation and eccentric behavior in childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Have difficulty with management and expression of emotions </li></ul><ul><li>1 in every 250 people (roughly) </li></ul><ul><li>Affects brain development, it is not from emotional deprivation or other psychogenic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological treatment programs to help manage and express emotions. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Can occur in children when prefrontal lobes of brain haven’t developed enough for adolescent to exercise self-control </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in 4 to 5% of children </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are more likely than girls to have it. There is also cylert and dexedrine. </li></ul><ul><li>Ritalin is best known medicine for treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Common disorder in which an individual has difficulty concentrating and multi-tasking. They are easily distracted. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually continues into adolescence and adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Squirming, cannot sit still, trouble playing quietly, talk non-stop, fail to focus on details. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Affects mainly school-age children (5 to 9 years old) </li></ul><ul><li>Have normal intelligence and language development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have difficulty in social communication, social interaction, and social imagination. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alteration in brain due to abnormal changes in embryonic cells during fetal development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of genetic and environmental factors is also responsible for changes in brain anatomy. Researches revealed functional and structural differences in particular areas of brain. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have intense obsession with 1 or more particular narrow subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle with decoding emotional content of faces, bodies, and sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to see things in another’s perspective, which causes problems in recognizing sarcasm or deceit. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlations between autism and cellular anomalies in cerebellum, hippocampus, and amygdala, shrinkage of cerebral vermis. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in socializing with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a spectrum disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on one thing at one time then moves on to the next subject. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Asperger’s Syndrome Brain Abnormal migration of embryonic cells during fetal development may affect the final structure and connectivity of the brain, resulting in alterations in the neural circuits that control thought and behavior
    11. 12. <ul><li>Attwood, Dr. Tony, http :// aspx , 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeney, Michael S. Brain: The Complete Mind, How it Develops, how it works, and How to Keep it Sharp , National Geographic Society, 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapters Three, Seven, and Eight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demand, http :// / , 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Jirage, Reshma. Causes of Asperger’s Syndrome . 210, http :// </li></ul><ul><li>PICTURES http:// ; </li></ul>