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  • Our brain is like a car. A car needs gasoline, oil, brake fluid and other materials to run properly. Our brain also needs special material to run properly like glucose, vitamins, minerals and other essential chemicals. For example, the fuel for our brain is glucose. We can get glucose by eating carbohydrates or other foods that can be converted to glucose. Our brain must manufacture the right proteins and fats to do things such as grow new connections or add myelin. We do this by digesting proteins and fats in food and using the pieces, that is , the amino acids and fatty acids, to make the new brain proteins and fats. Without the correct amount and balance of particular building blocks, our brain will not work properly. Too little or to much of the necessary nutrient can affect the nervous system.
  • Just because our brain needs sugar to run we shouldn’t eat every sugary food. We should be careful eating the stuff which has good sugar in it like yogurt, cereal and vegetables. Un refined sugar moderation is good for our diet. We should be staying away from things like cakes and cookies which has refined sugar in it. Refined sugary food can cause obesity especially in children and sugar has no nutritional value.
  • I found a web site which has 146 reason why we should not eat sugar. I picked out the ones I thought there were interesting.
  • Certain foods contain starting materials for some neurotransmitters. If a diet is deficient in certain starting materials, the brain will not be able to produce some trans some transmitters. Neurological and mental disorders may occur when the balance of neurotransmitters is upset. This certain nutrition are Vitamin A plays a critical role in visual perception and deficiency is the leading cause of childhood blindness in developing countries. It has been estimates that 127 million preschool aged children and 7 million pregnant women are vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A also had role in cell differentiation, the immune system and reproduction.Iodine: The only confirmed function of the trace element iodine is the role played in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones play critical role in the metabolism in particular the brain. Deficit of iodine during the late pregnancy will result in irreversible problems of brain development.Iron: The deficiency disease, iron deficit anemia, is associated with general tiredness, lowered mood and an inability to concentrate and remember.Zinc: Zinc plays a central role in the growth of cells. It is involved with the activity of over 200 enzymes, in particular those necessary for synthesis of RNA and DNA. It is found in high levels in the brain where it plays both structural and functional roles. A deficiency of zinc slows growth and delays sexual maturation.Choline: Deficiency of choline during end of gestation which is sensitive period for brain development is associated with deficits in memory and cognition.Folic Acid: Adequate folate status is important for the normal growth of the fetus as supplementation during pregnancy has been found to decrease the incidence of immaturity and to favorably affect the weight and condition of the newborn. Infants born to mothers with severe folate deficiency during pregnancy showed abnormal or delayed development.B12: The primary functions of this vitamin are roles in the formation of red blood cells, the synthesis of DNA and the maintenance of a healthy nervous system. Deficiency can result in anemia with consequent tiredness, breathlessness and fatigue. Vitamin B12 plays a role in the metabolism of the fatty acids needed to produce myelin. Thus deficiency can result in B12 neuropathy with its associated degeneration of nerve fibers and irreversible brain damage.
  • Nutrients must follow a tricky pathway to our brain and overcome several challengesThey must gain entry to our body if don’t eat them, they won’t be available to our brain. Once in our stomach, they must survive an attack by acid that breaks some foods down. Further along the digestive tract, they must be absorbed trough blood vessel walls into the bloodstream. Travelling in the blood through liver, nutrients need to avoid being metabolized. Once in bloodstream, nutrients must cross small blood vessels into tissue. This transport from the blood to neurons is restricted by blood brain barrier.
  • In understanding the influence of nutrients and food derived neurotropic factors on brain and behavior development, it is important to realize that nutrients essentially depends on the timing of their delivery in relation to critical periods during brain development. A critical period typically encompasses a relatively narrow time frame during which a particular brain region develops or in which a specific experience must occur. Prenatal development has well defined milestones or critical periods like neourulation. For example, folic acid is essential for neural tube closure for a short period around 22 days gestation. This timing relationship between nutrient availability and brain development is not only relevant to prenatal development, but also to postnatal development. It has been suggested that brain growt in humans occur between 2-3, 6-8, 10-12, 14-16 years.
  • Poor nutrition contributes to delay in intellectual development by causing brain damage enhancing the risk of illness, including lethargy and withdrawal or delayed physical growth. Brain damage refers to relatively straightforward nutrient induced structural or biochemical alternations. Illness delays the devopment of the motor skills like crawling and walking and thus, limits the child’s exposure to, and exploration of, the external environment.
  • The brain of human fetus grows rapidly from the 10th to 18th week of pregnancy, so it is important for the mothers eat nutritious food during this time. The brain also grows rapidly just before and for about after 2 years after birth. Babies born to mothers who had poor diets may have some form of mental retardation or behavioral problems. Also, children who don’t receive adequate nutrition in their first few years of life may develop problems later. Myelin forms around the axons for several years after birth.
  • Vitamin and minerals deficiencies can be caused by starvation, poor diet, poor absorption of vitamins and minerals, damage to the digestive system, infection, alcoholism. Some effects of malnutrition can be repaired by proper diet, so not all the effect of poor diets are permanent. Researchers believe that the timing of malnutrition is an important factor in determining if problems will occur. This means that missing out on a particular nutrient at the time when a part of the brain is growing and needs that nutrient will cause a specific problem there.
  • We should be really careful about our diets especially when women are pregnant and after birth we should be feeding our kids with quality neuritis food. As we saw at the power point our diet plays a crucial role at our brain development.

Powerpoint Powerpoint Presentation Transcript

  • Nutrition
    By Ozlem Rubin
  • What is Nutrition?The act or process of nourishing or being nourished.
    Why our brain needs Nutrition?
    Think your brain as a car (5)
    Fuel (Glucose) (5)
    New Connections (5)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MsU0imEAlUg
  • What is Glucose?The sweet colorless dextrorotatory form that occurs widely in nature and is the usual form in which carbohydrate is assimilated by animal.
    Good Sugar : Unrefined Sugar (6)
    Bad Sugar: Refined Sugar (6)
  • How bad sugar effects us and the kids?
    146 reason (1)
    Suppress the immune system (1)
    Hyperactivity, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and crankiness in children (1)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp5bzV7X-do
    Weaken eyesight (1)
    Can cause asthma (1)
    Can cause depression (1)
    Lead to alcoholism (1)
  • Diet and Neurotransmitters :Certain foods contain starting materials for some neurotransmitter. (5)
    Certain Nutrition
    Vitamin A (2)
    Iodine (2)
    Iron (2)
    Zinc (2)
    Choline (2)
    Folic Acid (2)
    Vitamin B12 (2)
  • How this Nutrition goes to our Brain?
    They must gain entry to our brain (5)
    They must survive (5)
    They must be absorbed(5)
    They need to avoid being metabolized (5)
    They must cross small blood vessels (5)
  • The times when the nutrition has the greatest effect on brain
    Prenatal period (4)
    2-3 years of age (4)
    6-8 years of age (4)
    10-12 years of age (4)
    14-16 years of age (4)
  • Role of nutrition in postnatal brain and behavior development
    Brain damage (7)
    Risk of illness (7)
    Delayed physical growth like crawling and walking (7)
  • Why is important for mothers to eat nutritious food?
    Fetus grows rapidly (3,4,5,7)
    Brain grows rapidly (3,4,5,7)
    Myelin development (3,4,5,7)
  • Effects of malnutrition
    Starvation (3,5)
    Poor diet (3,5)
    Poor absorption of vitamins and minerals (3,5)
    Damage to the digestive system (3,5)
    Infection (3,5)
    Alcoholism (3,5)
  • Brain after and before birth
    Nutrition during pregnancy (3)
    Quality of child nutrition (3)
  • Bibliography Appleton, Nancy. "146 Reasons Why Sugar Is Ruining Your Health." ANTIBIOTICS TO TREAT RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, SCLERODERMA, LUPUS, JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, POLYMYOSITIS, DERMATOMYOSITIS, PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS, REITER'S SYNDROME, ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS. Web. 08 Aug. 2011. <http://rheumatic.org/sugar.htm>. 146 interesting reason why we should not eat so much sugar and how it effects our body. (1) Benton, David. "Micronutrient Status, Cognition and Behavioral Problems in Childhood." Academic Search Complete. EBSCO, 2011. Web. 8 Aug. 2011. <http://http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=12&sid=bf58976c-7ec5-42d1-812d-0637bcba2dd8%40sessionmgr114&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d##db=a9h&AN=33532787>. It gives information about what kind of vitamin and mineral our brain needs and also gives information what happens if we don't get this certain vitamins and minerals. It gives examples about the studies got done all around world. (2)Duggan, Christopher, John B. Watkins, and W. Allan. Walker. Nutrition in Pediatrics: Basic Science, Clinical Applications. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker, 2008. Print. The electronic book gives wide information how nutrition effects our lives. It tells how placenta plays a central role of programming the babies. It is also says if mother is poorly nourished, she signals to her unborn baby that the environment it is about enter is likely to be harsh. The book has 71 chapters. (3) 
  • Isaacs, E., and J. Oates. "Nutrition and Cognition: Assessing Cognitive Abilities in Children and Young People." Academic Search Complete. EBSCO, 2008. Web. 8 Aug. 2011. <http://http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=112&sid=bf58976c-7ec5-42d1-812d-0637bcba2dd8%40sessionmgr114&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d>. This article gives information about how nutrition effects ours and the children cognitive abilities. It is informs what are the most vulnerable times for our brain development and also gives information how nutrition plays crucial role in maintaining brain functions. (4) "Neuroscience for Kids - Nutrition and the Brain." UW Faculty Web Server. Web. 08 Aug. 2011. <http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/nutr.html>. This a really cool website for kids. It is explaining very well why our brain needs nutrition and how our brain gets the nutrition from food to our brain. (5) Rich, Maeve. "The Effects of Sugar on Children - Life123." Articles and Answers about Life - Life123. 2011. Web. 08 Aug. 2011. <http://www.life123.com/parenting/toddlers/child-nutrition/the-effects-of-sugar-on-children.shtml>. It gives information about positive and negative side of the sugar on kids. It also give information about refined and unrefined sugar. (6) Rosales, Francisco J., J. Steven Reznick, and Steven H. Zeisel. "Understanding the Role of Nutrition in the Brain and Behavioral Development of Toddlers and Preschool Children: Identifying and Addressing Methodological Barriers and." Academic Search Complete. EBSCO, 2009. Web. 8 Aug. 2011. <http://http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=12&sid=bf58976c-7ec5-42d1-812d-0637bcba2dd8%40sessionmgr114&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=44035373>. It gives information how nutrition has an effect on gene expression. Its also inform us what type us brain damages and illness we could have when we don't get the right kind of nutrition. (7)