Statistic98 % of American households have a TV set66% of American youth aged from 8 to 18have a TV set in the bedroom70% of childrens television shows containdisplays of physical aggression with 14violent acts displayed per hour, comparedwith less than four violent acts in non-childrens programming.
The Use of MediaYouth daily TV view: 3:19 for aged 8 to 10 3:30 for aged 11 to 14 2:23 for aged 15 to 18Almost 20 % of youth between the ages of 2 to 17 watch more than 35 hours of TV per weekYouth with internet access use 1 hour per day
Heavy v.s. Light ViewersHeavy viewers aremore likely to reportdistress and fears ofvulnerability to crime.Heavy TV viewing isassociated withelevated perceptions ofpersonal (but notsocietal) vulnerabilityto world threat such asearthquake and floodwith high anxiety.
Parental RegulationChildren with no restrictions on their televisionconsumption watch more TV and tend to bemore aggressive than children who does.Parental regulation doesn’t relate to the homeincome/maternal use/ mothers’ age/ gender ofthe children27% of mothers monitor the quantity oftelevision viewing26% have rules for maximum Internet use.2.2% have rules for both television and Internetuse.
Threat PerceptionThreat perception after being exposed to massive media: Children have greater societal threat perception (Crime> earthquake > hurricane/flood) than personal threat perception. The older the children are the higher perception they have. With higher TV use, children have higher personal threat perception, but no significant relation with Internet use.
Media Use as Educational ToolsIncluded: Audio components, digital video cameras, television, and computer-based programs and games.Active learning (using media): students take control over their own learning and are more active and participating in learning.Passive learning (without media): replying more on teachers material.Students who watched a multimedia story recalled more story elements than students exposed to only one medium.
Ideal Body Image from Media Man Woman Old ideal body shape Larger body Curvaceous shapeCurrent ideal body shape Muscular with physically Leaner and slimmer fit appearanceChildren who imitate the appearance of same-sex media personalities tend to develop weight concern and become constant dieters.Reading beauty and fashion magazines lead to restricting calories and diet pills taking for female aged from 15 to 18.Weight control behaviors and binge eating increased in students as their frequency of reading magazines containing diet related information increased.
What is Media to Children?Media said they should... Boys Girls be slimmer Unsure/ disagree Agree/ unsure be more muscular Unsure/ disagree Disagree/ strongly disagree gain weight Disagree/ strongly Disagree/ strongly disagree disagreeAs age increased boys agreed that the media tell them that they should be slimmer.The older the girls are, the more they believed media influence them to be slimmer.The influence of the media in children and adolescents has linked the promotion of thinness with body dissatisfaction and the development of disordered eating practices, particularly in girls.
Reaction to MediaGirls tend to adopt strategies to lose weight while boys increase muscle mass.Exposure to violent media leads to physical, verbal, and relational aggression (using the relationships as the means of harm via ignoring, direct exclusion or by spreading malicious rumors, gossip or lies) among young children.Boys tend to use physical aggression, while girls tend to use relational aggression to fulfill gender specific social goals.Higher socioeconomic states children tend to be exposed to relational aggression via television, video, and movies and tend to understand and model these behaviors in the future.
Annotated BibliographyChristakis, D. (Writer). (2011). TEDxRainier - Dimitri Christakis - Media [Online video]. Retrieved August 13, 2012, from Youtube.Dimitri Christakis talked about the three experiments with young childrens (mices) brain processing the outside stimulation. The first experiment was to see the differences of two different mices (ones childhood was in front of TV, one has regular stimulation) risk-taking skill in an open field, and the second experiment tested the two different mices short-term memory. The third found out there is a relationship between building blocks game with language learning.
Annotated Bibliography*Comer, J. S., Furr, J. M., Beidas, R. S., Babyar, H. M., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). Media Use and Childrens Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability. Journal Of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(3), 622-630. doi:10.1080/15374410802148145This was a study that exanimated the correlation between television and internet use and the perception of societal threat and personal vulnerability of 90 children from age 7 to 13 years old. They found that the more television the children watched the greater personal threat perception, but they didn’t find a significant correlation with internet use.
Annotated Bibliography*Daluz, C. T., & Mapoy, M. J. (2011). The Effect of Interactive Media on Elementary School Childrens Story Memory. International Journal Of Research & Review, 6(1), 108-119.This experimental study exanimated first grade children’s responses and the number of correct answers to the study questionnaire after using four different computer-based presentation modes. While the result was that the audio- visual group had the best performance, audio group had the worst performance. Surprisingly, the interactive group had a similar performance as interactive observers.
Annotated BibliographyLawrie, Z. Z., Sullivan, E. A., Davies, P. W., & Hill, R. J. (2006). Media Influence on the Body Image of Children and Adolescents. Eating Disorders, 14(5), 355-364. doi:10.1080/10640260600952506This was an article focusing on the relationship between ideal body images for boys and girls from age 9 to 14 years old and media, specific fashion magazines. While neither group of the gender answered that the media was promoting bigger size of muscle, both of them agreed that the media was promoting thin ideal body shape.
Annotated Bibliography*Messenger Davies, Mfire. (2010). Children, Media and Culture. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/spscclibrary/Doc? id=10403992&ppg=49.This book talked about the combination of arts and media such as television, gaming, and social networking in educating or communicating with children. The modern convenience technology had changed the way children live their childhood lives, but there are some negative impact of this change.Ostrov, J. M., Gentile, D. A., & Crick, N. R. (2006). Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior During Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study. Social Development, 15(4), 612-627. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2006.00360.xThis longitudinal study followed and documented 78 preschoolers’ current and future responses after exposing to violent media. They found that after exposed to violent media, both sexes responded differently: while girls tend to perform relational aggression, boys perform physical aggression.