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    Media for psych_275 Media for psych_275 Presentation Transcript

    • MediaLanguage, Media, and Infants Aaron Collins
    • Eyes and Ears• A reminder of when we begin to develop our sense of eyesight and hearing. Of course each child is unique, so the times given are just to have a general idea of the time period.• Vision-Born with the ability, and by 6 months old, developed as well as an adult’s. Occipital lobe• Hearing-ability to hear before birth, but not as acutely as adults. By age 7 children can hear as well as adults. Temporal lobeGuernsey, Lisa. Into the Minds of Babes: How Screen Time Affects Children From Birth to Age Five. New York: Basic Books, 2007.
    • Language More Review• A lot of different areas of the brain are used to understand and form language. The left hemisphere plays the biggest role in a majority of people.• By 3 months old, babies have the ability to distinguish spoken sounds• Around 10 years old, children lose the ability to relearn sounds that the brain has gotten rid ofMoon, Christine. “Sensory Power Point”. Online Power Point. angel.spscc.edu. June 2012.
    • Television and the Zombie Effect• “The Zombie Effect”- Jane M. Healy posited that “when children are faced with content that is difficult or confusing, they may be ‘physiologically compelled to space out’”(Guernsey, p. 27)• Another similar opinion comes from Marie Winn. Saying that while children are watching television there is very little intellectual activity going on in their brains.Guernsey, Lisa. Into the Minds of Babes: How Screen Time Affects Children From Birth to Age Five. New York: Basic Books, 2007.
    • Refuting the “Zombie Effect”• Most research shows that exactly the opposite is happening while children are watching television, that they are engaged in what they are watching. And that “children do look away from television, as much as 150 times per hour”(Guernsey, p.34) The content of what they are watching does play a role.• One study was done where 2, 3 ½, and 5 year olds were shown altered versions of Sesame Street along with the original. One version being broken up random segments of the show, another in Greek, and another in which all speech was heard backwards. “The theory was that, if children paid more attention to the regular programing, it was near certainty that they were watching because they found some meaning in what they saw”(Guernsey. P34). And the outcome was that children preferred the original. While the altered versions were being viewed, they complained that the TV was broken and looked away more. Guernsey, Lisa. Into the Minds of Babes: How Screen Time Affects Children From Birth to Age Five. New York: Basic Books, 2007.
    • Video learning• Video Deficit- Under the same learning conditions, it has been shown that children will learn more from a live speaker opposed to a video One story, from the book Into the Minds of Babes, tells of a boy whose parents were both deaf. The parents did not have anyfriends that could hear or family near to where they lived. The mother was told by doctors not to use sign language with herchild, and he did not have any hearing friends. The only language that the boy was exposed to came from children’s shows ontelevision. Around the age of 4, in 1971, the boy ended up in the speech clinic at the University of Connecticut. At the clinic theyfound his understanding and expression of language to be far below what it should have been. The following are some exampleof his speech:“Look at all the plane.”, “Can open that plane?”, “Where the wheels plane? Take it off.”, “This not take off plane. This is how aplane.” One of the things he was missing from just watching television to learn to speak was the live interaction and how thingsrelate to one another and himself. Another thing he wasn’t learning was grammar. From an article in Infant and ChildDevelopment Alan L. Mendelsohn et al. writes that “Extensive literature has documented strong positive impacts of parent–childverbal interactions on early child language development, self-regulation, school readiness and later achievement”.• Language, speech, and television-Research was done in 2000 at the University of Connecticut on 3-4 year olds, including the quantity of television watched. “They found that no correlation to any skill related to language development, save one: the children who watched the most television performed worse in tests of grammar than the other children in the sample”(Guernsey, p. 148).-Guernsey, Lisa. Into the Minds of Babes: How Screen Time Affects Children From Birth to Age Five. New York: Basic Books, 2007.-Mendelsohn, Alan L.Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.Dreyer, Benard P.Fierman, Arthur H.Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.Tomopoulos, Suzy. "Do Verbal Interactions With Infants During Electronic MediaExposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts On Their Language Development As Toddlers?." Infant & Child Development 19.6 (2010): 577-593. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 18 Aug.2012.
    • Video learning cont.• Fast Mapping- “learning and using new words after only limited exposure to those words”(Allen, p. 650).• Most infants and children have been found to be able to learn new words from a live speaker. However, as Allen and Scofield quote “Krcmar et al. found that only the older toddlers(22-24 months) were able to learn words in the video conditions(i.e. the adult- on-television and the Teletubbies conditions)….when learning words from a live speaker, children quickly begin using those words to help figure out the meanings of the other words”(Allen, p. 650)Allen, Rebekah Scofield, Jason. "Word Learning From Videos: More Evidence From 2-Year-Olds." Infant & Child Development 19.6 (2010): 649-661. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 17 Aug. 2012.
    • Content• Educational content vs. Adult programming- A lab study was done by Mendelsohn et al. on 6 month old infants coming from low-income families. They were exposed to more adult oriented programming instead of infant-directed learning content. They found that there could be an association made between the amount of time an infant is exposed to adult oriented programming and a lesser ability to learn language at around 14 months of age.• The best- It seems that Sesame Street, Dora the Explorer, Blue’s Clues, Arthur, and Clifford and others that are similar are the best for children to learn new words.Guernsey, Lisa. Into the Minds of Babes: How Screen Time Affects Children From Birth to Age Five. New York: Basic Books, 2007.Mendelsohn, Alan L.Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.Dreyer, Benard P.Fierman, Arthur H.Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.Tomopoulos, Suzy. "Do Verbal Interactions With Infants DuringElectronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts On Their Language Development As Toddlers?." Infant & Child Development 19.6 (2010): 577-593. Psychology andBehavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 18 Aug. 2012.
    • Comprehension Test and mixed up Teletubbies• Attentional Inertia- “the major mechanism by which a young child will continue to pay attention to the program even when the content is difficult for that child to understand”(Guernsey, p. 35-36).• It has been found that when children and infants are engaged in viewing a program that their heart rate slows and are less distractible.• In one experiment, the show Teletubbies was used in the original uncut version and in cut-up segments that did not make any sense. The videos were shown to a variety of age groups, from 6 month old to 24 month old children, to see if they would show a preference between the different versions. And they found that it depended on the age of the children. The 24 month olds preferred the uncut original version and so did 18 month old children. But in the 6-12 month old age range they found that the children were not showing any preference between the two versions.Guernsey, Lisa. Into the Minds of Babes: How Screen Time Affects Children From Birth to Age Five. New York: Basic Books, 2007.
    • Conclusion• There are a variety of studies on infants and learning language from video, and with contradictory conclusions. Some finding that children cannot learn anything from watching television and others the opposite. The majority seem to say that children can learn words from video, but not usually until they are around two years of age. And it seems that co-viewing with a parent or caregiver to interact with while viewing can help also. Most researchers agree on one thing. That the best way for children to learn is with live, positive, nurturing interaction with their parents , family, and caregivers.
    • Works CitedAllen, Rebekah Scofield, Jason. "Word Learning From Videos: More Evidence From 2-Year-Olds." Infant & Child Development 19.6 (2010): 649-661. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 17 Aug. 2012.Barr, Rachel Linebarger, Deborah L. "Special Issue On The Content And Context Of Early Media Exposure." Infant & Child Development 19.6 (2010): 553-556. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 17 Aug. 2012Guernsey, Lisa. Into the Minds of Babes: How Screen Time Affects Children From Birth to Age Five. New York: Basic Books, 2007.Mendelsohn, Alan L. Brockmeyer, Carolyn A. Dreyer, Benard P.Fierman, Arthur H.Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.Tomopoulos, Suzy. "Do Verbal Interactions With Infants During Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts On Their Language Development As Toddlers?." Infant & Child Development 19.6 (2010): 577-593. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 18 Aug. 2012Moon, Christine. “Sensory Power Point”. Online Power Point. angel.spscc.edu. June 2012.