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Aspergers and autism

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  • 1. Autism and Asperger’s syndromeA powerpoint by Sidney Black
  • 2. The Autism Spectrum  Shows the different PDD’s (Pervasive Developmental Disorders) and their severity.  Both Autism and Asperger’s syndrome are on the spectrum because they share similar characteristics  Also lists the social and behavioral deficiencies that are present for each disorder (Ritvo 2005)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UrmgARF EYY0
  • 3. Diagnosis for Autism Impairment in social interactionIncludes difficulties in understandingand using nonverbal communicationincluding eye contact, facial expressionsand posture during conversation. Impairment in communicationDelay in or total lack of spoken language Restricted or repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, interests, and activitiesMay be a fixation with stereotyped andrestricted Interests or a strong preoccupationwith parts of Objects. frequent routines arerepeated and Repetitive stereotypedmovements such as Finger flapping or handtwisting are present.(Rodriguez 2011)
  • 4. Diagnosis for Asperger’s syndrome • Must show impairments in social interaction like Autism number 1 • Must show repetitive interests , behaviors, and activities as described in autism number 3 • Must not show a significant delay in the use of language. (Rodriguez 2011)
  • 5. Autism, Asperger’s and abnormal serotonin levels  Serotonin controls some of the moods and behaviors that are altered in ASD  Scientists believe that lack of serotonin in the brain may result in Autism and Asperger’s  A study with mice showed that mice with low serotonin levels exhibit autistic behaviors such as socializing less and increased aggression  It has also been found that medication that boosts serotonin levels is affective at lessening some symptoms in Autism patients (Rodriguez 2011)
  • 6. Abnormal brain growth associated with Autism and Asperger’s It has been shown that the brains of people with ASD grow at a different pace than the brains of people without ASD At birth the brains are the same size. By two to four years of age the brain volume of babies with ASD is 5 to 10 percent larger than a normal baby. This is called Marcophaly. This is not present in all ASD children. Some may have a smaller brain and others may have a normal sized brain. It is still unclear why this happens in children with ASD. (Rodriguez 2011)
  • 7. Abnormal brain growth continued The amygdala has often been associated with ASD because it controls aspects of social behavior In most children the amygdala grows slowly until adolescence when it reaches adult size. In ASD children the amygdala grows fast and reaches adult size before adolescence This abnormal growth may result in some of the social behaviors of ASD sufferers such as the difficulty to recognize faces and to understand emotions. (Attwood 2007)
  • 8. University of California, Davis amygdala studyo Scientist as University of California, Davis studied a group of boys with ASD and a control group of same aged boys without ASDo They observed that the amygdala of the two groups were the same volume but the ASD boys had fewer neurons, or brain cells, compared to the controlso Scientists are attempting to determine why the amygdalae of autistic brains tend to grow faster and have fewer neurons than those without ASD (Attwood 2007)
  • 9. Studies of electrical activity in the brain with EEG  Scientists have done EEG studies on people without ASD and compared them to those of people with ASD.  Through these they have figured out that ASD brains work differently than non-ASD brains  In one set of experiments scientists compared EEG’s during sleep. They compared the EEG’s of people with ASD and people without ASD.  The comparisons showed that when people without ASD sleep they have greater activity on the front and back areas of the right side of the cortex. When people with ASD sleep they have increased activity only on the front of the cortex.(Rodriguez 2011)
  • 10. Theory of mind The theory of mind refers to the awareness that other people have beliefs, knowledge, and desires different from our own (Rodriguez 2011) Most people with Autism and Asperger’s syndrome lack this type of understanding. Some scientists believe this may have to do with a lack of mirror neurons in the brains of people with ASD which inhibits their ability to read peoples faces and decipher what it is that other people are feeling.(Attwood 2007) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N9vzW- 176Ps
  • 11. Theory of mind cont.• simple tests are used to see if this theory is functioning inchildren.•The picture on this slide is an example of one of these suchtests which is usually shown as a video to children withASD.•Children under the age of 5 and children with ASD will saythat Sally will look for the ball in the box because they donot yet understand that other people do not think the waythat they do or see all the things they see.•This ability to distinguish different perspectives usuallydoes not develop in ASD children or adults on it’s own butpeople with ASD can work on this skill and improve upon it.
  • 12. Thank you for watching this power point. I hope youwill take away from this that even though people itAutism Spectrum Disorders such as Asperger’ssyndrome and Autism may do things differently thanus they are not a completely different breed of people.Their brains are simply wired to think a littledifferently than our own.
  • 13. Annotated BibliographyAttwood, Tony. The complete guide to Aspergers syndrome. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 20062007. Print.This source offered some specific information relating to Asperger’s syndrome. It discussed diagnosis, brain growth,and many other aspects.Doris , Izuwah. "Assesment of Autism Spectrum Disorders." EBSCO Publishing Service Selection Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Aug. 2012. <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=125&sid=cb55b340-536b-4c 57-8301-0248dfac62b1%40sessionmgr112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2Z Q%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=78093780>.This source offered a lot of information about Autism Spectrum Disorders in general. It also had iformation about the Autismspectrum itself.Flood, Z.C., D.L.J Engel, C.C. Simon, K.R. Negherbon, L.J. Murphy, W. Tamavimok, G.M. Anderson, and S. Janusonis. "Brain growth trajectories in mouse strains with central and peripheral serotonin differences: relevance to autism models. .“ EBSCO Publishing Service Selection Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 July 2012 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=110&sid=0a16787a-494f-4b 92-aed7-ab81fa3ea8c3%40sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2 ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=75451538>.This source discussed how serotonin effects people with ASD disorders. It talked about an experiment with mice that showedhow serotonin caused Autism symptoms in the mice.
  • 14. Bibliography continuedRitvo, Edward . Understanding the Nature of Autism and Aspergers Disorder Forty Years of Clinical Practice and Pioneering Research.. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2005. Print.This book offered some information on ASD disorders in general. It also had a lot of studies that this manHad done and personal cases he had dealt with.Rodriguez, Ana Maria. Autism spectrum disorders. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2011. Print.This book was the most recent one so it had the best information in it. There were many different explanationsof ASD and the disorders involved with it.