Adhd
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    Adhd Adhd Presentation Transcript

    • By Rachel Cane
      • ADHD is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
      • This can affect children or adults, but is most commonly found in children 4-16 years old.
      • Diagnosing ADHD has become much more common in the last ten to fifteen years.
      • Those with ADHD were previously thought to develop the same as those without, just slower
      • New research suggests this may not be true.
    • If the video does not load, please view it at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgCL79Jv0lc A video from NIMH (Nation Institute of Mental Health) entitled “ADHD: Signs, Symptoms, and Research”
      • Lack of focus
      • Random outbursts
      • Constant boredom
      • Does not seem to listen
      • Fidgeting
      • Forgetful
      • Disorganized
      • 1. Various Authors. Disorders of the Brain: A Guide to Mental Illnesses . Master Resell Rights. E-Book Ventures. Published for e-books 2011.
      • ADHD can be linked to many different parts of the brain, and there are many theories about how different brain structures and chemistries may be altering the “normal” behavior to that of the child with the disorder. We will briefly examine the thalamus and pulvinar nuclei, and how they are changed in those with ADHD.
      • The thalamus is part of a system that regulates functional control over reactions.
      • “ Abnormal activation” can cause symptoms that show up as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. 1
      • Trauma can also produce ADHD symptoms that can be “cured”, which indicates that ADHD is a brain disorder rather than defect.
      • 1. Ivanov, Iliyan et al. American Journal of Psychiatry Issue 167:4. April 2010.
      • A study was done using MRI views of the thalamus using children with and without ADHD
      • Those with ADHD had less surface volume on all surfaces of the thalamus.
      • Those with ADHD who were medicated showed larger surface volume, approaching the control group’s amount of surface volume.
      • Here is an example of the scans done by Dr. Ivanov and his team to determine thalamus surface volume. The purple areas are reduced surface volumes, and the yellow to red areas are increased surface volumes.
      Unmedicated Medicated
      • The pulvinar nucleus is a part of the thalamus
      • It sends information to the frontal and parietal association cortices, which support attention 1
      • It also connects with parts of the amygdala and limbic systems- the thalamolimbic network
      • Disturbance can interfere with emotional skills
      • Differences in volume can also effect change 2
      • 1. Ivanov, Iliyan et al. American Journal of Psychiatry Issue 167:4. April 2010.
      • 2. Shaw, Philip. American Journal of Psychiatry Issue 167:4. April 2010.
      • It was found that increased volumes of the right pulvinar correlated to inattention
      • Decreased volumes in more lateral thalamic nuclei bespoke severe hyperactivity
      • Those with ADHD who were medicated tended to have pulvinar nuclei nearly identical to those without ADHD.
      • It can be concluded from these various studies that ADHD is clearly linked to variances in brain structures. Decreased thalamus surface volume, volume of pulvinar nuclei, and many other differences contribute to ADHD. It remains to be seen how this new information will alter the treatment of ADHD in children, or if the current stimulant treatment is already the most effective.
    • Time to increase the surface volume of your thalamus, Johnny!
    • 1. Hale, T. Sigi et al. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878884/?tool=pmcentrez . Published online 2009 December 16. Journal of Psychiatric Research. “ ADHD Familial Loading and Abnormal EEG Alpha Asymmetry in Children with ADHD” Study of abnormal brain laterality in persons with ADHD. EEG waves were studied to determine if one side of the brain was being used over another, with rightward asymmetry being most common. Found that children with ADHD tended to have more firing in the parietal region of the right side of their brain. This is not known to cause the ADHD, just to be a result of the condition. 2. Ivanov, Iliyan et al. American Journal of Psychiatry Issue 167:4. April 2010. “ Morphological Abnormalities of the Thalamus in Youths with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” The study illustrated that increased hyperactivity scores were accompanied by smaller regional volumes on the thalamus (lateral surface) and that scores of inattentiveness were paired with larger regional volumes on the thalamus (medial surface). It is hypothesized that the thalamus affects more than was previously known in the child with ADHD.
    • 3. Klein, Rachel G. American Journal of Psychiatry Issue 168:2. February 2011. “ Thinning of the Cerebral Cortex During Development: A Dimension of ADHD” Many of the defining clinical signs of psychiatric disorders also occur in normally developing children. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant cortical thinning could be shown in children with ADHD vs those without the disorder. It was seen that cortical thinning was present, as well as reductions of total brain volume. 4. Shaw, Philip. American Journal of Psychiatry Issue 167:4. April 2010. “ The Shape of Things to Come in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” This study found that children with ADHD had volume loss in the pulvinar nuclei, which link action and vision.
    • 5. Various Authors. Disorders of the Brain: A Guide to Mental Illnesses . Master Resell Rights. E-Book Ventures. Published for e-books 2011. “ Auditory Processing Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)” A general overview of treatment and symptoms of ADHD, particularly to be used for diagnosing the disorder. 6. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgCL79Jv0lc . September 10, 2010. Posted on YouTube.com. “ ADHD: Signs, Symptoms, Research” A video that gives a brief overview of some symptoms of ADHD, and goes over some research into brain function that NIMH has recently done.