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  1. 2. Subtypes of ADHD <ul><li>Inattentive: Children who have been diagnosed with the inattentive ADHD tend to get bored with activities that they do not really enjoy rather quickly. They tend to be easily distracted and tend to make many mistakes. This children are forgetful, have a hard time following directions, and skip from one activity to another without finishing the first activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactive/impulsive : Children who have been diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive ADHD are children who seen not always be in motion. These are the children who are moving around, touching and playing with whatever is near them. Hyperactive/impulsive children tend to blurt out comments or answers before thinking first. They find it difficult to wait in line or take turns. </li></ul><ul><li>Combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive: Children who have been diagnosed with both Inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>(1) </li></ul>
  2. 3. Interesting facts about ADHD <ul><li>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopment disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD affects about 4-6% of children worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>There have been a number of studies of visual attention in children with ADHD that have reported that children are poorer at attending to, or slower to act upon. </li></ul><ul><li>The phenomenon of the left spatial inattention have been seen in people with ADHD who have had damage done to the right hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric attention performance in children with ADHD have shown to be consistent with a large body of structural and functional imaging in areas of the right hemisphere. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD was first believed to be cause by neurological damage. To a disorder that might be inherited by a parent. </li></ul>
  3. 4. How it affects the brain <ul><li>http :// </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>In children and adults with ADHD there is an increased amount of dopamine transporters involving reduced extracellular dopamine levels and decrease dopaminergic activity (4) </li></ul>(2)
  4. 5. <ul><li>The etiology of ADHD are neurological deficits . These deficits can vary in degree depending a child’s ability to </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine the out comes of their behavior choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain motivational states </li></ul><ul><li>To develop and act out a plan to reach their goal </li></ul><ul><li>To stay focus on one task </li></ul><ul><li>Organize thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate emotions </li></ul>Children with ADHD tend to seek out high levels of stimulation to compensate for the underactive central nervous systems. This stimulation seeking can lead to reckless driving, the use of drugs and alcohol, and addiction to video and computer games. (1) The brain regions that are underactive or smaller are concerned with the problems with thinking , reflecting, and planning .
  5. 6. A three-dimensional, high-resolution MRI image of the brain of a patient with ADHD shows regional increases in the density of gray matter. Areas in yellow and red average between 10 percent and 24 percent more gray matter than those of the average control subject. (UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging) A t hree-dimensional, high-resolution MRI image of the brain of a patient with ADHD shows reductions (in yellow and red) in the size of specific areas within the frontal and temporal lobes. (UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging) (5)
  6. 7. Treatment <ul><li>Treatments are continuously being revised. This is done to increase the quality of life, and taking into account of the safety of the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy with central nervous stimulants or CNS are the most widely used. </li></ul><ul><li>The most frequently used is methylphenidate. This stimulant produced an important elevation of the extracellular dopamine level. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Treatment continued (Stimulants) <ul><li>Methylphenidate is the most frequently prescribe drug for children. The Oral administration may become addictive. </li></ul><ul><li>Dextroamphetamine is another stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. It enters the nerve termination possibly through the transporters, and releases vesicular dopamine and inhibiting dopamine and noradrenaline. Some mild side effects include: anorexy, insomnia,and a headache </li></ul>
  8. 9. Non-Stimulants <ul><li>Tricyclic antidepressants represents a possible alternative to CNS therapy. The most frequently used are inipramine, desipramine,amitriptyline and nortiptyline. </li></ul><ul><li>These show a series of side effects like blood dyscrasias, dizziness, somnolane, sedation,confusion, delirium, dysrhythmais, reduction of the threshold for convulsion, cholestasis, renal failure, respiratory insufficiency. Because of this these drugs are second in line for treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant. This drugs shows a multiple drug interactions this is due to the metabolism by the cytochrome. The side effects are fever, thoracic pain, sight disturbances, convulsions, insomnia, tremor, headache, vertigo, confusion, anxiety, depression, and aggressiveness </li></ul>(4)
  9. 10. Table of medications used with children with ADHD Methylphenidate Based Amphetamine Based (1)
  10. 11. Resources <ul><li>Book </li></ul><ul><li>1. Silverman, Stephan M.,Ph.D, Iseman, Jacqueline S. Ph. D, and Jeweler, Sue. School Success for Kids with ADHD. Texas: Prufrock Press Inc, 2009.Pint </li></ul><ul><li>A Book about ADHD that has up to date information on ADHD. It has techniques for success in school. This book talks about some research on the disorder to help the child’s parent to have more knowledge on the disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>2. http :// </li></ul><ul><li>Is where I found the video on ADHD and the brain. This video is about how ADHD effects the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer reviewed article </li></ul><ul><li>3. Chan, Edgar, Mattingley, Jason B., Huang-Pollock, Cynthia, English, Therese, Hester, Robert, Vance, Alasdair, and Bellgrove. “Abnormal spatial asymmetry of selective attention in ADHD” Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry; Sep 2009, vol. %0 Issue 9, p 1064-1072 </li></ul><ul><li>Peer reviewed article </li></ul><ul><li>4. Zsigmond, Major Zoltan and Benga, Ileana. “Treatment Options In ADHD.” Clujul Medical; Dec 2009, Vol 82 Issue 4, p 484-487 </li></ul><ul><li>This article is about different types of medication that is used to treat ADHD and the side effects that they might have. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rosack,Jim.” Brain Scans Reveal Physiology of ADHD.” Psychiatric News January 2, 2004 .Volume 39 Number 1 Page 26.  American Psychiatric Association </li></ul><ul><li>This article is about how brain scans can reveal physiology of ADHD. </li></ul>