Industrial Wireless Communication

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What can wireless do for you? (Phoenix Contact) Drive for Technology 2010

What can wireless do for you? (Phoenix Contact) Drive for Technology 2010

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  • 1. Welcome to PHOENIX CONTACT What can wireless do for you? Stewart Wilson Project Engineer Central Region 815-274-5049
  • 2. Agenda  Why Use Wireless?  What Is Wireless?  License vs. Unlicensed  Spread Spectrum  Public vs. Proprietary  ISM Bands  Wi-Fi  900 MHz Proprietary  UHF Radios  GSM/GPRS Cell Phone  Antennas & accessories  Installation design & System best practices 2 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 3. Why wireless? It can solve application challenges 3 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 4. Why wireless? When logistics and terrain make wired solutions impractical or cost effective. 4 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 5. Using Wireless in Industrial Applications  Wireless has become a standard in everyday life  Commercially, for convenience  Industrially, to solve problems 5 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 6. Using Wireless in Industrial Applications  Wireless has become a standard in everyday life  Commercially, for convenience  Industrially, to solve problems  Developments in industrial wireless are accelerating very rapidly  New technologies are in development  Standards are being created specifically for industry 6 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 7. RF Radios control the roof on the new Dallas Cowboys Stadium 7 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 8. Perimeter Surveillance Application Waste Water Treatment Plant (WTP) 8 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 9. Benefits of Wireless in Industrial Applications  Lower installation costs (than wired solutions)  Labor savings  Permits and delays  Material cost  Faster installation vs. traditional cabling Reduced down times  More application flexibility 9 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 10. Consider Wireless Technology for today’s industrial challenges Cost $40000 Cost of Wires + Installation can = $10 to $1000+ / foot $10000 $1325 1000 ft 1 mile Distance 10 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 11. What Makes Wireless Technology Industrial?  Reliability  Must be as reliable / more reliable than wire?  Latency appropriate for application.  Security  Prevent malicious use from intruders  Prevent malicious jamming of frequencies  Rugged  Easy setup and installation.  Able to operate in an industrial environment. 11 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 12. FCC Operating Guidelines Trunked and Low Band 25-50 MHz Conventional 800 MHz Mid Band 66-88 MHz Cellular 800/900 MHz 72-76 MHz (in USA) Spread Spectrum 902/928 MHz VHF Band 132-150 MHz 2400-2483.5 GHz 5725- 150-174 MHz 5850 GHz 928/952 MHz 900 MHz Pt to Pt (932941 MHz) 220 Band 220-225 MHz (220-222 MHz) 960 MHz 960 MHz Pt to Pt UHF Band 406-430 MHz Pt to Pt Microwave 2000 MHz 450-470 MHz PCN Networks (2 GHz) 470-512 MHz 12 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 13. Radio Frequencies have many applications: Most Industrial radio modems use UHF VLF very low frequency LF frequencies for long and some VHF low frequency range data communications MF multi frequency e.g. for supervision and control of power distribution networks and other SCADA and automation applications. HF high frequency MoIndustrial Devices work m VHF very high frequency UHF ultra high frequency SHF super high frequency EHF extremely high frequency 14 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 14. Industrial Wireless Communication Solutions (Application Space Matrix) Mbps 100’s of ft 802.11 (a, b, g etc) 802.11 (a, b, g etc) Data Rate Distance Remote UHF Miles Kbps transmitters UHF Proprietary Wi-Fi standards UHF Wireless wireless 802.11 (a, b, g etc) 15 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 15. Consider Wireless Technology Wireless Options Licensed RF: Uses a high power radio frequency transmitter to send data through the air  License-free RF: Uses a low power radio frequency transmitter to send data through the air 16 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 16. Licensed vs. Unlicensed Licensed Unlicensed Requires user to purchase a license No license required Very low to no interference Much more interference Very low thru-put when interference Little effect on thru-put with low occurs amounts of interference Higher power can be used this can Does not allow for high power result in greater distances transmissions 17 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 17. ISM Bands - Industrial, Scientific and Medical 900MHz 900MHz Advantages: vs. • More robust, less prone to interference 2.4GHz • Lower attenuation, travels further through more obstacles vs. Disadvantages: 5GHz • Low bandwidth prevents large data transfer, speed • Components are larger at lower frequencies 2.4GHz Advantages: 5GHz • Higher bandwidth allows large data Advantages: transfer, speed • Higher bandwidth allows large data transfer, • Components are smaller, cheaper speed Disadvantages: • Less congested, few RF devices in this band • Congested band due to abundance of Wi- Disadvantages: Fi, Bluetooth, microwaves, cordless phones • Low transmit power limitations • Attenuates much more quickly, will not • High attenuation in cables, requires very high pass through metal gain antennas 18 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 18. ISM Frequency Bands (in North America)  Lower Frequencies:  propagate further  penetrate objects better  2.4GHz: 900MHz  used by microwave ovens (rain fade issues)  is license free around the world 2.4GHz  congested band  higher throughput  5.8GHz 5.8GHz  brand new ISM band  low transmit power allowed 19 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 19. Industrial Wireless Usage  Users have more options 802.15.4 Based Frequency: 2.4GHz Speed: 250kbps Range: <30m for wireless technology Proprietary Frequency: 900MHz/2.4GHz and product features than Speed: Varies, <1Mbps Range: Varies, <20km ever before Licensed Frequency: 100-400MHz Speed: Varies, <19.2kbps Range: +20km  ”Which one for what GSM/GPRS Frequency: purpose?” 850/900/1800/1900MHz Speed: 250kbps Range: <30m Bluetooth Frequency: 2.4GHz Speed: 1Mbps Range: <100m WiFi (802.11a/b/g) Frequency: 2.4/5GHz Speed: 54Mbps Range: 100m Enterprise Analog Digital Ethernet Network Ethernet SCADA Serial Network Data I/O 20 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 20. Wireless Fundamentals This is faster? ….. but is it better? 21 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 21. Wireless Fundamentals: …. this may be (better)? Faster ..Yes ! 22 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 22. The Energy per Bit Equation TX Power Eb = Baud Rate We can “conceptually” show how E/Bit affects how far different radios will “go” in an industrial setting. 1 Watt TX 1 Watt TX 9600bps > 115kbps d d Typical Spread Spectrum I/O radio compared to a higher speed SCADA radio with same transmit power 24 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 23. ISM License Free Spread Spectrum Rules Manufacturer gets FCC approval – not you! FCC Rules for Part 15.247 Doesn’t cause interference Live and function with interference Part 15 gets recognition by FCC Operates in 900, 2400, 5800 MHz bands Military technology applied to industrial, commercial, and consumer application 25 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 24. What is Spread Spectrum A method of transmitting a signal by "spreading" it over a broad range of frequencies much wider then the minimum bandwidth needed to transmit Benefits Reduces power needed to transmit information Increases transmit speed Can allow multiple networks to exits Reduces the effect of interference 26 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 25. Remember, Spread Spectrum radios come in “two flavors.” • Uses wide RF band DSSS • Typically moves many bits per second Direct Sequence (802.11 WLAN Ethernet radios move many Spread Spectrum bits per second) • Uses narrow RF band FHSS • Typically moves fewer bits per second Frequency Hopping (Wireless Interface devices moving small Spread Spectrum packets of I/O data move very few bits per second) How do these characteristics affect Energy per Bit and distance? 27 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 26. Industrial/Scientific/Medical (ISM) Radio Bands – License Free • License Free (FCC part 15) • 1 watt power max • 900MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz bands ..but ISM demands the use of one of the Spread Spectrum Technologies • Direct Sequence • Frequency Hopping • OFDM 28 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 27. Direct Sequencing Spread Spectrum - DSSS BANDWIDTH DIRECT SEQUENCE RF BACKGROUND POWER NOISE FREQUENCY 29 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 28. The Direct Sequencing - Physics of Spread and De-spreading Data Signal Strength Signal Strength Frequency DATA DATA Data Bit SPREAD DE-SPREAD DATA DATA Same Code Word DS Code DS Code 15, 63 or 127 “chips” long Transmitter Receiver 30 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 29. The Direct Sequence & Interference 1 Watt Interference Transmit Power (Watts) 1 Watt of power “spread” across wide bandwidth 0 Watt 902MHz 928MHz Bandwidth (MHz) 31 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 30. FHSS Wireless I/O Proprietary Wireless  Inherently Secure  Only known by the manufacture  Designed for specific applications  I/O to I/O communication – Long distance (1,000’s of feet to miles)  Serial Data (RS-232/422/485) – Long distance (1,000’s of feet to miles)  A number of Mfgs incorporate proprietary FHSS technology:  900MHz, Bluetooth, 802.11, 802,15, etc. frequencies 32 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 31. Spread Spectrum Frequency Hopping Frequency Hopping Concentrates power in Hopping in pseudo very narrow signal random pattern. The random pattern can be Hopping in random 100 times/sec pattern 100 times/sec BANDWIDTH FREQUENCY HOPPING WAVE DIRECT SEQUENCE RF POWER BACKGROUND NOISE FREQUENCY 33 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 32. Frequency Hopping & Interference Interference may knock an update down, but other transmissions will get through. 902MHz 928 MHz 34 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010 928 MHz
  • 33. Spread Spectrum Frequency Hopping vs. Direct Sequence Frequency Hopping Direct Sequence Concentrates power in “Slices” transmission very narrow signal into small coded bits Hopping in random Utilizes wider signal pattern 100 times/sec own application advantages. Each has it’s channel Is the need for transmitting large Data or IP BANDWIDTH Packets ? ….or simple serial and I/O signal ? FREQUENCY HOPPING WAVE DIRECT SEQUENCE RF POWER BACKGROUND NOISE FREQUENCY 35 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 34. Wireless: Performance Vs Distance - How far will it go? 36 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 35. Wireless: Performance Vs Distance - A wireless network is only as good as its weakest link ! 37 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 36. How far will industrial wireless devices go? Performance Zone - Path engineering required - Wireless conduits up to 20+ Received Signal Strength Common Sense Zone miles Performance Zone Common Sense Zone No Worry Zone - Success with experience - Wireless conduits up to 1/2 mile No Worry Zone Receiver - The “Electrician’s Territory” Threshold - Wireless conduits up to 1000 feet This is where it just works, every time, out of the box! 38 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 37. Public and Proprietary Systems  Public Standard- A governing body exists to create/certify a specification to guarantee interoperability between manufacturer’s devices  Radio “language” is known  Equipment is readily available  Encryption is the only protection  Examples: 802.11, Bluetooth, Zigbee  Proprietary System- The manufacturer controls the design so that the product will only work with other devices from that manufacturer  Non public air interface  Equipment available to “insiders”  Un-known technology is a significant barrier  Encryption helps  Examples: Phoenix RAD-ISM-900 40 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 38. Public Systems Public systems can talk to similar devices from the same manufacture Interoperability and can talk to other manufactures devices 41 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 39. Public and Proprietary Systems  Public Standard- A governing body exists to create/certify a specification to guarantee interoperability between manufacturer’s devices  Radio “language” is known  Equipment is readily available  Encryption is the only protection  Examples: 802.11, Bluetooth, Zigbee  Proprietary System- The manufacturer controls the design so that the product will only work with other devices from that manufacturer  Non public air interface  Equipment available to “insiders”  Un-known technology is a significant barrier  Encryption helps  Examples: Phoenix RAD-ISM-900 42 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 40. Proprietary Systems Other manufactures products will not work with other proprietary systems RS232 RS485 DATA (w/ I/O) 43 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 41. “TRADITIONAL” NETWORK STRUCTURE • Theproprietary radios can co-exist with other radios in a concentrated area • Hop sequences are different in every radio group • Network ID, Security ID, RF band keep networks separated 44 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 42. CELLULAR NETWORK STRUCTURE • Radios that operate on a standard (like Bluetooth) will use the same hop patterns • Each network must be physically separated • Network ID, Security ID, RF Power keep networks separated 45 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 43. 900 MHz Unlicensed Radio Types: Unidirectional & I/O  902 – 928 MHz FHSS & DSSS  1 Watt transmitter  Transmits: – 1 analog (4-20mA) – 2 digital (5-30VDC)  Factory matched pairs (transmitter/receiver)-No Programming!  600-1,000ft range out of the box  Point to point or signal splitting configurations 46 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 44. 900 MHz Unlicensed Radio Types: Bidirectional & with I/O  902 – 928 MHz FHSS & DSSS  1 Watt transmitter  Transmits (both directions): – 1 analog (4-20mA) – 2 digital (5-30VDC)  Factory matched pairs (transceivers) or custom configuration options for point to multipoint applications-No Programming!  Expandable I/O digital and analog modules and special function modules  600-1,000ft range out of the box 47 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 45. 900 MHz Unlicensed Radio Types RS232/422/485 Serial Data and I/O  902 – 928 MHz FHSS & DSSS  1 Watt transmitter Transmits RS232/422/485 Data – 1 DB9 connection – 4-pos. screw connector  Connect Expansion I/O Modules – Becomes simple wireless remote I/O – I/O points are addressable via Modbus RTU or Allen-Bradley DF1  All in one Master, Slave, Store-and-Forward Repeater  Simple Programming using GUI or Dipswitches  Programmable Sleep Mode for Solar Installations 48 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 46. UHF Radio Types: 400MHz & 900 MHz etc, etc  0.1-5W adjustable transmitter power  Transmits RS232 Data – 2x DB9 connection – 2 independent serial channels allow multiple device/protocols to be connected to 1 radio  All in one Master, Slave, Store-and- Forward Repeater  9600 and 19200bps (12.5kHz FCC) over-the-air rate  128-bit AES encryption  Simplex and half duplex modes  Simple Programming using GUI  Separate port for programming/ diagnostics 49 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 47. Wireless Ethernet (WLAN) Technology  Public standard  Multiple manufactures devices can be used together  Secure  Provided proper encryption is used (WPA2/802.11i)  Medium distance  100’s to 1000’s (+) feet  Very high speed  Ethernet type speeds up to 54Mbps 50 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 48. When to use WLAN Technology  WLAN  Does the application require high speed data access? – WLAN technology offers speeds up to 54Mbps which is ideal for applications like uploading and downloading PLC programs, data acquisition, or video surveillance.  Is connection to an existing 802.11/Wi-Fi network available? – WLAN technology is public standard meaning that multiple manufactures devices can communicate on the same wireless network. This means that an existing Cisco wireless infrastructure could be utilized for connection to plant floor devices.  Is IT concerned about security? – WLAN technology from Phoenix Contact uses the latest security standards that most IT departments require such as AES encryption over the air and 802.1x network authentication. Together this will work with most existing IT infrastructure. 51 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 49. Encryption Overview WEP - Weak key can be hacked Poor or cracked with little to no network security knowledge WPA - Based on the same encryption as Good WEP with added features like authentication. Can be hacked although it takes more time and a higher knowledge of network security WPA2 / AES - Currently the highest Best level of security available and is considered un-hackable by today's standards. 52 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 50. Ethernet Vs SCADA Ethernet  Ethernet (infrastructure)  Many nodes  Fast speeds  Large packets  Sorter distances  SCADA Ethernet  Many nodes  Slower speeds  Very small packets  Very large distances 53 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 51. Wireless Ethernet Applications  Plant Networking  Mobile Networking  Access Security Control 54 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 52. Cellular GSM/GPRS  Security  Advanced Encryption used over the air  VPN can be used to security data over the internet  Speed  Up to 14.4Kbps (GSM)  Up to 85.6Kbps (GPRS)  World wide access  Requires SIM card for operation  Monthly service charge applies 55 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 53. Cellular Industrial Radios: GSM/GPRS Quad Band Modem (850/900/1800/1900MHz)  Transmits RS232 Data – 1 DB9 connection  2 Digital Inputs (10-30VDC) – Triggers modem to dial pre-stored numbers – Send Fax or SMS  1 Digital Output (Transistor) – Trigger via SMS, local AT command or paired modem Digital Input – Reset equipment, alarm  Integrated TCP/IP stack for GPRS networks  Simple Programming using GUI or AT Commands  Wide range power supply 10-30VDC  Pre-installed SIM Card ready for service activation – USA version – Canadian version 56 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 54. GSM/GPRS GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications  GSM (Voice Network)  Talk to any device connected to the PSTN SMS  SMS  FAX  Email E-Mail  Etc. PSTN ) )) ) FAX Output * PSTN – Public Switched Telephone Network 57 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 55. GSM Communications  GSM utilizes the voice network for communications. In the United States the carriers (AT&T, Verison, Sprint, etc.) do not want you to use this network for data communications. Therefore, it has little use for SCADA and telemetry applications.  One exception is SMS (Text Messaging). SMS uses the GSM network and is a effective way to communicate alarm states from various sites. Alarm Condition Water Tower/ Pump House Alarm Alarm Control Contact 58 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 56. What else do you need  Add Antenna’s?  Add Surge protection?  Add Connections and cabling?  Add PSU/UPS?  Add Enclosure?  Helpful Resources  Tech Service  Catalogs & manuals  Online tools – Antenna selector guide – Wireless Configurator 59 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 57. Antennas Omni Semi-Parabolic Panel Parabolic Patch Yagi 60 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 58. Understanding Antennas  Antenna “gain” is not amplification of the RF signal, it is a measure of the focus of the signal  High gain antennas focus the RF signal more than low gain antennas  Different types of antennas focus the RF energy in different ways  Proper installation is crucial: Connections and mounting must be secure  Rule of thumb: The further the distance, the higher the antenna must be 61 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 59. Omni-Directional Antennas: Basic Principles  Omni-directional antennas radiate RF energy in all directions (but not equally)  The typical radiation pattern resembles a donut centered around the antenna  They can be vertically polarized or horizontally polarized  Polarization can control the direction the “donut” goes  Antenna datasheets have diagrams of Vertical the radiation pattern Top View Horizontal 62 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 60. Omni-Directional Antennas: Basic Principles  As the gain of an omni increases, typically the height of the donut decreases, and the diameter increases, allowing the RF to radiate further. Example 0dB Omni Example 3dB Omni 63 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010 Example 5dB Omni
  • 61. Best Practice: Point to Multipoint Application N S 64 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 62. Best Practice: Point to Multipoint Application N S 65 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 63. Omni-Directional Antennas: Application Clear Line ofof Sight, No Link Link Clear Line Sight, Excellent 66 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 64. Yagi-Directional Antennas: Basic Principles  Yagi-directional antennas radiate RF energy in a specific direction  The typical radiation pattern resembles the beam of a flashlight Vertical  They can be vertically polarized or horizontally polarized  Polarization can provide separation of two RF signals  Antenna datasheets have diagrams of Horizontal the radiation pattern 67 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 65. Yagi-Directional Antennas: Basic Principles  As the gain of a yagi increases, the beam width decreases and the signal becomes more focused to radiate further Example 3dB Yagi Example 6dB Yagi Example 9dB Yagi 68 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 66. Yagi-Directional Antennas: Application No Line of Sight, No Link Partial Line of Sight, Poor Link 69 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010 Full Line of Sight, Excellent Link
  • 67. Yagi-Directional Antennas: Application No Line of Sight, Good Link No Line of Sight, Excellent Link 70 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 68. What else do you need? A reliable, consistent power: A reliable, consistent power source ? Solar Power “Generators • Cost savings vs. power company • Designed for any location • Application Approvals 71 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 69. Selection Matrix PHOENIX CONTACT SOLAR INSOLATION ZONE SIS A B C D E SOLAR INTERFACE SYSTEMS SYSTEM PRODUCTION IN AMPHOURS/DAY 12 VOLT SYSTEMS SIS-12/40 9.7 7.7 5.8 3.8 1.9 SIS-24/20 2.4 1.9 1.5 0.7 0.5 24 VOLT SYSTEMS **SIS-24/40 7.5 6.0 4.5 3.0 1.5 SIS-24/80 9.7 7.7 5.8 3.8 1.9 **Note: The 24volt, 40W systems have been reduced by 20% due to the ineffiecencies of the voltage convertor. ZONE A = 5+ kWh/D, ZONE B = 4 kWh/D ZONE C = 3 kWh/D, ZONE D = 2 kWh/D ZONE E = 1 kWh/D 72 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 70. Determining Antenna Alignment  It is important to study your environment before installing a wireless system over a large distance.  Determine the distance between sites using hand tools & Topo maps etc. A range finder can help determine shorter distances out 1500+ yds  A GPS can provide the North and West coordinates as well elevation, even compass readings 73 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 71. Understanding Antennas: The Importance of Aiming / Alignment •Moving an antenna just a few degrees can have a huge impact on signal strength, especially over long distances 74 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 72. This 1 mile 900MHz The Signal FHS failed. …. Not a could not get good practice through the installation forest of leaves This client also violated FCC rules; exceeding the 6 dB signal gain limit for this unlicensed 75 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010 frequency band
  • 73. Antennas ?.. Possibly a Well Field SCADA Site, … a wireless long range network Here a YAGI is aimed into an OMNI RF pattern. For long range linking typical setups use an OMNI at the Master, YAGIs at the slaves, - multipoint to point 76 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 74. Stealth Antenna Masts 77 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 75. Determining Antenna Alignment Height - Must increase with Range: 22 feet for 1 mile 51 feet for 5 miles 88 feet for 15 miles 78 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 76. How far will it go ??? Ethernet RAD 802.11 13 mile link 79 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 77. The Importance of Aiming  Proximity to Other Antennas – There has to be separation from other antennas  For 900MHz a 6 feet vertically or 10 feet Horizontal is the norm  Keep out of radiation path of other antennas  Reading RF strength, data transfer rates etc. at the radio is also an effective aid for positioning and aiming antennas 80 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 78. Wireless: Performance Vs Distance - A wireless network is only as good as its weakest link ! 81 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 79. Antenna Mounting Use proper mounting hardware Place away from obstructions such as buildings, metal objects and dense foliage Align polarization (vertical most common) Cross-polarization can cause signal loss of 20 dB or more 82 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 80. Feed Line Loss Chart 900 MHz Radio Systems (per 100 ft) Attenuation Choice of feed line depends on: Cable Type (dB) length required to reach antenna RG-58 16 amount of signal loss tolerable LMR-195 11.1 cost considerations RG-142 9.2 RG-213 7.6 Using the wrong cable can reduce efficiency Longer distance = low-loss cable LMR-240 7.6 recommended LMR-400 3.9 Shorter distance = less efficient cable is acceptable LMR-600 2.5 83 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 81. A Trusted System has quality components and quality terminations Your system will perform only as good as it’s weakest link. Here the contractor chose to cut and trace this coax through an under sized conduit. His field termination failed at the antenna 84 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 82. The Importance for Surge Protection & grounding / bonding A best practice discussion PTZ camera 85 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 83. The importance for grounding & surge protection best practices RT U 86 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 84. Applications Different applications have different requirements  Things to consider  How far does the signal need to go? – Feet, Miles, Country, World  What is the density of the nodes? – Remote, Dense  What update times are required? – Days, Hours, Minuets, Seconds, Milliseconds  What type of data will be communicated? – I/O, Serial, Kbps, Mbps, Gbps  Is power available? – Hardwired, Battery, Solar 87 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 85. Path Study Process Path Software Studies 88 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 86. Site Selection Protect the radio from harsh exposure Provide a source of adequate & stable power Contain suitable entrances for antenna and required cabling Select Antenna locations that provides an unobstructed transmission path in the direction of the associated remote(s) 89 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 87. 900MHz Wireless Serial/IO Applications  Eliminate Sensor Wire (Wire-In, Wire-Out)  Monitoring and Controlling Simple IO  PLC to PLC IO communications Need Tank levels and Control Station Pump control 90 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 88. Wireless IO Scenarios Long Distance Wireless IO Analog (Out) 3 Miles Analog (In) Higher transmission power Wireless IO through walls and obstructions 91 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 89. Application  Wireless I/O (Long Distance)  Application – An analog signal needs to be collected from a remote pumping station. Which reports the level of the water tank.  Problem – Laying cable and conduit is simply to costly. The distance was 5200’ and cable must be run under two roads. 92 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 90. Application  Long distance communications at 5200 feet  Wire in/ Wire out need 5200ft Analog (Out) Higher transmission power Analog (In) 93 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 91. Application  Wireless I/O (Short Distance)  Application – Collect data from various sensors located on machinery that will be used for predictive maintenance.  Problem – There is no easy way to wire sensors located on the machinery back to a PLC to be monitored. There are many obstructions and this is a high noise environment that does not lend well to parallel wiring. 94 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 92. Application Proprietary Wireless Solution  Make a wired sensor, wireless  Wire in/ Wire out technology can make this happen today  Radios must be wired for power or solar powered Higher transmission power 95 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 93. Application WSN Solution  Wired sensors can still be made wireless  The WSN radios will “Mesh” in small clusters  WSN radios are battery powered. No hard wiring needed.  WSN is made for short distances a Long Hall radio will be needed WSN to Higher transmission power Long Hall WSN 96 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 94. Application  Serial  Application – Tank levels must be monitored from a verity of tanks. This information must be collected by a PLC.  Problem – The tanks are spread over a vary large area and it is simply to costly to run cable and conduit to each location. 97 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 95. Application  I/O is collected at each tank, reported to the radio, Then sent too the master PLC.  This can be more reliable then wired connections as there is no worry that a trenched cable will become damaged over time. Higher transmission power 98 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 96. Application  Ethernet  Application – An existing security system has become antiquated. This system needs updated and new cameras must be installed.  Problem – The locations where new cameras must be installed are to difficult or expensive to wire for connection. 99 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 97. Application  Ethernet Cameras or Analog cameras processed with a video server can be connected to the Ethernet Radios  The video will be streamed to the master radio and can be archived or viewed at the master station High Speed Transmission 100 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 98. Application  Serial and IO  Application – The contents of trucks transporting various materials needs to be monitored for temperature, quantity, and location for quality purposes.  Problem – The trucks transport these materials around the United States and Canada. Currently a PLC is used to monitor temperature and quantity of the material although this data can only be downloaded when the truck is parked at its destination. 101 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 99. GSM/GPRS GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications  GSM (Voice Network)  Talk to any device connected to the PSTN SMS  SMS  FAX  Email E-Mail  Etc. PSTN ) )) ) FAX Output * PSTN – Public Switched Telephone Network 102 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 100. Application GSM/GPRS  Data-loggers or PLCs are used to collect and archive data  GSM/GPRS modem will provide international access to the cellular network. This allows for monitoring of the truck and its contents. Internet GPS GPRS GPS 103 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 101. Success stories San Antonio Wastewater System  Application  The San Antonio wastewater treatment plant needed visual alarm beacons and audible hours to warn of hazardous conditions  Wireless Solution  Trusted Wireless I/O Radios were used as a wireless conduit for triggering remote indicators and alarms.  ROI  SAWS quickly and easily implemented an alarm system that notifies their employees of potentially hazardous conditions. By using Trusted Wireless I/O, the company avoided the high costs of installing wire and conduit. 104 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 102. Success stories San Antonio Water System  Application  San Antonio Water System measures water usage and flow to customers. Their old SCADA system used expensive, unreliable leased-line phone subscription.  Wireless Solution  The leased-line phone system was replaced with Trusted Wireless Data Radios. This Trusted Wireless network provides real-time stream usage and flow measurements from each of the customer sites.  ROI  SAWS calculated a two-year payback in lease-line cost with the purchase of the Trusted Wireless Data Radio network. In addition, SAWS gained savings through increased reliability, and by eliminating site visits to manually record data when the leased-lines where in repair 105 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 103. 900 MHz Ethernet Applications  Remote tank monitoring (Water anything, Chemical)  SCADA (process, water towers, sewage)  Security and surveillance (non-Streaming)  Utilities (Water/Waste water, etc, etc)  Municipalities 106 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 104. Wireless Ethernet Scenario Wireless Data and IO access IO to MODBUS RTU Registers Remote PLC access for Polling and programming Remote PLC access for Polling and programming 107 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 105. WLAN Scenario High Speed Wireless Data and IO access High Speed Transmission 108 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 106. And now…. •Very Long distances - international. •Mobile applications Cellular •Challenging RF environments GSM/GPRS Technology •Ease/speed of implementation •Polled Data and event signaling for process applications. Telemetry for SCADA. •Serial data radio 109 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 107. Wireless Ethernet Applications  Plant Networking  Mobile Networking  Access Security Control 110 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 108. Monitoring and Control Point to Point Trusted Wireless ™ I/O  Typical Applications  Monitoring and controlling Tanks and Wells  Monitoring and controlling Pumping Stations Need Tank levels and Control Station Pump control 111 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 109. Trusted Wireless Data  Typical Applications  Tank Monitoring  Irrigation Systems  Pipe Line Monitoring 112 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 110. Wireless: Performance Vs Distance - A wireless network is only as good as its weakest link ! 113 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 111. Q & A 114 | Presentation | Ira Sharp | 20 April 2010
  • 112. Welcome to PHOENIX CONTACT Thank You Stewart Wilson Project Engineer Central Region 815-274-5049