Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Lee C
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Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Lee C Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Lee C Presentation Transcript

  • Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio Christina Lee BA in Psychology, 2011 1
  • Personal StatementMy interest in psychology dates back during my years in high school. Several experiencesbroaden my view towards psychology. A family member had a problem with substanceabuse and I knew nothing about this until my high school years. I never understood thereason for her behavior which increased my curiosity to want to understand the reasonsbehind her cognitive behavior. Enjoying psychology-related activities in an academic andcommunity setting I had a mindset to pursue a career in psychology. After being told of themany different fields of psychology there was one particular field I was drawn towards,clinical psychology. An important part of this field is to attend graduate school. In order toincrease my knowledge in clinical psychology I wish to further my studies in a master’sprogram at Argosy University.Other experiences involve my academic background. The knowledge that I have gainedfrom class lectures and materials as well as the research papers or topics have helped meincrease my knowledge. Wanting to help others without directing individuals to their owngoal is important. The thirst for knowledge to increase what I’ve learned has alwaysstimulated me to go on with my studies will help obtain the important goal of working as aclinical psychologist.Another experience happened when I was helping out a friend who was having problemswith her boyfriend as well as trouble at work. While she was confiding in me I felt helplesssince I have not had the opportunity of feeling how she had felt. Luckily a friend who was aclinical psychologist had given his own opinions on what may help her. The decision tofurther my studies in clinical psychology has helped me since the situation in helping outother friends when they had problems.
  • Personal Statement (Continued)In addition to my educational experience, science was another subject that I have beenfascinated with. Learning about the scientific method and applying it to psychology gain aperspective I have not known about before. At Argosy University I’ve attended sciencerelated classes to help improve my learning experiences with psychology which inreturned boarded my respect for clinical psychology.Even though I do not work in a psychology related field I feel that my job in customerservice helps me maintain a “piece at mind stage” while helping aggravated customers. Itis important to be professional as well as being ethical towards helping others. I havelearned in my current profession that arguing with another person will obtain nothing.Being positive and listening is a must in customer service and in any psychology field.Having thoroughly enjoyed my first two years at Argosy University taking classes thatinvolved diversity, own cultural experiences, humanities, sciences, statistics I have learnmuch of what is needed to move onto the next phase in life. Graduate school is importantto myself and my family. Being the youngest out of seven children and accomplishingschool is an important goal. Out of seven children only three of us were able to graduatewith our Associates Degree and two of us then moved on to graduate with a BachelorsDegree. My parents have not had the opportunity to go to schools themselves but wereable to make something out of their lives where they now live comfortably. I would like toshow them how proud they are to raise children who can accomplish their goals andprovide a life for themselves and their family. My wish to be accepted into a Mastersprogram is not only my dream but my families dream as well.
  • ResumeChristina LeeLee.C00007@gmail.com[Additional contact information available upon request]PROFILECustomer service specialist that handles customer relations, tailors service to guest needs, assures customer satisfaction and encourages repeat business.• Experience in customer service including problem solving customer needs• Experience in transferring data from paper copy to the computer• Exceptionally well organized, detail organized, and self-motivated• Very good communication skills and works well in a team settingSKILLS• Microsoft Office including Word and PowerPoint• Customer Service• Microsoft Windows 7• Problem solving• POS systemEDUCATIONArgosy University Twin CitiesEagan, MN 9/2009 – Present• BA in Psychology – in progressAnoka-Ramsey Community CollegeCoon Rapids, MN Graduated – 5/2009• Associate in Arts DegreeAnoka High SchoolAnoka, MN Graduated – 6/2004• Diploma
  • Resume (Continued)EXPERIENCEWayzata Bar and Grill “The Muni” Wayzata, MN 5/2011 – PresentServer• Perform and demonstrate excellent customer service skills• Maintain a clean and tidy workplace s well as assisting others in need of help• Great at solving customer problems or helping with any needs they may haveSakana Japanese Restaurant Wayzata, MN 1/2009 – 5/2011Server• Perform and demonstrate excellent customer service skills• Great at solving customer problems or helping with any needs they may have• Help promote advertisement and referrals of the restaurant to increase businessOsaka Japanese Steakhouse Coon Rapids, MN 8/2009 – 8/2010Server• Perform and demonstrate excellent customer service skills• Demonstrate and deliver a clear understanding of the menu• Supervise and train new employees on menus and how to greet customersStarbucks Coon Rapids, MN 4/2006 – 11/2008Shift Supervisor• Perform and demonstrate excellent customer service skills• Responsible for closing at the end of the shift as well as making sure the correct money is in the safe before leaving• Responsible for staff and training in new employees• Problem solving with customers who may have a misunderstanding with their order• Improving customer service, based on client feedback, through the development of new policies and procedures
  • ReflectionDuring my time at Argosy University I have been increasing my knowledge taught from my previous college. The professors at Argosy University have been the most helpful in answering my questions and it was an honor to be taught from them. As I have learned about psychology and all it’s glory about cognitive ability, understanding research methods, and child development I grew a vast interest into wanting to learn more. I look forward to increasing my knowledge through obtaining my masters degree and the challenges that awaits. What I have learned now may not compare to what I will learn in the future.
  • Table of Contents• Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy• Research Skills• Communication Skills: Oral and Written• Ethics and Diversity Awareness• Interpersonal Effectiveness• Foundations of Psychology• Applied Psychology
  • Cognitive Abilities and Research Skills Past work that I have accomplish that I believe addresses both cognitive abilities and research skills
  • Cognitive Abilities and Research SkillsIs Stem Cell Research Unethical?Ever since 1998, when researchers discovered that stem cells extracted from embryonic tissue could regenerateto become any type of cell, the nation has stood sharply divided on the morality of such research. When stemcells are taken from an embryo, the embryo loses its viability: it cannot become implanted into a womb ordevelop into a fetus. To knowingly damage an embryo in order to remove stem cells is, for some, equal todestroying human life. For others, who see great promise in what stem cells might do to cure illnesses such asAlzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, it is immoral not to move forward with such research (TheHastings Center, 2011). Many arguments arise over this controversy which brings me to this question, is stemcell research unethical? This paper will show the different sides to stem cell research. Embryonic stem cellresearch over the years have broaden our view on the good it may be to those whom are sick, this may outweighthe moral cost because of the background research and the years of research that has been going on.Stem cells are important to our bodies and it is important to know what stem cells are. Stem cells have the abilityto replicate into other stem cells like liver cells, skin cells, etc. Stem cells have the remarkable potential todevelop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues theyserve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as theperson or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stemcell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or abrain cell (Stem Cell Information, 2010). Stem cells have two important characteristics. First, they areunspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods ofinactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue-or organ-specific cells with special functions (Stem Cell Information, 2010). Why the importance of stem cellresearch? As stated above our stem cells are able to replicate themselves in different parts of our bodiesenabling our bodies to self heal slowly. Since scientist have noted what our stem cells are capable of doing thebig question next was if our stem cells are able to cure illnesses. Of course researchers found the answer to thatquestion and it was a yes that stem cells have the capability to cure illnesses such as Alzheimer’s andParkinson’s disease. Researchers have been taking their time to perfect the cure with the use of stem cellswhich is important than rushing in on a study or experiment.
  • Cognitive Abilities and Research Skills (Continued)There are also two different types of stem cells embryonic and adult. Adult stem cells have one main importantmission which is to repair the tissue where the adult stem cell is found. Adult stem cells can be found in manytissues and organs, including bone marrow, blood vessels and even the brain but there are more located in thebody that are not listed. Adult stem cells can divide or self-renew indefinitely, enabling them to generate a rangeof cell types from the originating organ or even regenerate the entire original organ. It is generally thought thatadult stem cells are limited in their ability to differentiate based on their tissue of origin, but there is someevidence to suggest that they can differentiate to become other cell types (MNT). Embryonic stem cells areprimitive (undifferentiated) cells derived from a 5-day preimplantation embryo that are capable of dividing withoutdifferentiating for a prolonged period in culture, and are known to develop into cells and tissues of the threeprimary germ layers (Stem Cell Information, 2010). However, when extracting embryonic stem cells, theblastocyst stage signals when to isolate stem cells by placing the "inner cell mass" of the blastocyst into a culturedish containing a nutrient-rich broth. Lacking the necessary stimulation to differentiate, they begin to divide andreplicate while maintaining their ability to become any cell type in the human body. Eventually, theseundifferentiated cells can be stimulated to create specialized cells (MNT). It is important that we distinguish thedifference between embryonic and adult stem cells. Each is important to our bodies and different from oneanother. Our bodies work in similar ways and with these cells they help build strength as well as maintaining ahealthy build. When we become sick our cells will start to heal it-self. This is why the cells in our bodies areimportant, and also how they function in our bodies should be known for future testing.
  • Cognitive Abilities and Research Skills (Continued)In the mid 1800’s the history of stem cell research had begun when researchers had discovered that some cells couldgenerate other cells. Now stem cell research is embroiled in a controversy over the use of human embryonic stem cellsfor research. In the early 1900s the first real stem cells were discovered when it was found that some cells generateblood cells (AAPI). Since the mid 1900’s the research on stem cells became more sophisticated with the technologythat was around in that time. During the 1960’s a pair of siblings were the first to have a transfer of bone marrow whichhelped researchers with their findings on what stem cells can do. From then on researchers were able to “grow” humanstem cells in their laboratories. The focus of stem cell research has basically been on bone marrow transplants adultstem cells. Such transplants were tried out in a variety of ways to mainly treat anemia and leukemia. In 1968 a bonemarrow transplant was successful in two siblings with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This opened up ahuge area of research for the medical fraternity and predictably stem cell research received a massive boost. Stemcells were discovered in human cord blood in 1978 further strengthening the belief that they may hold the key toorganogenesis. The term "Embryonic Stem Cell" was coined in 1981 by Gail Martin when a research team was able toderive mouse embryonic stem cells from an inner cell mass. It was in 1997 that cancer stem cells were discoveredwhen leukemia was shown to develop directly from a haematopoietic stem cell (Cord-blood-cells.com). Since the mid1900’s the research on stem cells have grown and developed where it has been tested. Even though there have beenfailures researchers have looked onto a positive side where they began different ways of testing and improving theirresearch.Even though stem cell research may bring new exciting ways of looking at science there are pros and cons regardingthe research. The pros and cons of stem cell research have supported those who may be against or for stem cellresearch. Controversies have risen since the new research on what stem cells can do for our bodies. The pros to helpsupport stem cell research is that stem cells do help provide future findings for treatments and cures for diseasesincluding, cancers, diabetes, MS, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and more. For scientists/researchers there are endlesspotential to learn about cell development from stem cells. Stem cell research gives an important option where anotherperson will not be sacrificed when it comes to a transplant where the person needs to lose an organ. What stem cellresearch strives to achieve is the cultivation and nurturement of stem cells, the basic cell of the body, enabling it to bereproduced to other specific parts of the body. The implications are obvious. Limbs and organs could be grown fromscratch in a lab then used in transplants or to cure illnesses (Genetic Engineering).
  • Cognitive Abilities and Research Skills (Continued)The cons include use of embryonic stem cells for research involves the destruction of blastocysts formed fromlaboratory-fertilized human eggs. For those who believe that life begins at conception, the blastocyst is a human lifeand to destroy it is unacceptable and immoral. This seems to be the only controversial issue standing in the way ofstem cell research in North America (Phillips). There are other arguments where researchers should not mess withhuman life. The money that the government is spending into this field where a lot of people feel that it’s a waste ofmoney to invest in research that may not be beneficial within a time period that it may be needed. There are many prosand cons with stem cell research and many people still have unanswered questions regarding the safety of future trials.There will always be questions regarding research that may or may not seem like the government should invest but itall comes down to reasons why the government did invest. With stem cell research, researchers had found theimportance of stem cells and how they can repair and replicate themselves. The government wouldn’t invest if it was awaste of time which is why stem cell research is important. As you have read the pros and cons of stem cell researchyou can see that the pros outweigh the cons. Also, that the pros seem to be more important than the cons that arelisted. Since the mid 1900’s researchers have been finding ways that stem cells can help our bodies. The researchcontinues with new technology to help mature the old findings and within days, months, or years cures will be foundthanks to many years of research that has been done. Researcher will further continue with new findings to help curediseases but something so big cannot happen overnight. Even though time may not be on our hands it is certainlysomething that is needed.Everyone has their opinions on stem cell research and some may find it unethical. It is important though that everyoneis educated on what stem cell research may benefit everyone in the future. One of the reasons behind the research ofstem cells is that organ donors would not have to sacrifice their organs. Nor will there be a waiting list for peopleneeding an organ. Even though there are good things about stem cell research there is always a price one has to pay.What if the patient dies after a stem cell transplant? There are many questions relating to the one stated. I believe thatresearchers are aware of what can happen but in order to figure out what they have discovered can work, it should betested. Many may not agree with testing but it is a stepping stone in order to get the final results. The primary goal is tosave lives and to cure diseases with the use of stem cells. Everyone has their questions regarding the research butover the years research has grown and changed and so it will continue to change and develop. Opinions andskepticism will always arise with new information about stem cell research or with other different research that maybenefit the human race. I believe over time opinions and skepticisms will decrease where people may have faith in ournew technologies and cures.
  • Cognitive Abilities and Research Skills (Continued) References• All About Popular Issues (AAPI). History of stem cell research. Retrieved on October 10, 2011 from http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/history-of-stem-cell-research-faq.htm• Cord-blood-cells. (n.d) History of stem cell research. Retrieved on October 13, 2011 from http://www.cord-blood-cells.com/history-of-stem-cell-research.html• Genetic Engineering. Pros and cons of stem cell research. Retrieved on October 10, 2011 from http://bootstrike.com/Genetics/StemCells/proandcon.php• Phillips, T. (n.d.). Pros and cons of stem cell research. Retrieved on September 25, 2011 from http://biotech.about.com/od/bioethics/i/issuestemcells_2.htm• Medical News Today (MNT). (n.d). What are stem cells? Retrieved on October 14, 2011 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/stem_cell/• Stem Cell Basics (2010): Introduction . In Stem Cell Information. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 [cited Monday, October 10, 2011] Available at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics1• Stem Cell Basics (2010): What are the similarities and differences between embryonic and adult stem cells? . In Stem Cell Information. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011 [cited Monday, October 10, 2011] Available at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics5• The Hastings Center (2011) Stem Cells. Retrieved on October 10, 2011 from http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Issues/Default.aspx?v=260
  • Communication Skills, Ethics and DiversityAwareness, and Interpersonal Effectiveness Past work that I have accomplish that I believe addresses communication skills, ethics and diversity awareness, and interpersonal effectiveness.
  • Communication Skills, Ethics and Diversity Awareness, and Interpersonal EffectivenessThe American DreamThe American dream has a different meaning for everyone, mine is to make my parents proud of theirdaughter by accomplishing school and obtaining a good job. My parents had a hard time growing up inVietnam; my mother who is Chinese was an orphan and an only child. As my mother grew up she wouldbaby sit and do chores for this family who would treat her with abuse both physically and mentally. It wasdifficult to listen to her story without feeling sad for what she went through as she was growing up in thatfamily. My mother does not know about her mother’s background and does not mention her fatherbecause she does not know who he is. I had the opportunity to visit Vietnam and also visit the family thatmy mother had worked for. My mother was very happy to show off how well she has been living and thefamily she has raised. I believe her American dream had come true.My father who is Vietnamese grew up without parents and it was his older siblings who have brought himup. His parents were decease when he was at a young age and barely remembers them. Unlike mymother my dad had a small family which grew into a one large family. My father and mother both came tothe USA by boat during the 1965 after the Vietnam War and were granted their citizenship. They thenstarted their lives in Minnesota where they had their own family. My parents have gone through toughtimes learning English, finding jobs, and starting their lives in a foreign place. I’m very happy for them andI also look up to them for what hardships they have gone through, but they have made a name forthemselves and now own more than they could ever imagine.My parents have introduced me to traditions like Chinese/Vietnamese New Year which are important toour culture. Each year we spend Chinese/Vietnamese New Year together praying for our decease lovedones. We have a spread of vegetarian dishes for a few days that we lay out on our dining room table forthe decease. We lay out three place settings for my grandparents on my father’s side and my grandmaon my mom’s side. Prunus mume trees are normal decorations to have during New Year. Little redenvelopes are given out to children by elders. The amount can be anywhere from one dollar to fewhundred. These are normally hung on the prunus mume tree.
  • Communication Skills, Ethics and Diversity Awareness, and Interpersonal Effectiveness (Continued)During the New Year grown children buy their elders ginger type of candy that is available duringNew Year. This is normally shared on the table along side of the vegetarian dishes that are laidout. In Vietnam there is a huge ceremony that happens where people gather to watch a dragondance as well as other type of dances. This is one of the most important times of the year whereeveryone gathers. Donations are usually given to Temples which are normally filled with villagers.Temples are usually busy during the New Year since the villagers gather to pray for their lovedones. There are normally quiet a few temples around one area in Vietnam and I remember it beingso beautiful with large statues of Buddha. My parents personally have about three Buddha statuesin their home and in our cars to help protect us from harm. I really do love learning about myculture but am sad that I haven’t had time to visit the historical center to learn more about myparents dates when they came to the US. I will plan a trip in the future and am excited to learnmore. This class has taught me so much about my own culture. My own culture will help meaccomplish the American dream. To be able to accomplish something as a minority may helpothers find their passion and their dream.
  • Foundations of the Field and Applied Psychology Past work that I have accomplish that I believeaddresses both foundations of the field and applied psychology.
  • Foundations of the Field and Applied PsychologyThe influence of the media (internet, television, magazines, billboards, etc) has on body image and behavior.The media has always had their influences on each individual, whether it’s to buy/purchase something on andinfomercial or to lose weight because of the advertisements of women and men whom are fit and thin. I’ve hadmy own share of stories of how I felt with the media when I was in middle school. It’s important to find studiesthat link media influences to adolescent and adults. The behavior that coincides with the media and peerinfluences can become drastic at times. The pressure of wanting to be able to fit into the popular crowd atschool or to look like a celebrity or model is something we want to become. The unimaginable thing’s anindividual may do to obtain their goals is confusing and dangerous. What may be even more outrageous is thatour peers are the ones to influence us to do these things.I’ve summed up the literature findings by the references and breaking them down one by one. Their strengthsand weaknesses to each article and how useful they are to my important topic. It is helpful to see what eacharticle is about and how they may be useful towards the paper topic. There are strengths and weaknesses toall articles regarding my topic and they are different and similar in ways. In this article, “Appearance Culture inNine- to 12-Year-Old Girls: Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction” by, Clark it informs the readerabout a study done on girls between the ages of nine to twelve who may or may not have been influence bythe media on body dissatisfaction. There were 100 girls in the study whom completed a questionnaire onmeasures of media exposure (television, magazines, etc), peer influences, internalization and bodydissatisfaction. The strengths to this article are that a study was done just on girls to obtain answers on howimportant appearance is in a young girl’s life. To be exposed to the media with pictures of thin girls andmessages about being sexy. The weakness is that there isnt more information on the outcome of the study.The article focuses on the study itself but the outcome isnt in depth. Another weakness is that since it is astudy on only girls it may make it difficult to find a study done on the same age range on boys. From what Iveknown about the media and the influence it may have on younger boys and girls is that it has a deep impact.Peers may look down on someone because of their fashion or weight which becomes a problem since themedia portrays thin and fit people.
  • Foundations of the Field and Applied Psychology (Continued)As I began reading the article by Dohnt and Tiggemann, “The contribution of peer and media influences to thedevelopment of body satisfaction and self-esteem in young girls: A prospective study” I already see differentimportant parts that will be useful towards my paper that other articles do not have. Strengths regarding thisarticle are the study used on girls around six years old. The dissatisfaction with their bodies and the attemptto diet as young as six. The role of parents in these studies and their affection towards their children.Weaknesses are that it does overlap a bit with other articles but the strength outweighs the weaknesses.There are similar points that this article and other article use which can be a negative and positive thing. Thepositive is that we know the article is true in what they are saying. The negative is that there isnt any newinformation to use. I believe this article supports the first article that Ive talked about but uses an earlier agegroup. The general sociocultural model assumes that media and peer influences are causal in thedevelopment of body dissatisfaction. In adolescent samples, a few longitudinal studies have identified someprospective relationships between peer (e.g., Jones, 2004) and media influences (e.g., Ricciardelli &McCabe, 2003) with body image variables, although the majority of the literature provides only cross-sectional evidence (Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2006).Ferguson, Colwell, Mlacic, Milas and Miklousic are all authors of, “Personality and media influences onviolence and depression in a cross-national sample of young adults: Data from mexican-americans, englishand Croatians.” There has always been the issue of potential media effects on psychological health of youthand young adults which has been debated for decades. Research on media effects has not always beenconsistent. One issue that has been raised regards whether the relatively modest media effects found insome research might be explained through mediating personality variables (Ferguson, Colwell, Mlacic, Milas& Miklousic, 2011). The media always has some influences to our personalities. Wanting to become thinner,look younger or become fit. There are quite a few strengths to this article which is that there is a different viewand by that there is a different intake of the article that looks towards our personality on media and behavior.The weakness is the sample they used in their study, Americans, Croatians, and Mexican-Americans. Thesample doesnt make sense and I dont understand why the authors would choose these different samples.
  • Foundations of the Field and Applied Psychology (Continued)Ferguson, Winegard and Winegard are authors of, “Who is the fairest one of all? howevolution guides peer and media influences on female body dissatisfaction.” Body dissatisfaction, particularlyamong women, has caused concern among scientists and policymakers for several decades. In Westernsocieties, approximately 40%–50% of women express some level of body dissatisfaction. (e.g., Bearman,Presnell, & Martinez, 2006; Monteath & McCabe, 1997). Some researchers contend that this dissatisfactionmay be an important factor in the onset of eating disorders and therefore that body dissatisfaction is adangerous and potentially debilitating psychological phenomenon (Stice & Shaw, 2002). Media images of“ideal” women who are unnaturally thin have been targeted by researchers as a possible cause orcontributing factor of widespread body dissatisfaction (Ferguson, Winegard & Winegard, 2011). Again ourproblem remains the same about boys and girls and our satisfaction with our body. The age range in thisarticle has expanded from young to adult women. The strengths with this article are that the study looks at awide range of women rather than younger girls. The controversy that deals with the media and body image isthe main focus which is great. The weakness is that some information does overlap with other articles that Ihave listed as references.This article, “The influence of the mass media on relational aggression among females: A feminist counselingperspective” by Goldberg, Smith-Adcock and Dixon is different from the other ones, the focus is towardsaggressive behavior girls and women may have if influenced by the mass media. The knowledge that manyof us may have learned over the years about media and behaviors associated with it has impacted youngergirls, boys and now adults to commit aggression towards family and friends because of media influences. Thearticle has a contrasting theme while the other articles have a supporting theme. The article has a differentpoint of view from the other articles. The strength is the behaviors of aggression girls and women may havebecause of media influence. Weakness I dont believe this article has any.
  • Foundations of the Field and Applied Psychology (Continued)Another article, “A conceptual framework for examining adolescent identity, mediainfluence, and social development” states the importance of trying to find similarities in media influence onadolescent development have been researched for quite some time. The adolescent identity, media, andsociocognitive schema (AIMSS) framework offers a theoretical understanding of adolescent consumption andcognitive processing of media entertainment (Lloyd, 2002). The author Lloyd, states some very usefulinformation on finding a connection between adolescent development and the media. Unlike the other articlesthe focus is about development. The downside to the article that it does seem to have similarities to otherarticles listed. Body image and behavior is important and linking the two is what this article is talking about.Eating disorders are highly among children whom feel they are unattractive because of media influences andpeers. McNicholas the author of, “Eating concerns and media influences in an Irish adolescent context” talksabout the key importance of his findings. A study was done on students and parents whom volunteered. Aquestionnaire was also done and the results concluded that men and women seem to be affected by the mediawhich connected to eating disorders. The difference between adolescents and adults and their results concludewho may have more of a difficult time with media influences and peers. The weakness to this article is that theexperiment was on Irish adolescent and adults. Even though everywhere there are young girls and boys whoare having difficulties with their bodies and with their peers because of these media influences I feel that astudy should have been opened up to more than just Irish adolescents and adults. Strengths regarding to thisarticle is the study that was done. The experiment did not just focus on children but adults as well.Nikkelen, Anschutz, Ha, and Engels have one of the important articles, “Influence of visual attention on malebody dissatisfaction after idealized media exposure”. The present study examined the moderating effect ofmens visual attention toward male images on the relationship between idealized media exposure and bodydissatisfaction. Of particular interest was mens visual attention to the abdomens and upper bodies of maleimages (Nikkelen, Anschutz, Ha &Engels, 2011). Unlike the other articles this one is focused more on maleswhile the other articles focused on either females or both males and females. It was difficult to find researcharticles on males and media influences. This article uses a study as well on fifty male college students and theirfeelings towards media influences. I don’t believe there is any weakness to this article. The information is usefuland doesn’t relate to other articles.
  • Foundations of the Field and Applied Psychology (Continued)To sum everything, peer pressure is a part of our lives. We have all experienced it sometime in our liveswhether it is in grad, middle, high school or even while at work or out with friends. Peer pressure hasinfluenced everyone in different ways, sometimes it can be a positive or negative effect. The media can alsobe another influence towards our satisfaction with our bodies and behavior. Wanting to become beautiful or tobe thin/fit it’s all hard on everyone. We are all more obsessed with our appearance than we like to admit. Butthis is not an indication of vanity. Vanity means conceit, excessive pride in ones appearance. Concern aboutappearance is quite normal and understandable. Attractive people have distinct advantages in our society(Fox, 1997). The articles found provide studies and experiments that are helpful in determining statistics onyoung boys, girls and also adults whom may be dissatisfied with their bodies. Also, there are correlationsbetween the media influence, peer pressure and body dissatisfaction.Prevailing arguments that may be mentioned would be the affect peer pressure may have and would take alarger toll on an individual than the media. Younger girls and boys are easily influenced by peer pressure. Asstated above attractive boys and girls have distinct advantages in our society which can be troubling forothers. Future research questions to ask is how schools and any clubs are doing in helping promote equalityand friendship. Are parents at home helping their child with self-esteem as well as schools?Why is it important that the influence of the media and peers (internet, television, magazines, billboards, etc)have on body image and behavior? We often pretend to be someone whom we are not. Everyone wants to fitin which means doing drastic things in order to become attractive. It is important to talk to schools andinfluence the children to accept everyone no matter their size, ethnicity, or attractiveness. Acceptance is oneof the largest problems that schools have and it is important to address this concern. Everyone knows thatthe media and peers have influence in any individual when it comes to body dissatisfaction and behavior. Ibelieve teachers tend to put this behind them and focus on teaching children about current topics. I knowsomeone who is going through a hard time with body dissatisfaction and they are a high school student. Theirmajor influence is our peers which is difficult because these are our friends. My argument is stated above andrelevant to my topic, schools need to take part in acceptance or possibly try harder in making children’s self-esteems high. The largest concern is peers and their affect towards any individual who may be experiencingbody dissatisfaction.
  • Foundations of the Field and Applied Psychology (Continued) Reference• Clark, L. (2006). Appearance Culture in Nine- to 12-Year-Old Girls: Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction. Social Development, 15(4), 628-643.• Dohnt, H., & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The contribution of peer and media influences to the development of body satisfaction and self-esteem in young girls: A prospective study. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 929-929-936. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.5.929• Ferguson, C. J., Colwell, J., Mlacic, B., Milas, G., & Miklousic, I. (2011). Personality and media influences on violence and depression in a cross-national sample of young adults: Data from mexican-americans, english and croatians. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(3), 1195-1195- 1200. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.12.015• Ferguson, C. J., Winegard, B., & Winegard, B. M. (2011). Who is the fairest one of all? how evolution guides peer and media influences on female body dissatisfaction. Review of General Psychology, 15(1), 11-11-28. doi:10.1037/a0022607• Fox, K. (1997). Mirror, mirror - a summary of research findings on body image. Retrieved from http://www.sirc.org/publik/mirror.html• Goldberg, R. M., Smith-Adcock, S., & Dixon, A. L. (2011). The influence of the mass media on relational aggression among females: A feminist counseling perspective. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 20(4), 376. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/871971184?accountid=34899• Lloyd, B. T. (2002). A conceptual framework for examining adolescent identity, media influence, and social development. Review of General Psychology, 6(1), 73-73-91. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.1.73• McNicholas, F. (2009). Eating concerns and media influences in an Irish adolescent context. European Eating Disorders Review, 17(3), 208-213.• Nikkelen, S. W. C., Anschutz, D. J., Ha, T., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2011). Influence of visual attention on male body dissatisfaction after idealized media exposure. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, doi:10.1037/a0024942
  • Visual PresentationPlease see “The influence of the media(internet, television, magazines,billboards, etc.) has on body image andbehavior”. Review PowerPointpresentation on LinkedIn profile.
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