Water efficiency

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DT117/4 Sustainable Build & Design - Class Presentations

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Water efficiency

  1. 1. Water Efficiency<br />John Coughlan<br />C05844291<br />
  2. 2. Water Efficiency<br />The efficient supply of water to homes and industry is the responsibility of the 88 local authorities around Ireland.<br />The funding for maintaining and improving the water supply infrastructure (pipes, filtration and disinfection systems) comes from the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government.<br />
  3. 3. Capital Water Schemes<br />Public water mains are administered and maintained by local authorities.<br />Water charge for domestic water supply was abolished in 1997*, charges are only levied on water supplied to commercial premises.<br />Budget 2010, which was announced on 9 December 2009, indicated that a system of water metering for homes will be introduced. Water charges will be based on the amount consumed above a free allocation.<br />
  4. 4. Rural Water Programme<br />Each county has been asked by the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government to draw up a Strategic Rural Water Plan.<br />Set up to ensure a safe and efficient water supply.<br />Grants and subsidies are now available to group water scheme users and those with individual water supplies<br />
  5. 5. Water conservation<br />The Water Services Act 2007 provides for the conservation of water where leakage occurs due to unrepaired pipes or equipment, or where poor management results in wastage or excessive consumption of water. <br />The regulations also apply to water restrictions in times of water shortages. A local authority can make an order to stop or restrict the use of water supplies for:<br />Watering gardens, recreational parks or sports grounds <br />Washing cars and trailers (including by commercial car wash facilities) <br />Filling or replenishing swimming pools, ponds and lakes <br />Irrigating or spraying crops. <br />It is an offence with penalties attached if you do not comply with a water conservation order.<br />
  6. 6. Office/Domestic Use<br />Install self-closing taps (e.g. those with push-tops) to prevent them being left on.  Consider fitting tap IR sensors to automatically switch water on and off.<br />Fit spray-heads and flow regulators to taps to control the amount of water used.  They can reduce tap water use by up to 80%.<br />Consider fitting toilet cisterns with devices that reduce the flush volume (often called hippo bags).  You could save up to 3 litres per flush.<br />Think about installing dual flush toilets.  These use no more than 6 litres per full flush and 4 litres per reduced flush..<br />
  7. 7. Office/Domestic Use<br />Fit urinals with water conservation devices, such as pressure switches and infrared sensors, which ensure that urinals are only rinsed when necessary.  This can save a huge amount of water as urinals otherwise flush 24/7, even when the building is unoccupied.<br />Consider installing modern ‘waterless’ urinals  These produce little or no odour.<br />Try collecting rainwater or greywater (from sinks etc) for flushing toilets or landscape maintenance.  Storm water attenuation tanks can often be used for this purpose.<br />
  8. 8. Catering Use<br />Use trigger operated sprays when preparing food  Use these instead of washing it under a tap.<br />Allow sufficient time for food products to defrost naturally.  Try not to relying on water thawing<br />Fit a solenoid valve to equipment.  These ensure that it can only use water when the equipment is turned on.<br />Set the rate of flow on equipment such as ice machines and potato peelers to a minimum.  This ensures best performance while saving water<br />If you use channels for food waste disposal, fit sensors.  These ensure that water flows only when necessary. <br />Ensure dishwashers are only used when fully loaded.  You should also check that nozzles are clean and do not need replacing.<br />
  9. 9. Factory Use<br />Fit hoses with triggers and spray nozzles.  These restrict the water flow.<br />Consider water- efficiency when purchasing new equipment.  For example, liquid ring vacuum pumps can be replaced by dry vacuum pumps.<br />Restrict and regulate mains water pressure, process by process, to minimise water use.  Pressure reducing valves are cheap and easy to install.<br />If you use lever or rotating tap type valves to regulate flows, remove the tap/lever or wire them up or otherwise lock them.  This will help to prevent tampering<br />Regularly check for faults, leaks and overflows using a preventative maintenance programme.  Checking water use when the building is not occupied, either overnight or during shutdowns, is a good way to detect problems.<br />
  10. 10. Factory Use<br />If you have several cleaning stages, consider capturing water from the final rinse (the cleanest rinse water).  Consider using it for another part of the process such as the first wash of dirty equipment or the product<br />Adopt water- efficient cleaning equipment.  Carefully directed high-pressure water will usually do a better and quicker job than low pressure water. Computer-programmed Cleaning in Place systems are often the most efficient way of cleaning vessels and other key items of equipment.<br />Regularly checked and de-scale any nozzles on your equipment.  Companies should also consider the effectiveness of the nozzles used and the coverage (e.g. the fan) provided.<br />
  11. 11. Factory Use<br />Recover waste steam by fitting condensate traps and condensing coils.  This can allow steam to be partially captured within a semi closed-loop system.<br />Treat effluent using ultra-fine filtration methods, such as membrane systems, to recover both water and valuable raw materials.  Membrane treatment is now widely used in the food and drink and pharmaceuticals sectors for example.<br />Install solenoid- operated interlock controls on pumps and equipment that switch off water supplies when not needed.  Alternatively, fit equipment with timers to avoid wasting water outside working hours.<br />
  12. 12. Summary<br />Reasons to save water:<br />It saves money.<br />It improves reputation.<br />It protects our shared environment, and feels good.<br />It is easy to get started.<br />

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