Photovoltaics (pv’s)keiran byrne


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Photovoltaics (pv’s)keiran byrne

  1. 1. Photovoltaics (PV’s) The Renewable Energy Source of the Next Millennium
  2. 2. Photovoltaics <ul><li>An array of cells containing solar photovoltaic material that converts solar radiation into Electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Photons of light are “units” of light from the sun that knock electrons in the panel into a higher state of energy creating electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>The first practical use of PV’s was used on a satellite sent to space but they’re mainly used as grid connected power generators. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Photovoltaics
  4. 4. Photovoltaics
  5. 5. <ul><li>South Facing & tilted at an angle to receive more energy per unit area </li></ul><ul><li>Sun trackers can be installed to gain as much exposure to the sun as possible & and can save as much as 20% in winter and 50% in summer. </li></ul><ul><li>1 square meter will give 1 kilowatt radiant power </li></ul>
  6. 6. Applications <ul><li>Power stations </li></ul><ul><li>In buildings </li></ul><ul><li>In transport </li></ul><ul><li>Stand alone devices </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Electricity </li></ul>
  7. 7. Power Stations <ul><li>There are many power stations around the world </li></ul><ul><li>The biggest are in Spain, Germany and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Providing 40-60 Megawatts of Peak Power </li></ul>
  8. 8. Transport <ul><li>Traditionally PV’s were used for a supplementary source of power for space crafts </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly popular with boats and cars </li></ul>Roadways <ul><li>In USA solar roadways have been tested successfully on road surfaces because of the suitable exposure to the sun </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stand Alone Devices <ul><li>Solar powered remote fixed devices are becoming more popular because the installation costs would be too high </li></ul><ul><li>Parking Meters, emergency telephones, traffic signs and speed signs. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Buildings <ul><li>Integrated photovoltaics into buildings are becoming more and more popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated into the roof, roof tiles or walls </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively they can be fitted away from the building which is connected simply by cable. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for domestic and industrial use </li></ul><ul><li>Where the building is in a remote area at a considerable distance from the grid PV’s are a suitable for generating electricity. This is suitable for rural areas and these systems are rapidly developing in poorer countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrays can be retrofitted onto existing buildings that are south facing. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Environmental Impacts <ul><li>Helps reduce life cycle greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Save scarce resources </li></ul><ul><li>The energy consumed to manufacture the product is recouped between 10-15 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Most material on PV panels are recyclable </li></ul><ul><li>PV’s promote energy awareness </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cost <ul><li>Advances in technology & Economies of Scale have contributed to installation prices to go down. </li></ul><ul><li>Financial incentives such as feed-in tariffs are used to support PV installations </li></ul><ul><li>The PV system is connected to your meter. </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of energy used by the PV system will show on the meter </li></ul><ul><li>ESB will credit your account – approx . 9c per kwhr </li></ul><ul><li>You cant directly sell your electricity to the grid so PV’s aren’t as cost effective as they should be in Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>No grants are available at present </li></ul>
  13. 13. Advantages <ul><li>Material used is robust and reliable. It can withstand extreme weather conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Little maintenance required </li></ul><ul><li>No fuel or supply chain is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Quick & easy to install </li></ul><ul><li>PV systems can add to value of building </li></ul><ul><li>PV systems are a popular technology and they are good advertisement for renewables </li></ul>
  14. 14. Advantages <ul><li>Manufacturers gaurantee a long life span of approx. 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Despite high capital investment, PV’s will save money over its life span </li></ul><ul><li>New jobs are added to the industry and trades skills </li></ul><ul><li>The investment into PV’s in Ireland could enhance knowledge around the country. It could also establish positive economic development and opens new market opportunities. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Disadvantages <ul><li>Costly to Install – High capital needed </li></ul><ul><li>Solar electricity isn't available at night and is less available when heavy clouds are present. Therefore a storage system is needed </li></ul><ul><li>The average daily output from PV’s in Europe wouldn’t be as high as other places around the world. E.g. – USA </li></ul><ul><li>There is an energy loss of 4-12% when the DC is converted to AC. </li></ul>