Photovoltaics (pv’s)keiran byrne

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  • 1. Photovoltaics (PV’s) The Renewable Energy Source of the Next Millennium
  • 2. Photovoltaics
    • An array of cells containing solar photovoltaic material that converts solar radiation into Electricity.
    • Photons of light are “units” of light from the sun that knock electrons in the panel into a higher state of energy creating electricity.
    • The first practical use of PV’s was used on a satellite sent to space but they’re mainly used as grid connected power generators.
  • 3. Photovoltaics
  • 4. Photovoltaics
  • 5.
    • South Facing & tilted at an angle to receive more energy per unit area
    • Sun trackers can be installed to gain as much exposure to the sun as possible & and can save as much as 20% in winter and 50% in summer.
    • 1 square meter will give 1 kilowatt radiant power
  • 6. Applications
    • Power stations
    • In buildings
    • In transport
    • Stand alone devices
    • Rural Electricity
  • 7. Power Stations
    • There are many power stations around the world
    • The biggest are in Spain, Germany and Portugal
    • Providing 40-60 Megawatts of Peak Power
  • 8. Transport
    • Traditionally PV’s were used for a supplementary source of power for space crafts
    • Increasingly popular with boats and cars
    • In USA solar roadways have been tested successfully on road surfaces because of the suitable exposure to the sun
  • 9. Stand Alone Devices
    • Solar powered remote fixed devices are becoming more popular because the installation costs would be too high
    • Parking Meters, emergency telephones, traffic signs and speed signs.
  • 10. Buildings
    • Integrated photovoltaics into buildings are becoming more and more popular.
    • Integrated into the roof, roof tiles or walls
    • Alternatively they can be fitted away from the building which is connected simply by cable.
    • Used for domestic and industrial use
    • Where the building is in a remote area at a considerable distance from the grid PV’s are a suitable for generating electricity. This is suitable for rural areas and these systems are rapidly developing in poorer countries.
    • Arrays can be retrofitted onto existing buildings that are south facing.
  • 11. Environmental Impacts
    • Helps reduce life cycle greenhouse gas emissions
    • Save scarce resources
    • The energy consumed to manufacture the product is recouped between 10-15 years.
    • Most material on PV panels are recyclable
    • PV’s promote energy awareness
  • 12. Cost
    • Advances in technology & Economies of Scale have contributed to installation prices to go down.
    • Financial incentives such as feed-in tariffs are used to support PV installations
    • The PV system is connected to your meter.
    • Amount of energy used by the PV system will show on the meter
    • ESB will credit your account – approx . 9c per kwhr
    • You cant directly sell your electricity to the grid so PV’s aren’t as cost effective as they should be in Ireland
    • No grants are available at present
  • 13. Advantages
    • Material used is robust and reliable. It can withstand extreme weather conditions.
    • Little maintenance required
    • No fuel or supply chain is needed
    • Quick & easy to install
    • PV systems can add to value of building
    • PV systems are a popular technology and they are good advertisement for renewables
  • 14. Advantages
    • Manufacturers gaurantee a long life span of approx. 20 years
    • Despite high capital investment, PV’s will save money over its life span
    • New jobs are added to the industry and trades skills
    • The investment into PV’s in Ireland could enhance knowledge around the country. It could also establish positive economic development and opens new market opportunities.
  • 15. Disadvantages
    • Costly to Install – High capital needed
    • Solar electricity isn't available at night and is less available when heavy clouds are present. Therefore a storage system is needed
    • The average daily output from PV’s in Europe wouldn’t be as high as other places around the world. E.g. – USA
    • There is an energy loss of 4-12% when the DC is converted to AC.
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