www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103HISTORY OF THE CALIFORNI...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103INTRODUCTION• The case o...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103INTRODUCTION– The invest...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Case of Benny Moreno...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Case of Benny Moreno...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Case of Benny Moreno...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Case of Benny Moreno...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Case of Benny Moreno...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• Califor...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• The res...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• Segrega...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• William...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• Based o...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• The app...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• Youth A...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103ConclusionThe were many ...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Reference• Mihailoff, La...
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6. history cya1

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his Intervention Policies in Juvenile Justice course materials.

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6. history cya1

  1. 1. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103HISTORY OF THE CALIFORNIAYOUTH AUTHORITY 1939 & 2004.Lourdes CastroProfessor MacallairCJ 475
  2. 2. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103INTRODUCTION• The case of Durrell Tandon Feaster and Deon Whitfield.– They were found dead in their cell on January, 19th2004.– The cases drove the attention of the media, correctionexperts and government officials.– The criticisms of the California Youth Authority grewbigger.– This led to a investigation which reported the CYAproblems.
  3. 3. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103INTRODUCTION– The investigation was conducted by the SanFrancisco-based nonprofit Prison Law Office onbehave of CYA wards, alleging inhumane conditionsat the state facilities.– The reports revealed violence and brutality at theinstitutions.– A similar event happened during the late 1930s andbeginning of the 1940s with many cases, especiallyBenny Moreno.• This was true on 1930s as it was on 2004.
  4. 4. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Case of Benny Moreno• Benny Moreno was found dead in his cell on August 11th, 1939 atWhittier State School.• This led once again to a investigation at the school for the waywards were treated.• The Moreno family argued that Benny was killed and that he did notcommit suicide.– Their argument was based in the fact that Benny’s body “allbroken up” … “his arm was broken up, there was a big gashacross his lip and down his chin…[and] we could feel a terriblesoft spot in the back of his head… where it was caved in”
  5. 5. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Case of Benny Moreno– The family also questioned the fact that Benny hunghimself with a new belt that he had. They argued thatthey tried to give Benny a new belt, but they were notallowed.– Contrary to what the medical examiner stated thatBenny had bruises just around his neck. He ruled asuicide by asphyxiation.• The family became convinced that Benny had either methis death a the hands of one of the supervisors orcommitted suicide to stop all the abuses that he sufferedfrom.
  6. 6. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Case of Benny Moreno• The case of Faustino Sanchez, who was fatally wounded byhighway patrolman Neil E. Davison.– Faustino was with his group of friends drinking in a coronerDavison noticed it and he grabbed the wine bottle and poured it.– An argument went on between the boys and Davison thatescalated into a fight with rocks and bottles. Davison hit Faustinowith a blackjack to control him. Faustino managed to escape andDavison shot him.– According to Davison the shot was meant to be a warning.Davison was exonerated by the jury who concluded that hisaction was a “justifiable homicide”.– The rest of the boys were arrested, the charge: assaulting anofficer.
  7. 7. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Case of Benny Moreno• Because of these two cases El Congreso de Pueblos que hablan Español (thecongress of Spanish Speaking Peoples), which was a organization committed toobtain workers’ rights and civil liberties for Latin Americans. Communist Partyand the Industrial Labor Defense (ILD) and Citizens’ Independent ViceInvestigating Committee (CIVIC) organized a big coalition to end corruption inLos Angeles.• Eduardo Quevedo, president of El Congreso led 200 Mexicans to the assemblyroom of the state building to speak with Governor Culbert L. Olson.• Quevedo asked Olson to order a new investigation in Faustino’s shooting and inBenny’s death.• There was a commission appointed by the
  8. 8. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The Case of Benny Moreno• Mexican Americans felt that these two cases and many others were theresult of racism and discrimination.• Olson agreed to the petition made by Quevedo.• Olson appointed a commission with members of El Congreso and IDLand Leo Gallagher.• The Gallagher committee, after months of investigation, concluded thatBenny Moreno had committed suicide.• This investigation raised serious questions about these institutions.• Benny’s suicide was a starting point for a reform of the juvenile justicesystem in California
  9. 9. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• California made its reforms based in the American Law Institutes’recommendations.• Many experts studied the CYA and they saw the problems with it.• Leonard V. Harrison, one of the members of the new Institute’scommittee, and Pryor McNeill Grant, founder of the New York City’sBoys Bureau, conducted a study– The study was designed to evaluate the treatment of young criminaloffenders between the ages of 16 and 21 years old.– The boys were exposed to humilations– The boys ended up in adult rather than in juvenile halls.
  10. 10. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• The researchers concluded that the remedial approachof the system was a failure.• They also argued that these institutions were“preparatory schools” and “universities” of crime.– One of the causes, they believed, mass detention andtreatment fail to reform.• They suggested that a court for minors should beestablished.
  11. 11. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• Segregation or categorization of the offenders based on the age wasanother suggestions.• The term Adolescence took place• Sheldon Glueck, a Harvard professor and criminologist, with his wifeEleanor T. Glueck also conducted a research. They concluded thatregard the age if an offender commits a crime, criminality is predictable.• Their findings also include that criminal behavior decreases when theoffenders reach maturity.• Also that the rates of recidivism are high between 16 to 22 years of age.
  12. 12. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• William A. Healy, another member of the Institutes Criminal Justice-YouthCommittee. He became interested in the English Bosrstal system, which“segregated each young man according to this type and background” so theoffenders can be placed in different institutions with vary treatments andprograms.• Judge Benjamin Barr Lindsey conducted an investigation which concludedthat “abuses were widespread at the school”.• Lindsey stated that there was “‘a terrific gap between theory and application’at the school.”• The Lindsay committee recommended a revision of the programs at school.There was a definetly need to close the gap between reality and idealsystem.• California was the best candidate to pass a reform Model Youth CorrectionAuthority Act from American Law Institute.
  13. 13. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• Based on the recommendations that Lindeys committeemade Olson appointed Father Edward J. Flanagan toinvestigate.– Flanagan recommended to remove Superintend E.J.Milne.• Employees feared charges of abuse and theystopped disciplining inmates altogether.• This created a disciplinary chaos and someinmates escaped from Whittier• The reformatory failed as well as therecommendations and it also failed to protectsociety.
  14. 14. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• The approach of Lindsey and Flanagan was “love approach”• After all the investigations “Olson concluded that a ‘proportion of the boyssent to Whittier [were] psychopathic delinquents that require[d] a differentand ore scientific treatments and different segregated treatments for thepurpose of handling them than that which would appeal to the moral instinctby kind handling and by love and affection and the usual humaneconsiderations that are followed in correcting boys whi are normal’”• The California Youth Authority Act was passed– It established the different domains for young delinquents to be placedin the right place according to their age.• Minimum age to commit the youths to the Authority was 18 years ofage.• Youth Authority “reinforced the existing juvenile court model of handlingjuvenile delinquency through rehabilitation and treatment, rather thandramatically changing it”
  15. 15. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Model of Reform• Youth Authority adhered to scientific approach• This led to create juvenile justice agencies in Minnesota,Wisconsin, Massachusetts and Texas that followedCalifornia’s model.
  16. 16. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103ConclusionThe were many events that led to many investigations inthe California Juvenile Justice system; theseinvestigations led to a reform of the system that probablyworked for a while; however, the system is not workingtoday. It was true in past times as it is today.
  17. 17. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Reference• Mihailoff, Laura. Protecting Our Children: A History of theCalifornia Youth Authority and Juvenile Justice, 1939-1968. Diss. U of California, Berkeley, 2005. Introduction,Ch. 1-2.

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