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6. creation of the california department of corrections
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6. creation of the california department of corrections

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his California......

CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his California Corrections System course materials.

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  • 1. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Prisonization• The process whereby newly institutionalized individualscome to accept prison lifestyles and criminal values
  • 2. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Society of Captives (1956)Gresham Sykes• INMATES ARE DEPRIVED OF THEIR AUTONOMY• INMATES ARE DEPRIVED OF PRIVACY• INMATES ARE DEPRIVED OF SECURITY• PRISONS RESTRICT CONTACT WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD• INMATES ARE DEPRIVED OF MANY GOODS AND SERVICES• INMATES ARE DEPRIVED OF THE OPPORTUNITY FOR MEANINGFULWORK• INMATES ARE DEPRIVED OF HETEROSEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS• INMATES ARE RELEGATED TO A SUBSERVIENT STATUS
  • 3. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Prison Population
  • 4. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Creation of the California Departmentof CorrectionsThe Era of Treatment
  • 5. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Elements of the Treatment Era• Improved methods for inmate classification• Development of group therapy methods• Increased use of the indeterminate sentence
  • 6. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Reforms of Governor Earl Warren• Used frequent scandalsas basis for arguingreform• Called for the creationof diversified prisonswith centralizedauthority• Create correctionssystem that placedgreater emphasis onrehabilitation
  • 7. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Warren appoints committee to investigativeprison abuses as prelude to reform“The conditions… found to exist in our penal system are achallenge to every public spirited citizen of this state.The solution lies in a complete reorganization of thisfunction of state government.”
  • 8. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Department of Correctionsestablished by legislative act in 1944Placed management of the prison system incentral authority
  • 9. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Richard McGee appointed first directorA trained penologist who advocatedfor the medical-rehabilitative modelof prison management. He usheredin a new era in the history ofCalifornia corrections.
  • 10. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103May 21, 1944 is a significant date in the history of our state,because it took California out of the dark ages in the field ofpenology and ushered in a period of enlightenment that havegiven our state a proud place in that fieldChief Justice Earl Warren
  • 11. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 941031950San Francisco Examiner,August 20, 1950San Francisco Examiner,August 22, 1950San Francisco Examiner,August 21, 1950
  • 12. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Mess Hall
  • 13. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Prison Riots of March 1952 – January 1953“most destructive year in our long prison history”1. March 30, 1952, New Jersey2. April 15, 1952, New Jersey3. April 17, 1952, New Jersey4. April 20, 1952, Michigan5. May 11, 1952, Louisiana6. May 24, 1952, Idaho7. June 4, 1952, North Carolina8. June 6, 1952, Louisiana9. June 27, 1952, Kentucky10. June 30, 1952, Soledad11. July 1, 1952, Massachusetts12. July 6, 1952, Michigan13. July 22, 1952, Massachusetts14. September 23, 1952, Illinois15. October 1, 1952, Utah16. October 13, 1952, New Jersey17. October,31, 1952, Ohio18. December 7, 1952, New Mexico19. January 18, 1953, Pennsylvania20. January 19, 1953, Pennsylvania
  • 14. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Richard McGee and the era of correctional treatment• Created the nine member Adult Authority to establishprison terms• Instituted the conservation camps and communitycorrections centers• Established the Deuel Vocational Institutions for youthoffenders• Created Men’s Colony West for older inmates• Created California Medical Facility for inmates withpsychiatric disorders
  • 15. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The era of correctional treatment• Implementation of group and individual therapy• New classifications system developed based on inmate’smaturity and designated treatment milieus• Creation of a research unit to evaluate treatmentprograms and pilot programs (1957)• Expansion of parole function assumed by theDepartment of Corrections (1957)• Promoted the probation subsidy program and other non-institutional options
  • 16. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The era of correctional treatment (continued)• 1965 Psychiatric Treatment Unit established at Vacaville• 1966 work furlough program created• 1966 alcoholics anonymous program was initiatedsystemwide• 1967 Family visiting program extended to all inmates• 1975 Inmate Bill of Rights
  • 17. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103New Specialized Facilities• California Medical Facility opened in Vacaville (1955)• California Rehabilitation Center open to treat civilnarcotics addicts (1962)• California Conservation Center opened in Susanville totrain minimum custody inmates as firefighters (1963)• Community corrections centers opened in Oakland andSan Francisco (1965)
  • 18. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Impact of California’s treatment model• Research failed to show the effectiveness of grouptherapy• California recidivism rates were 41% within three yearsof release• Imprisonment rate rose from 65 per 100,000 in 1944 to145 per 100,000 in 1965• Median time prison sentence increased from 24 monthsin 1959 to 36 months in 1969 – the longest averageprison sentences in the nation• Prison commitment rate drops to lowest level in history.