California and enters the Reform School Era                  (1890s)                                                Presto...
Ex Parte Becknell 1897Child cannot be imprisonment without trial by jury              40 Boardman Place                   ...
California Establishes First Juvenile             Court 1903 Applied to dependent and delinquent children under the  age o...
Goals of juvenile court advocates• Remove children form adult jails and prisons• Control children’s behavior outside of th...
An Era of Amendments• 1904, juvenile court expanded to all counties in the state• 1905, county probation system allowed sa...
Juvenile Justice Act of 1909• Increased jurisdiction over minors by extending jurisdiction  age limit from 16 to 18• Exten...
1915 Juvenile Court Law• Included a category for “insane, or feebleminded” children• Established the Ventura School for Gi...
Landmark Cases• People v Wolf (1920) (gave judges right to transfer youth to  adult court)• In re Daedler (1924) (denied j...
1937 Juvenile Court Law• Established Forestry Camps as a reform schoolalternative for less serious juvenile offenders     ...
Youth Corrections Authority Act (1941)   Seeking a modern state corrections system    while reducing the disparate treatme...
Due Process and Challenges to California’s Juvenile                  Justice SystemSpecial State         – Basic legal rig...
Arnold-Kennick Juvenile Court Law                   (1961)• Extended protections to children and their parents• Provided t...
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5. cal juv court

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his Intervention Policies in Juvenile Justice course materials.

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Transcript of "5. cal juv court"

  1. 1. California and enters the Reform School Era (1890s) Preston School of IndustryWittier State School Established 1892 established 1894 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  2. 2. Ex Parte Becknell 1897Child cannot be imprisonment without trial by jury 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  3. 3. California Establishes First Juvenile Court 1903 Applied to dependent and delinquent children under the age of 16 who resided in San Francisco, Alameda, and Los Angeles Counties 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  4. 4. Goals of juvenile court advocates• Remove children form adult jails and prisons• Control children’s behavior outside of the criminal court• Avoid the obstacles of due process protections by establishing a civil process 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  5. 5. An Era of Amendments• 1904, juvenile court expanded to all counties in the state• 1905, county probation system allowed salaries for probation officers in some counties 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  6. 6. Juvenile Justice Act of 1909• Increased jurisdiction over minors by extending jurisdiction age limit from 16 to 18• Extended jurisdiction age for children who were committed to Preston and Whittier State Schools to 21.• Forbad the commitment of children under 8 to state reform schools• Required all counties to maintain detention homes for dependent and delinquent children 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  7. 7. 1915 Juvenile Court Law• Included a category for “insane, or feebleminded” children• Established the Ventura School for Girls and set different age limits for Whittier (age 8- 16) and Preston (ages 16 to 21)• Allowed for Inter-district transfer of cases filed in the wrong county• Allowed for the appointment of referees to hear the testimonies of witnesses, investigate the case, and make recommendations 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  8. 8. Landmark Cases• People v Wolf (1920) (gave judges right to transfer youth to adult court)• In re Daedler (1924) (denied juveniles right to a jury trial in California)• In re Edwards (1930) (placed restrictions on juvenile court powers to deny parental custody) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  9. 9. 1937 Juvenile Court Law• Established Forestry Camps as a reform schoolalternative for less serious juvenile offenders 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  10. 10. Youth Corrections Authority Act (1941) Seeking a modern state corrections system while reducing the disparate treatment in juvenile court commitments to state reform schools 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  11. 11. Due Process and Challenges to California’s Juvenile Justice SystemSpecial State – Basic legal rights were not being uniformly or adequately protectedStudy – Independent status of juvenile justice agenciesCommission on led to inconsistencies in philosophy,Juvenile Justice coordination, and administrationfound (1957) – Rehabilitative services were ineffective because of a large increase of children in the system – Children were being excessively detained, often when unwarranted – Numerous inconsistencies and ambiguities within juvenile court law 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  12. 12. Arnold-Kennick Juvenile Court Law (1961)• Extended protections to children and their parents• Provided the right to the representation and appointment of counsel on all felony charges• The right to proof of allegations by a preponderance of legally admissible evidence 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013

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