www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Parole• Conditional rele...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Early Release and the De...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103English System of “Trans...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Ticket of Leave• A licen...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Alexandra Maconochie, No...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Mark System• A system in...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Alexandra Maconochie’s M...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Sir Walter Crofton and t...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103American Reformatory Mov...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103REFORMATORY• AN INSTITUT...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103National Congress on Pen...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103NATIONAL CONGRESS ON PEN...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLE...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLE...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103ELIMIRA THE FIRST REFORM...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The process of early rel...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Expansion of Discretiona...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Reasons for Discretionar...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Elements of an Effective...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The decision to grant di...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Parole Conditions• Stand...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Guidelines for setting c...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Rights of Parolees• Dimi...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Parole Revocation
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Morrissey v Brewer (1972...
www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 9410321st Century Parole and ...
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4. evolution of parole

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his Community Corrections and Sentencing course materials.

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4. evolution of parole

  1. 1. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Parole• Conditional release, by an administrative act, of aconvicted offender from a penal or correctionalinstitution, under the continual custody of the state, toserve the remainder of his or her sentence in thecommunity under supervision.(Cromwell and Del Carmen)
  2. 2. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Early Release and the Developmentof Parole
  3. 3. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103English System of “Transportation”• Banishment to English colonial territories in exchange fora period of labor in lieu of execution• Convict was an indentured servant• Ticket of Leave was instituted in Australia as an earlyrelease from government servitude
  4. 4. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Ticket of Leave• A license or permit given to aconvict as a reward for goodconduct, which allowed forearly release on the conditionthat the individual find work.Any misconduct or failure tofind work could result inrevocation and return to prisonto serve the duration of thesentence
  5. 5. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Alexandra Maconochie, Northfolk Island and the Birth ofIndeterminate Sentencing and Parole
  6. 6. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Mark System• A system in which offenders are assessed a certainnumber of points based on the severity of the crime.Prisoners could reduce their term and gain release byearning marks through labor, good behavior, andeducational achievement. (Cromwell and Del Carmen)
  7. 7. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Alexandra Maconochie’s Mark system• Penal Stage• Associational stage• Social stage• Ticket of leave
  8. 8. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Sir Walter Crofton and the Irish Ticket ofLeave• Solitary confinement• Associational stage• Intermediate stage• Conditional release stage
  9. 9. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103American Reformatory Movement and the Birth of ParoleEnoch Cobb Wines• Congregationalist minister andpresident of the New York PrisonCommission and the NationalPrison AssociationTheodore W. Dwight
  10. 10. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103REFORMATORY• AN INSTITUTION FORYOUNG OFFENDERSEMPHASIZING TRAINING,CLASSIFICATION,INDETERMINATESENTENCES AND PAROLE
  11. 11. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline and theUnited States Reformatory Movement (Cincinnati 1870)National Prison AssociationDeclaration of Principles
  12. 12. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103NATIONAL CONGRESS ON PENITENTIARY AND REFORMATORY DISCIPLINE - 1870DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES• REFORMATION, NOT VINDICTIVE SUFFERING, SHOULD BE THE PURPOSE OF PENALTREATMENT• CLASSIFICATION SHOULD BE MADE ON THE BASIS OF A MARK SYSTEM, PATTERNEDAFTER THE IRISH SYSTEM• REWARDS SHOULD BE PROVIDED FOR GOOD CONDUCT• THE PRISONER SHOLD BE MADE TO REALIZE THAT HIS DESTINY IS IN HIS HANDS• THE CHIEF OBSTACLES TO PRISON REFORM ARE THE POLITICAL APPOINTMENT OFPRISON OFFICIALS, AND THE INSTABILITY OF MANAGEMENT• PRISON OFFICIALS SHOULD BE TRAINED FOR THEIR JOBS• INDETERMINATE SENTENCES SHOULD BE SUBSTITUTED FOR FIXED SENTENCES ANDGROSS DISPARITIES IN PRISON SENTENCES SHOULD BE REMOVED
  13. 13. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES cont.• RELIGION AND EDUCATION WERE CITED AS THE MOST IMPORTANT AGENCIES OFREFORMATION• PRISON DISCIPLINE SHOULD BE SUCH AS TO GAIN THE WILL OF THE PRISONER ANDCONSERVE HIS SELF-RESPECT• THE AIM OF THE PRISON SHOULD BE TO MAKE INDUSTRIOUS FREEMEN RATHER THANORDERLY PRISONERS• INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SHOULD BE PROVIDED• SYSTEM OF CONTRACT LABOR SHOUL D BE ABOLISHED
  14. 14. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES cont.• Prisons should be small and there should be different types of offenders• These should be revision of the laws in regards to treatment of insanecriminals• Should be system for collection of penal statistics• A more adequate architecture should be developed, providing sufficiently forair and sunlight and for prison hospitals and school rooms
  15. 15. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103ELIMIRA THE FIRST REFORMATORY PRISONESTABLISHED 1877INTRODUCED:•INDETERMINATE SENTENCING•CLASSIFICATION•PAROLE
  16. 16. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The process of early releaseIndeterminatesentencingGoodBehaviorParole
  17. 17. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Expansion of Discretionary Parole1900 -1925
  18. 18. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Reasons for Discretionary Parole’sExpansion• Reduce length of incarceration as reward for goodbehavior• Need for community supervision• Imposition of indeterminate sentencing
  19. 19. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Elements of an Effective DiscretionaryParole System• Flexibility in sentencing and parole laws• A qualified parole board• A qualified parole staff• Freedom from political or improper influences• Workable position in the governmental structure• Proper procedures• Prerelease preparation within the institutionACA
  20. 20. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The decision to grant discretionary release• Probability of recidivism• Welfare of society• Conduct of the offender while incarcerated• Sufficiency of the parole plan
  21. 21. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Parole Conditions• Standard Conditions• Special Conditions
  22. 22. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Guidelines for setting conditions• Condition must be clear• Condition must be reasonable• Condition must protect society or rehabilitate theoffender• Condition must be constitutional
  23. 23. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Rights of Parolees• Diminished Rights• Preferred rights
  24. 24. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Parole Revocation
  25. 25. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Morrissey v Brewer (1972)• Written notice of violations• Disclosure of evidence• Right to confront and cross examine witnesses• A neutral and detached hearing body• Written reason for revocation
  26. 26. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 9410321st Century Parole and DeterminantSentencingMandatory Release

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