Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
4. 19th century positivism and origins of eugenics
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

4. 19th century positivism and origins of eugenics

5,520
views

Published on

CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his Juvenile Justice …

CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his Juvenile Justice course materials.

Published in: Education, Spiritual

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,520
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Theories of DelinquencyIntroduction of Science
  • 2. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103PositivismThe application of science to the study ofhuman behavior
  • 3. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Early TheoriesCriminality and Observable Characteristics
  • 4. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 9410318th Century Origins of Biological Positivism:German physicianFranz Joseph Gall in 1796introduces:Phrenologya hypothesis stating that thepersonality traits of a person canbe derived from the shape of theskull.
  • 5. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Charles Darwin: Origin of the Species (1859)Theory of Natural selection:the process by whichcertain heritable traits thosethat make it more likely foran organism to survive andsuccessfully reproducebecome more common in apopulation over successivegenerations(1809-1882)
  • 6. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Cesare LombrosoCriminal Man published 1876Lombrosos theory ofanthropologicalcriminology posited thatcriminality wasinherited, and that someone"born criminal" could beidentified by physicaldefects, which confirmed acriminal as savage, oratavistic.(6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909)
  • 7. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103physical atavistic stigmata• large jaws, forward projection of jaw, low slopingforeheads• high cheekbones, flattened or upturned nose• handle-shaped ears• large chins, very prominent in appearance• hawk-like noses or fleshy lips• hard shifty eyes, scanty beard or baldness• insensitivity to pain, long arms
  • 8. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Herbert Spencer and Social DarwinismJustifying class and racialinequality:“This survival of the fittest, which Ihave here sought to express inmechanical terms, is that which Mr.Darwin has called naturalselection, or the preservation offavoured races in the struggle forlife." [1]Principles of Biology (1864)
  • 9. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Sir Francis Galton and The Origins ofEugenics“the science whichdeals with allinfluences thatimprove the inbornqualities of a race;also with those thatdevelop them to theutmost advantage”
  • 10. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103EugenicsA social philosophy which advocates theimprovement of the human condition bycontrolling human reproduction. The goal isto prevent the passing of undesirable traits tothe next generation
  • 11. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Evolution of American Eugenics Movement• Richard Dugdale & the Jukes heredity• Henry Goddard & the Kallikaks• IQ Tests used to determine those unworthy ofreproducing• Funded by John D Rockefeller, Henry Ford & AndrewCarnegie• Rationalized the accumulation and concentration ofwealth and power• Seen as a solution to social problems• Utilized forced sterilization
  • 12. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Henry Goddard and the genealogy of the“feebleminded”Deborah Kallikak Kallikak family tree
  • 13. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103The California Eugenics Movement and JuvenileJustice• 1899 first sterilization performed at Indiana reformatory• 1907 Indiana passes first Eugenics law• 1909 California Eugenics law passed• California Bureau of Juvenile Research established atWhittier State School• 15% -35% of delinquents believed feebleminded
  • 14. www.cjcj.org© Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 201340 Boardman PlaceSan Francisco, CA 94103Theory of Somatotypes (1940s)William Herbert Sheldon1.Endomorph2.Mesomorph3. Ectomorphic

×