3. preventive agencies and reform schools 1850 1890

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his Intervention Policies in Juvenile Justice course materials.

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3. preventive agencies and reform schools 1850 1890

  1. 1. Preventive agencies and Reform Schools 1850-1890 Cottage/Family System Probation Reform/Training/Industrial Schools Children’s Aid Society/Placing Out 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  2. 2. Origins ofThe Cottage/Family System 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  3. 3. RAUHE HAUS (1833)• JOHANN HEINRICH WICHERN• FAMILY MODEL• “WHOLESOME LEARNING, THE TRUTHS OF THE GOSPEL, AND HONEST LABOR”• APPRENTICESHIPS 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  4. 4. 1839 Mettray Agricultural Colony established 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  5. 5. 1839 AGRICULTURAL COLONY AT METTRAY • FREDERIC AUGUST DEMETZ • FAMILY SYSTEM (COTTAGE) • FARM LABOR • 3 STORY COTTAGES • SELF GOVERNMENT • MILITARY REGIME 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  6. 6. 1857 - Girls Industrial School at Lancaster MA founded on Cottage/Family System 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  7. 7. Cottage/Family System• Groups of 40 children or fewer• Semi autonomous living arrangements• House parents• Preference for agricultural work 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  8. 8. The Development of Probation Response to the failures of institutionalization 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  9. 9. 1841 John Augustus becomes the “father” of Probation 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  10. 10. Development of Juvenile Probation (1860-1900)• Boston Children’s Aid Society (background checks, bail and supervision)• Massachusetts Board of Charities Act (1869) (home supervision)• California Juvenile Probation Act (1883) (placement with private charitable organizations) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  11. 11. The Reform School MovementEnd of the House of Refuge Era 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  12. 12. 1847 First public reform school established in Westborough Massachusetts known as the Lyman school 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  13. 13. Main Building Lyman Reform School 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  14. 14. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  15. 15. Lyman School Class Room 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  16. 16. The Placing Out System And the evolution of non-institutional care 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  17. 17. PLACING OUT• An informal procedure whereby child-saving societies employed agents to take groups of children west by railroad 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  18. 18. CHILD SAVERS• 19TH CENTURY REFORMERS WHO DEVELOPED PROGRAMS FOR TROUBLED YOUTH AND INFLUENCED LEGISLATION CREATING THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  19. 19. Charles Loring Brace1826-1891 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  20. 20. 1853 Children’s Aid Society Established Introduction of the Orphan Trains 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  21. 21. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  22. 22. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  23. 23. Children’s Aid Society Home Then and Now40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  24. 24. Children’s Aid Society 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  25. 25. Orphan Train40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  26. 26. People v Turner (1870)• Illinois Supreme Court determined that a reform school commitment was an unconstitutional deprivation of liberty necessitating due process protections for children. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013

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