2. develop. of san quentin

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his California Corrections System course materials.

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2. develop. of san quentin

  1. 1. The Penitentiary Comes to California The Gold Rush and the evolution of the State’s Prison system 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  2. 2. San Francisco 1851From small village tolarge city 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  3. 3. California’s Gold Rush (1848–1855)The growth oflawlessness 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  4. 4. San Francisco: The lawless city 1848- 1852• Street gangs such as the “Hounds” and “Sydney Ducks” roamed with impunity• San Francisco’s “Barbary Coast” gains notoriety as haven for vice and villainy• City averages 250 murders a year with population of 30,000 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  5. 5. The struggle for order (1848-1852)• Committee of Vigilance formed (100 day reign)• Inadequacy of the legal system revealed• Creation of San Francisco County Jail• An Act calling for the creation of a state prison 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  6. 6. San Francisco Jail Ship Euphemia c 1851 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  7. 7. Governor John McDougal (1851-1852)Advocated thecreation of astate prison andnew penal code 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  8. 8. California and “Western Penology”• Did not initially embrace Eastern prison ideologies of reformation and community integration• Reflected primarily custodial concerns and fear of “unassimilable aliens”• Auburn system of one man per cell reserved for white prisoners• Convict care placed in hands of lessee 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  9. 9. Convict lease systemA system underwhich inmates areleased tocontractors whoprovide them withfood clothing andhousing in exchangefor their labor. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  10. 10. Evolution of the American Convict Lease System• Kentucky 1825• Louisiana 1844• California 1852 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  11. 11. California’s Convict Lease SystemMariano Guadalupe Vallejo James Madison Estell 1807 -1890 1811-1859 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  12. 12. Building of San QuentinConstruction begins with inmatelabor 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  13. 13. Building San QuentinInmates initially housed onprison ship Waban 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  14. 14. The San Francisco Manufacturing Company Former Governor James Madison Estell John McDougal 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  15. 15. Building San Quentin“The Stones” first bulding completed in 1854The bottom floor designed for congregate labor and dining.Represents first steps towards adopting the Auburn model 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  16. 16. San Quentin Congregate dining hall (1880s) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  17. 17. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  18. 18. Failure of the Lease system (1855)• Mismanagement and abuse of inmates• Poor profitability due to isolation• Pressure by merchants and labor groups to limit inmate labor competition• Severe overcrowding• Mass escapes 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  19. 19. Resumption of the Lease System (1856)• Financial mismanagement by state-appointed board of directors• Estell’s contract reluctantly reinstated 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  20. 20. Convict Lease System abolished (1858) Crowding, inmate abuse and deteriorating conditions forced the state to take permanent control 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  21. 21. State Takes Control• Expansion of San Quentin with Auburn style 6 tier cell block design• Mass escapes lead to adoption of Auburn style regimen• New workshop building erected with modern machinery• Staff housing expanded 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  22. 22. Expansion of San QuentinThroughout the 19thcentury San Quentingradually expandedto accommodate agrowing inmatepopulation 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  23. 23. San Quentin Inmates 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  24. 24. Expansion of San QuentinOriginal Hospital building(circa 1880s) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  25. 25. Town of San QuentinWhere many staff resided 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013

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