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OFFICAL CRIME MEASURE• UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS• NATIONAL CRIME VICTIMIZATION SURVEYS• JUVENILE COURT STATISTICS  (http://ojj...
Primary Measures of the UCR• Reported crime• Arrests• Clearances                   40 Boardman Place                      ...
Uniform Crime Reports are comprised of index           crimes and part II crimes:Index Crimes1. Homicide2. Forcible rape3....
Uniform Crime Reports are comprised of    index crimes and Part II crimes:   Part II Crimes: all crimes not listed as inde...
Part II Offenses Include:•   simple assault                     • gambling•   curfew offenses                    • liquor ...
Criticism of the UCR•   Easily manipulated for political reasons•   Skewed towards street crimes•   Only counts the most s...
National Crime Victimization Survey              NCVS  Published by the Census bureau and Bureau              of Justice S...
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)       designed to achieve three primary objectives:• to develop detailed in...
NCVS methodologySurvey of households members     40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org     San Franci...
NCVS Crimes• assault•   burglary•   larceny•   motor vehicle theft•   rape•   robbery.                     40 Boardman Pla...
Compiled by the National juvenile justice center & the office ofjuvenile justice and delinquency preventionJUVENILE COURT ...
Juvenile Court Statistics• National Estimates of Delinquency Cases• National Estimates of Delinquency Case Processing• Nat...
By 2003, the juvenile Violent Crime Index arrest rate had      fallen to the levels of the late 1980s (OJJDP)             ...
Blumstein’s Hypothesis on rising teenage              homicides in early 1990’s•   Recruitment•   Guns as means of self pr...
The juvenile arrest rate trend for Property Crime Index offenses is used as  a general barometer of all property crime arr...
Violent Crime Index (OJJDP)      40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org      San Francisco, CA 94103  ...
Violent Crime Index (OJJDP)      40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org      San Francisco, CA 94103  ...
Violent Crime Index (OJJDP)      40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org      San Francisco, CA 94103  ...
Murder (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103                          ©...
Murder (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103                          ©...
Murder (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103                          ©...
Forcible Rape (OJJDP)   40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org   San Francisco, CA 94103              ...
Between 1980 and 2003, the annual juvenile arrest rate for robbery               declined substantially (OJJDP)           ...
Robbery (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103                          ...
Robbery (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103                          ...
Aggravated Assault (OJJDP)      40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org      San Francisco, CA 94103   ...
Aggravated Assault (OJJDP)      40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org      San Francisco, CA 94103   ...
Aggravated Assault (OJJDP)      40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org      San Francisco, CA 94103   ...
Burglary (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103                         ...
Burglary (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103                         ...
Burglary (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103                         ...
Simple assault (OJJDP)   40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org   San Francisco, CA 94103             ...
Property Crime Index (OJJDP)       40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org       San Francisco, CA 9410...
40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103                          © Center on Juv...
40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103                          © Center on Juv...
The surge in the juvenile arrest rate for drug abuse violations between 1993 and 1997 occurred during a period when the ju...
Drug Abuse arrests (OJJDP)      40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org      San Francisco, CA 94103   ...
Drug Abuse Arrests (OJJDP)      40 Boardman Place                             www.cjcj.org      San Francisco, CA 94103   ...
After increasing in the mid-1980s to mid-1990s, the juvenile proportion of violentcrimes cleared by arrest or exceptional ...
The juvenile share of property crime has fallen substantially                   since 1980 (OJJDP)                    40 B...
Murders by juveniles in 2002 were less likely to be committed by  a juvenile acting alone than in any year since at least ...
Murders by juveniles in 2002 were less likely to be committed by  a juvenile acting alone than in any year since at least ...
Although use levels for cocaine increased between 1992    and 1999, levels have stabilized recently (OJJDP)               ...
For all three grades, past-month alcohol use in 2004 was at  or near its lowest levels since the mid-1970s (OJJDP)        ...
Violent crime by juvenile offenders peaks in the afternoon;violent crime by adults peaks in the late evening (OJJDP)      ...
Unlike violent crime by adult offenders, violent crime by juvenile    offenders peaks in the afterschool hours on school d...
The daily patterns of juvenile violent crimes are similar for               males and females (OJJDP)                    4...
Aggravated assaults by juvenile offenders peak at 3 p.m. onschool days, coinciding with the end of the school day (OJJDP) ...
Violent crime that results in injury to the victim is most likely in theafterschool hours on school days for juvenile offe...
The time and day patterns of juvenile weapons law violations by males and especially by females reflect the major role sch...
Among states with at least minimally adequate reporting, those with high juvenile                    violent crime arrest ...
Juvenile violent crime arrest rates varied considerably among counties                     within a state in 2002 (OJJDP) ...
The states of Wisconsin, Utah, Alaska, Montana, Idaho, Florida, Washington, andColorado reported the highest juvenile Prop...
In 2002, counties within a state varied considerably in their juvenile            Property Crime Index arrest rates (OJJDP...
Although the proportion of juveniles living below the poverty level has declinedsubstantially from its 1993 peak, it is st...
In 2002, black juveniles and Hispanic juveniles were more than 3 times as     likely to live in poverty as non-Hispanic wh...
California Youth Crime and   Incarceration Trends   What the official statistics say        40 Boardman Place             ...
California Youth Incarceration and Crime                      Rate                     Part I Crime   DJF Population160,00...
California Youth Crime      California youth arrested for murder     per 100,000 pop. age 10-17, 1960-20062220181614121086...
California Youth Crime       California youth arrested for rape     per 100,000 pop. age 10-17, 1960-20062520151050 1960  ...
California Youth Crime       California youth arrested for assault      per 100,000 pop. age 10-17, 1960-2006400300200100 ...
California Youth Crime       CA youth arrested for property crime       per 100,000 pop. age 10-17, 1960-20062500200015001...
California Youth Crime                        Crime, CA youth vs. rest of US5,0004,0003,0002,0001,000   0        1960-   1...
California’s changing demographicsPercent of color                                            1970         2008Under age 2...
California Youth Crime RatesChange, 1985-2003, in rates of youth:               Imprisonment      Part I crimeCalifornia  ...
Reports to Read•http://www.cjcj.org/files/Crime_Rates_and_Youth_Incarceration_in_Texas_and_California_Compared.pdf •http:/...
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1. official crime measures

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his Juvenile Justice course materials.

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Transcript of "1. official crime measures"

  1. 1. OFFICAL CRIME MEASURE• UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS• NATIONAL CRIME VICTIMIZATION SURVEYS• JUVENILE COURT STATISTICS (http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/jcsdb/) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  2. 2. Primary Measures of the UCR• Reported crime• Arrests• Clearances 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  3. 3. Uniform Crime Reports are comprised of index crimes and part II crimes:Index Crimes1. Homicide2. Forcible rape3. Robbery4. Aggravated assault5. Burglary6. Larceny7. Motor vehicle theft8. Arson 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  4. 4. Uniform Crime Reports are comprised of index crimes and Part II crimes: Part II Crimes: all crimes not listed as index crimes 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  5. 5. Part II Offenses Include:• simple assault • gambling• curfew offenses • liquor offenses,• loitering • Prostitution• embezzlement • public drunkenness• forgery and • stolen property counterfeiting, • vandalism• disorderly conduct • weapons offenses• driving under the influence• drug offenses• fraud 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  6. 6. Criticism of the UCR• Easily manipulated for political reasons• Skewed towards street crimes• Only counts the most series crime• Does not count the overcharge• Different jurisdiction arrest practices 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  7. 7. National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS Published by the Census bureau and Bureau of Justice Statistics 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  8. 8. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) designed to achieve three primary objectives:• to develop detailed information about the victims and consequences of crime• to estimate the number and types of crimes not reported to police• and to provide uniform measures of selected types of crime 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  9. 9. NCVS methodologySurvey of households members 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  10. 10. NCVS Crimes• assault• burglary• larceny• motor vehicle theft• rape• robbery. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  11. 11. Compiled by the National juvenile justice center & the office ofjuvenile justice and delinquency preventionJUVENILE COURT STATISTICS 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  12. 12. Juvenile Court Statistics• National Estimates of Delinquency Cases• National Estimates of Delinquency Case Processing• National Estimates of Petitioned Status Offense Caseshttp://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/njcda/pdf/jcs2005.pdf 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  13. 13. By 2003, the juvenile Violent Crime Index arrest rate had fallen to the levels of the late 1980s (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  14. 14. Blumstein’s Hypothesis on rising teenage homicides in early 1990’s• Recruitment• Guns as means of self protection• Diffusion of guns• Escalation of violence 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  15. 15. The juvenile arrest rate trend for Property Crime Index offenses is used as a general barometer of all property crime arrests of juveniles (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  16. 16. Violent Crime Index (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  17. 17. Violent Crime Index (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  18. 18. Violent Crime Index (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  19. 19. Murder (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  20. 20. Murder (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  21. 21. Murder (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  22. 22. Forcible Rape (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  23. 23. Between 1980 and 2003, the annual juvenile arrest rate for robbery declined substantially (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  24. 24. Robbery (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  25. 25. Robbery (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  26. 26. Aggravated Assault (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  27. 27. Aggravated Assault (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  28. 28. Aggravated Assault (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  29. 29. Burglary (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  30. 30. Burglary (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  31. 31. Burglary (OJJDP)40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  32. 32. Simple assault (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  33. 33. Property Crime Index (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  34. 34. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  35. 35. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  36. 36. The surge in the juvenile arrest rate for drug abuse violations between 1993 and 1997 occurred during a period when the juvenile violent crime arrest rate was declining (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  37. 37. Drug Abuse arrests (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  38. 38. Drug Abuse Arrests (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  39. 39. After increasing in the mid-1980s to mid-1990s, the juvenile proportion of violentcrimes cleared by arrest or exceptional means did not return to its earlier levels (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  40. 40. The juvenile share of property crime has fallen substantially since 1980 (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  41. 41. Murders by juveniles in 2002 were less likely to be committed by a juvenile acting alone than in any year since at least 1980 (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  42. 42. Murders by juveniles in 2002 were less likely to be committed by a juvenile acting alone than in any year since at least 1980 (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  43. 43. Although use levels for cocaine increased between 1992 and 1999, levels have stabilized recently (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  44. 44. For all three grades, past-month alcohol use in 2004 was at or near its lowest levels since the mid-1970s (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  45. 45. Violent crime by juvenile offenders peaks in the afternoon;violent crime by adults peaks in the late evening (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  46. 46. Unlike violent crime by adult offenders, violent crime by juvenile offenders peaks in the afterschool hours on school days (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  47. 47. The daily patterns of juvenile violent crimes are similar for males and females (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  48. 48. Aggravated assaults by juvenile offenders peak at 3 p.m. onschool days, coinciding with the end of the school day (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  49. 49. Violent crime that results in injury to the victim is most likely in theafterschool hours on school days for juvenile offenders, between 9 p.m. and midnight for adult offenders (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  50. 50. The time and day patterns of juvenile weapons law violations by males and especially by females reflect the major role schools play in bringing these matters to the attention of law enforcement (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  51. 51. Among states with at least minimally adequate reporting, those with high juvenile violent crime arrest rates in 2003 were Delaware, Florida, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  52. 52. Juvenile violent crime arrest rates varied considerably among counties within a state in 2002 (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  53. 53. The states of Wisconsin, Utah, Alaska, Montana, Idaho, Florida, Washington, andColorado reported the highest juvenile Property Crime Index arrest rates in 2003 (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  54. 54. In 2002, counties within a state varied considerably in their juvenile Property Crime Index arrest rates (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  55. 55. Although the proportion of juveniles living below the poverty level has declinedsubstantially from its 1993 peak, it is still considerably larger than that of older Americans (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  56. 56. In 2002, black juveniles and Hispanic juveniles were more than 3 times as likely to live in poverty as non-Hispanic white juveniles (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  57. 57. California Youth Crime and Incarceration Trends What the official statistics say 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  58. 58. California Youth Incarceration and Crime Rate Part I Crime DJF Population160,000 12,000140,000 10,000120,000 8,000100,000 80,000 6,000 60,000 4,000 40,000 2,000 20,000 0 0 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  59. 59. California Youth Crime California youth arrested for murder per 100,000 pop. age 10-17, 1960-20062220181614121086420 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  60. 60. California Youth Crime California youth arrested for rape per 100,000 pop. age 10-17, 1960-20062520151050 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  61. 61. California Youth Crime California youth arrested for assault per 100,000 pop. age 10-17, 1960-2006400300200100 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  62. 62. California Youth Crime CA youth arrested for property crime per 100,000 pop. age 10-17, 1960-20062500200015001000500 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  63. 63. California Youth Crime Crime, CA youth vs. rest of US5,0004,0003,0002,0001,000 0 1960- 1965- 1970- 1975- 1980- 1985- 1990- 1995- 2000- 2005- 64 69 74 79 84 89 94 99 04 06 Part I arrests per 100,000 age 10-17 California US-CA 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  64. 64. California’s changing demographicsPercent of color 1970 2008Under age 25 28% 70%Over age 45 15% 40%Source: California Department of Finance, Demographic Research Unit 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  65. 65. California Youth Crime RatesChange, 1985-2003, in rates of youth: Imprisonment Part I crimeCalifornia - 19% - 56%Rest of US + 62% - 45% Sources: US Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; CJSC. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  66. 66. Reports to Read•http://www.cjcj.org/files/Crime_Rates_and_Youth_Incarceration_in_Texas_and_California_Compared.pdf •http://www.cjcj.org/files/testing_incapacitation.pdf 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013

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