1. develop. of the penitentiary system

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his California Corrections System course materials.

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1. develop. of the penitentiary system

  1. 1. Prisons Throughout HistoryMamertine Prison of Ancient Rome(established 6th century BC)"neglect, darkness and stenchmake it hideous and fearsome tobehold (Sallust 86-34 BC) " 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  2. 2. Socrates PrisonLocated in Athens this is the prisonwhere Socrates was held before hisexecution in 399 BC 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  3. 3. THE MEDIEVAL PRISON• LACK OF UNIFORM PROCEDURES• INHUMAN LIVING CONDITIONS• UNTRAINED AND UNPAID GUARDS• POOR QUALITY OR INADEQUATE FOOD• NO CLASSIFICATION 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  4. 4. Controlling the Pauper Class The Origins of the modern Penitentiary 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  5. 5. The Poor House and Control of the Pauper Classes 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  6. 6. Work Houses and Bridewell Prisons (1550s) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  7. 7. CESARE BECCARIA (1738-1794)Author of Essays on Crime andPunishments 1764 which laid thefoundation for the penitentiarymovement 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  8. 8. Jeremy Bentham 1748-1832English advocate of utilitarianism inprison management and discipline.Argued for the treatment and reformof prisoners 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  9. 9. John Howard (1726-1790)English prison reformer who wrote“The State of the Prisons inEngland and Whales. Advocatedpassage of the Penitentiary Act of1779 by British Government 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  10. 10. Penitentiary • An institution intended to isolate and punish criminals from society for a specified period of time and where they would undergo reformation 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  11. 11. KEY EVENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PENITENTIARY SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES1787 PHILADELPHIA SOCIETY FOR ALLEVIATING THE MISERIES OF PUBLIC PRISONS FOUNDED1786 WHEEL BARROW LAW 17861790 PENITENTIARY ACT1790 WALNUT STREET JAIL IN PHILADELPHIA BECOMES FIRST PENITENTIARY1797 NEWGATE PRISON OPENED IN NEW YORK1816 AUBURN STATE PRISON OPENED1826 SING SING PRISON OPENED1829 EASTERN PENITENTIARY OPENED 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  12. 12. THE QUAKERS The Religious Society of Friends began in England in the 1650s, as A Nonconformistbreakaway movement from English Puritanism. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  13. 13. William Penn (1644-1718)English Quaker, whoestablished Pennsylvaniacolony. Created Quaker Codeof 1682 (Great Law) thatintroduced more humanetreatment of criminal offenders 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  14. 14. Benjamin RushSigner of the Declaration ofIndependence and Founder ofthe Society for the Alleviationof Prison Miseries 1787 andthe advocate for the creation ofthe nation’s first Penitentiarybased on separateconfinement. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  15. 15. FUNCTIONS OF THE PHILADELPHIA SOCIETY FOR ALLEVIATING THE MISERIES OF PUBLIC PRISONS• ADVOCACY• INSPECTION• DIRECT RELIEF 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  16. 16. Penitentiary Act of 1790Established penitentiary of16 cells within the existingWalnut Street Jail to carryout solitary confinement for"hardened atrociousoffenders” 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  17. 17. SEPARATE/SOLITARY SYSTEMA PENITENTIARY SYSTEM DEVELOPED IN PENNSYLVANIA INWHICH EACH INMATE WAS HELD IN ISOLATION FROM OTHERINMATES, WITH ALL ACTIVITIES, INCLUDING CRAFTWORK, CARRIED ON IN THE CELLS 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  18. 18. PENNSYLVANIA SYSTEMBASED ON THREE PRINCIPLES:• SOLITARY CONFINEMENT• WORK (work shops)• PENITENCE 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  19. 19. Eastern State Penitentiary 1829The model for the Pennsylvaniasystem.Charles Dickens visits the UnitedStates to see Niagara Falls and theEastern State Penitentiary. He laterwrote, "The System is rigid, strictand hopeless solitary confinement,and I believe it, in its effects, to becruel and wrong...." 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  20. 20. New York and theCongregate Penitentiary System 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  21. 21. Thomas Eddy, 1758 -1827“ New Yorks first prisonreformer” and is often referredto as America’s Howard.Developed and promoted whatbecame known as the“congregate system” of prisondesign: The foundation for the modernprison system 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  22. 22. Primary Goal of the Prison“Eradicating the evil passions and corrupt habits which are sources of guilt” Thomas Eddy 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  23. 23. CONGREGATE SYSTEM• A PENITENTIARY SYSTEM DEVELOPED IN AUBURN NY, IN WHICH INMATES WERE HELD IN ISOLATION AT NIGHT BUT WORKED WITH OTHER PRISONERS DURING THE DAY UNDER A RULE OF SILENCE 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  24. 24. Newgate Prison (1797) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  25. 25. Newgate Prison 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  26. 26. Foundations of the Auburn System• Solitary confinement at night• Congregate work stations• Enforced silence 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  27. 27. ARGUMENTS FOR THE CONGREGATE/AUBURN SYSTEM• LESS COSTLY DESIGN• INCREASED INMATE WORK PRODUCTIVITY (Factory system)• LOWER OPERATING COSTS 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  28. 28. Captain Elam LyndsWarden of Auburn and Sing SingA staunch advocate forharsh and repressivemethods for managinginmates, Lynds advocatedand/or introduced: Silent system Routine flogging Lock step Prison strips 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  29. 29. Life under the Auburn System Rule by terror 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  30. 30. Auburn State PrisonPioneered the inside cellblock design with oneinmate per cellPictured is a classic fivetiered Auburn style cellblock (c1910) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  31. 31. Auburn cellsExterior of a Convict Cell Interior of Auburn Style Cell 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  32. 32. Single CellUnder the Auburnsystem inmateswere housedseparately only atnight in small cells 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  33. 33. Auburn Lock Step 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  34. 34. Auburn and the Contract Labor System 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  35. 35. Auburn Basket Shop c 1905 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  36. 36. Inmate FloggingFlogging was themost commonpunishment in the19th century prison 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  37. 37. Early forms of Prison TortureThe Crown Pulleys 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  38. 38. The BathA common form ofpunishment at Auburn andSing Sing 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013

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