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Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
Seaweed Systematics
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  • Calulerpa is a species of green alga, belongs in the family Caulerpaceae. It is commonly known as sea grapes and is found in many areas of shallow sea around the world.
  • Enteromorpha is a green alga in the phylum Chlorophyta, of the genus Ulva (sea lettuce), also known by the common names gutweed and grass kelp.
  • Ulva is bright green algae composed of lobed, ruffle-edged leaves that are coarse and sheet-like and resemble a leaf of lettuce. The leaves may appear flat, thin, broad, and often rounded or oval. Its leaves are often perforated with holes of various sizes. Almost no stalk exists at the point of attachment, and no true roots are present. When dried by the sun, its color can range from white to black.
  • Gracilaria is a genus of red algae (Rhodophyta) notable for its economic importance as an agarophyte, as well as its use as a food for humans and various species of shellfish.
  • Rhodymenia Good source of minerals and vitamins compared with other vegetables, contains all trace elements needed by humans, and has a high protein content.
  • Laminaria is a large seaweed (algae) belonging to the brown algae (Pheaophyceae) in the order Laminaries. There are about 30 different genera.
  • Monostroma species is currently regarded as a taxonomic synonym of Ulvaria obscura var. blyttii (Areschoug) Bliding.
  • The holdfast of C. tomentosum is saucer-shaped and has closely woven strands giving it a uniform appearance. It grows to 30 cm (12 in) in length and is spongy, with the texture of felt. It is covered with colourless hairs which are visible when it is submerged.
  • For thousands of years
  • Transcript

    • 1. The multicellular Marine Algae
    • 2.  Macroscopic multicellular marine algae are referred as seaweed and are found at different levels between the tide marks end in sublittoral habitats. Members of three classes of algae mainly involved are the rhodophyceae, chlorophyceae, and phaeophyceae and, and the representatives grow attached to rocky substrata, are found as epiphytes, and are sometimes rooted in the sand. INTRODUCTION - - -
    • 3. INTRODUCTION - - -  Rhodophyceae Grow as single-celled plants or plants that grow as filaments, branched plants, broad flat plates, and ruffled plants. They come in a variety of sizes, but most red algae are small. All species attach to substrate such as rock or coral and sometimes to an animal shell or even another algae species
    • 4. INTRODUCTION - - - Rhodophyta: Red algae Example: Rhodymenia palmate Characteristics: The red colour of these algae results from the pigments phycoerythrin and phycocyanin; this masks the other pigments, Chlorophyll a (no Chlorophyll b), beta- carotene and a number of unique xanthophylls. The main reserves are typically floridean starch, and floridoside; true starch like that of higher plants and green algae is absent. The walls are made of cellulose and agars and carrageenans, both long-chained polysaccharide in widespread commercial use. There are some unicellular representatives of diverse origin; more complex thalli are built up of filaments.
    • 5. INTRODUCTION - - -  Phaeophyceae Contain the largest and most complex algae plants. Pacific kelp are a brown algae species. There are no unicellular or colonial forms of brown algae. This algae are commonly found attached to the substrate in cool, shallow waters near the shore in temperate and sub polar regions. Some forms of brown algae have developed adaptations to survive life on the coast where they may be pounded by surf or submerged then exposed with the tide. Large brown algae are used as shelter for some bottom-dwelling animals. They also provide serve as substrate for other algae that grow as epiphytes, or plants that grow on other plants.
    • 6. INTRODUCTION - - - Phaeophyceae: Brown Algae Examples: Laminaria and Saccharina, Fucus, Sargassum muticum Characteristics: The brown colour of these algae results from the dominance of the xanthophyll pigment fucoxanthin, which masks the other pigments, Chlorophyll a and c (no Chlorophyll b), beta-carotene and other xanthophylls. Food reserves are typically complex polysaccharides, sugars and higher alcohols. The principal carbohydrate reserve is laminaran, and true starch is absent (compare with the green algae). The walls are made of cellulose and alginic acid, a long-chained heteropolysaccharide.
    • 7. INTRODUCTION - - -  Chlorophyceae The most biodiverse of the algaes with species that grow in a variety of forms and in a variety of habitats (the Charophyta are found entirely in freshwater for example). They are typically small and simple, with many single-celled species, some that form branched filaments, hollow balls of cells, or broad, flat sheets. Some species attach to sandy shores by secreting a calcareous cement rather than holdfasts that might shift with the sand and become unstable.
    • 8. INTRODUCTION - - - Chlorophyceae: Green Algae Examples: Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva. Characteristics: Green colour from chlorophyll a and b in the same proportions as the 'higher' plants; beta-carotene (a yellow pigment); and various characteristic xanthophylls (yellowish or brownish pigments). Food reserves starch, some fats or oils like higher plants. Some green algae are to be the progenitors of the higher green plants but there is currently some debate on this point.
    • 9. INTRODUCTION - - - The term seaweed grows almost exclusively in the shallow waters at the edge of the world's oceans. They provide home and food for many different sea animals, lend beauty to the underwater landscape, and are directly valuable to man as a food and industrial raw material.
    • 10. SYSTEMATICSHISTORYOFSEAWEEDS --- The evolution of micro algae and macro algae on earth.
    • 11. SYSTEMATICS HISTORY OF SEAWEEDS - - - Beginning about 600 million years ago, seaweed was one of these early plants with more than one cell. Seaweed lived in the ocean. During the Proterozoic period, when seaweeds first evolved, the Earth was much colder than it is now. Most of the Earth's water was probably frozen into ice, and the oceans were shallower than they are now. Seaweed evolved to live in shallow ocean water, where there was enough sunlight for photosynthesis, and rocks to attach themselves to.
    • 12. SYSTEMATICS HISTORY OF SEAWEEDS - - - For centuries, seaweed has inspired botanical, industrial, and pharmaceutical interest. Because of the high nutrient content, seaweed has been used as food throughout Asia. Traditional Chinese medicine used hot water extracts of several types of seaweed in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, the Japanese and Chinese cultures used seaweed to treat goiter and other glandular problems as long ago as 300 BC.
    • 13. SYSTEMATICS HISTORY OF SEAWEEDS - - -  SEAWEED AS FOOD  SEAWEED KEPT THE LAND FERTILE  MINERALS FROM SEAWEED  CAMOUFLAGE, CUSTARD AND PARACHUTES – ALGINATES TAKE CENTRE STAGE  SEAWEED INTO THE FUTURE THE IMPORTANCE OF SEAWEED ACROSS THE AGES
    • 14. SEAWEED BIODIVERSITY --- It is estimated that there are ~10,000 species of seaweed occur intercontinental. There are three groups of seaweeds recognized, according to their pigments that captivate light of certain wavelengths and give them their characteristics colours of green, brown and red. Because they need light to survive, seaweeds are found only in the relatively shallow parts of the oceans, which means around the shores.
    • 15. SEAWEED BIODIVERSITY - - - Marine algae are abundant throughout the ocean and can either float freely or cling to substrate such as rocks and reefs. The majority of seaweeds are classified as red algae (~6,000 species). There are also brown algae (~2,000 species) and green algae (~8,000 species). None of the algae species are known to be poisonous, and many species are harvested for human consumption.
    • 16. SEAWEED BIODIVERSITY - - - Rhodymenia palmate Palmaria sp. Red seaweeds
    • 17. SEAWEED BIODIVERSITY - - - Laminaria dentigera Brown seaweeds
    • 18. SEAWEED BIODIVERSITY - - - Halimeda cuneata Caulerpa racemosa Green seaweeds
    • 19. SEAWEED BIODIVERSITY - - - Some species of marine macro benthic algae, including many species of Cyanophyta, are reported in the Philippines. This consist of 472 species of Rhodophya belonging to 37 families and 11 orders, 134 species of Phaeophyta belonging to 10 families and 7 orders and 214 species of Chlorophyta belonging to 11 families and 7 orders.
    • 20. SEAWEED BIODIVERSITY - - - The Philippines is an archipelago comprising numerous islands and is endowed with a high level of biodiversity which includes aquatic marine plants and animals. Among the aquatic plants which are economically valuable both locally or internationally are the following: Caulerpa, Eucheuma, Gelidiella, Gracilaria, Kappaphycus, Porphyra and Sargassum. With the exeption of Gelideilla, Porphyra, and Sargassum, the rest are cultivated, however, the cultivation of Kappaphycus is the most expensive.
    • 21. SELECTED SEAWEED SPECIES WITH IT’S CLASSIFICATION - - - Chaetomorpha crassa Classification: Empire: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Chlorophyta Class: Ulvophyceae Order: Cladophorales Family: Cladophoraceae Genus: Chaetomorpha
    • 22. SELECTED SEAWEED SPECIES WITH IT’S CLASSIFICATION - - - Caulerpa racemosa Classification: Empire: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Chlorophyta Class: Ulvophyceae Order: Bryopsidales Family: Caulerpaceae Genus: Caulerpa
    • 23. SELECTED SEAWEED SPECIES WITH IT’S CLASSIFICATION - - - Enteromorpha intestinalis Classification: Empire: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Chlorophyta Class: Ulvophyceae Order: Ulvales Family: Ulvaceae Genus: Enteromorpha
    • 24. SELECTED SEAWEED SPECIES WITH IT’S CLASSIFICATION - - - Ulva lactuca Classification: Empire: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Chlorophyta Class: Ulvophyceae Order: Ulvales Family: Ulvaceae Genus: Ulva
    • 25. SELECTED SEAWEED SPECIES WITH IT’S CLASSIFICATION - - - Gracilaria verrucosa Classification: Empire: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Rhodophyta Class: Florideophyceae Order: Gracilariales Family: Gracilariaceae Genus: Gracilaria
    • 26. SELECTED SEAWEED SPECIES WITH IT’S CLASSIFICATION - - - Rhodymenia palmate Classification: Empire: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Rhodophyta Class: Florideophyceae Order: Rhodymeniales Family: Rhodymeniaceae Genus: Rhodymenia
    • 27. SELECTED SEAWEED SPECIES WITH IT’S CLASSIFICATION - - - Laminaria dentigera Classification: Empire:Eukaryota Kingdom: Chromista Phylum: Heterokontophyta Class: Phaeophyceae Order: Laminariales Family: Laminariaceae Genus: Laminaria
    • 28. SELECTED SEAWEED SPECIES WITH IT’S CLASSIFICATION - - - Monostroma fuscum Classification: Empire: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Chlorophyta Class: Ulvophyceae Order: Ulotrichales Family: Gomontiaceae Genus: Monostroma
    • 29. SELECTED SEAWEED SPECIES WITH IT’S CLASSIFICATION - - - Codium dichotomum Classification: Empire: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Chlorophyta Class: Ulvophyceae Order: Bryopsidales Family: Codiaceae Genus: Codium
    • 30. SEAWEED’S ANATOMY --- Frond - A thallus or thalloid shoot (As of lichen or seaweed) resembling a leaf. Blade – The flat expanded part of a leaf as distinguished from the petiole. Gas bladder – An air-filled sac or float. Stipe - A stalk that supports some other structure. Connects the holdfast and blade of a fronds alga. Hold fast - a root-like structure that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, such as seaweed, and other sessile algae.
    • 31. DICHOTOMOUS KEY - - -
    • 32. DICHOTOMOUS KEY - - -
    • 33. DICHOTOMOUS KEY - - -
    • 34. PHYLOGENETIC TREE OF SEAWEED - - - Phylogenetic Tree (evolutionary history of land plants) where Seaweeds evolve.
    • 35. MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES OF THE SYSTEMATICS OF SEAWEED - - - Identification of seaweeds has been based on morphology but in the last decade or so, MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES have INCREASINGLY been USED for identification, notably DNA BARCODING where a short piece of DNA IS USED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SAMPLES. These data have revealed so much undiscovered diversity and are changing biodiversity concepts and patterns of distribution. Similarly, Seaweed taxonomy has been based primarily on morphology but, it is now based largely on molecular taxonomic approach.
    • 36. OTHER IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES OF THE SYSTEMATICS OF SEAWEED - - -  Morphology  Anatomy  Pigments  Reproduction
    • 37. LIST OF SEAWEEDS SPECIES - - - CLASS GENUS SPECIES COMMON NAME 1 Chlorophyceae Codium fragile Dead man's fingers 2 Chlorophyceae Ulva lactuca Sea lettuce 3 Chlorophyceae Cladophora columbiana Green tuft 4 Rhodophyceae Palmaria molis Red ribbon 5 Rhodophyceae Lomentaria hakodatensis Sea tangle 6 Rhodophyceae Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii Sea noodles 7 Pheophyceae Leathesia difformis Sea cauliflower 8 Pheophyceae Saccharina latissima Sugar kelp 9 Pheophyceae Ralfsia fungiformis Sea fungus
    • 38. REFERENCES Gabriel D., M.I. Parente, A.I. Neto, M. Raposo, T. Schils& S. Fredericq. 2010. A phylogenetic appraisal of the genus Platoma (Nemastomatales, Rhodophyta), including life history and morphological observations on P. cyclocolpum from the Azores. Phycologia 49: 2-21. Gellini, R. and Paoletti, E. 1993. Herbarium specimens shed light on climatic and environmental changes. Webbia 48: 191– 196. Lehmkuhl, K. Virginia. (2003). Investigations into the diversity and molecular relatedness of theEuropean species of the red algal genus Plocamium (Plocamiales, Florideophyceae): Recognizing cryptic species. University of New Brunswick (Canada). S. Fredriksen, M. D. Guiry, and J. Rueness (1994) Morphological and biosystematic studies of Gelidium pusillum and G. pulchellum (Gelidiaceae, Rhodophyta) from Europe. Phycologia: November 1994, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 462-470.
    • 39. REFERENCES http://www.biodiv/life.org.chm.html http://www.environment.gov.au/life/chm/chm2.html http://www.algaebase.com http://seaweed.ucg.ie/Cultivating/NoriProcessing.html http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/seaweed/page-1 http://news.sciencemag.org/evolution/2011/02/scienceshot-ancient-seaweed- rewriteshistory
    • 40. THANK YOU SYSTEMATICS IS FUN ! ! !

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