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  • This presentation will deal with the animal welfare aspects of pig production using material from case studies from across the world. Animal welfare is a key part of Good Agricultural Practice. Lecturer note: Additional script and lecturer notes will appear in this window where necessary. Some slides have questions which can be used for discussion – these are in blue and fly up from the bottom of the slide when running the presentation. This Powerpoint presentation is part of a package which includes a book and a film. If showing the film first, you may wish to use a shorter version of this presentation which aims to avoid repetition. This is available separately. For references to information contained in this presentation, please see the Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book.
  • This presentation will deal with the animal welfare aspects of pig production using material from case studies from across the world. Animal welfare is a key part of Good Agricultural Practice. Lecturer note: Additional script and lecturer notes will appear in this window where necessary. Some slides have questions which can be used for discussion – these are in blue and fly up from the bottom of the slide when running the presentation. This Powerpoint presentation is part of a package which includes a book and a film. If showing the film first, you may wish to use a shorter version of this presentation which aims to avoid repetition. This is available separately. For references to information contained in this presentation, please see the Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book.
  • Good farming aims to produce adequate quantities of safe and wholesome food for the world’s population, providing jobs for rural communities, and protecting both the welfare of animals and the environment. This presentation will concentrate on the animal welfare aspects of Good Agricultural Practice.
  • The full presentation is broken down into these key sections
  • More than 1.1 billion pigs are produced each year worldwide, making the pig the most common mammal reared for meat.
  • To understand the welfare needs of pigs, we also need to understand their natural behaviour and their ancestry. Pigs are descended from the wild boar.
  • Many different kinds of pig have been selectively bred to suit different environments The smaller Iberian pig is more effective at losing heat because the smaller the animal the greater the surface area to body mass ratio. The black pigment also gives protection against the sun’s rays. On the other hand, Mangalicas are very large pigs that also have a high fat content. They have a thick curly coat of hair that provides insulation during the cold winters.
  • Just like their wild boar ancestors, pigs live in social groups with around 2-4 often related sows with their offspring. These may be a group of sisters from the same litter. Males tend to be solitary until the breeding season.
  • Sows will normally only leave the family group when they are about to give birth. They search for a suitable site where they can build a nest in seclusion. The young are born with four needle-sharp teeth which they use to compete for the best teats. The teats nearest the head produce the most milk; quantities drop off as you pass to the teats towards the back of the animal, especially if the sow is in poor condition and has low fat stores. The advantage of this in the wild is that in a poor year a few of the piglets are well fed and can survive; in a good year, there is a chance for all to survive. It is important to keep the modern sow in good condition to ensure that she can feed all of her young. Once the piglets are a week or a few weeks old, the mother returns with them to the main family group where they meet their cousins and aunts. Once they are three or four weeks old, they start to eat solid food. By about six weeks, they will drink smaller quantities of milk and they gradually become more independent of their mother. They will be gradually weaned by about 13-17 weeks old.
  • Pigs are highly adaptable and intelligent animals, able to obtain resources in a changing environment.
  • They have a highly varied diet. Feeding behaviours include rooting, grazing and browsing.
  • Pigs spend up to nine hours a day foraging for food, with periods of rest often at mid-day and at night.
  • Piglets are especially prone to cold. These piglets huddle together to keep warm. Pigs do not have sweat glands and depend on behaviour to keep cool. Wallowing not only cools them, but helps to control parasites. Video high quality small
  • However, in intensive systems, pigs are often kept in environments that do not allow them to express their complex behavioural repertoire. Dry sows spend all their time close-confined in stalls Farrowing sows spend all their time close-confined in farrowing crates After weaning, the piglets are moved to barren flat-deck cages The growing pigs are crowded into bare pens with slatted or concrete floors Discussion opportunity to consider how far the needs of pigs can be met in these systems. How could more enriched indoor or outdoor environments be designed to meet these needs?
  • Pig systems can easily be modified to provide for the needs of pigs for foraging, comfortable rest, making a nest before farrowing and allowing pigs to rest away from their dunging area. These depend on space and a suitable bedding material such as straw or ground wood.
  • Outdoor pigs need shelter from extremes of weather, wallows for cooling and skin care, and protection from predators such as this electric perimeter fence. Pigs need rubbing posts for skin care.
  • In summary, pigs exhibit a range of natural behaviours inherited from their natural ancestors (Ref: Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book chapter 3)
  • We will look first at the welfare of pregnant, or “dry”, sows
  • One of the most intensive systems is the sow stall. Though banned and due to be banned in an increasing number of countries, ( see details in legislation chapter of book which accompanies this presentation) this system is widely used worldwide. Opportunity for discussion: Why are sows often kept in stalls? Reasons include: to reduce space and thereby costs to prevent aggression to simplify management and observation of individual sows to allow a high stocking density Opportunity for discussion: What are the key welfare consequences? (examples covered in next slides)
  • The stall severely restricts many natural behaviours: they can’t exercise or socialise properly pregnant sows are usually kept on a restricted diet to stop them getting fat. When hungry, they are unable to set out to forage they don’t have a separate place to defaecate or urinate if they get too hot, they can’t wallow; if they get too cold they can’t huddle Frustration of these natural behaviours leads to a range of stereotypic behaviours.
  • This sow is exhibiting a stereotypic behaviour. She is probably hungry but is unable to forage. This could be a displaced feeding behaviour. However, it is not like normal feeding. It is very repetitive and she is not filling her stomach. Stereotypies are believed to result from frustration and are considered to be a sign of poor welfare. Opportunities for discussion: What sort? (bar-biting) Other kinds? (sham-chewing, excessive drinking, tongue-rolling etc) Cause? (frustration of a range of natural behaviours such as motivation to eat etc) Key features (repetitive, apparently pointless, caused by frustration of one or more natural behaviours etc)
  • Another stereotypic behaviour is sham-chewing. Opportunity for discussion: describe this behaviour – sow is chewing nothing but producing saliva and swallowing it – likely to be caused by boredom or hunger
  • Sows in stalls are also likely to drink excessive quantities of water. Opportunity for discussion: Likely causes? – could include hunger, boredom How could you tell whether normal or not? – possible methods include comparing amount of water drunk and frequency of drinking of sow who is not confined or who has access to ad lib feed or a fibrous foraging material like straw Lecturers’ note: Strictly speaking, excessive drinking might be better described as a displacement activity rather than as a stereotypy. Stereotypies are displacement activities that don’t serve any obvious function and which are repetitive. Excessive drinking does not appear to be repetitive, but it is an alternative form of oral stimulation for a sow which is motivated to feed.
  • Note to lecturer: Stereotypies such as these are exhibited by a range of animal species kept in confinement. For example, tongue rolling has been observed in giraffes kept in zoos which do not have access to sufficient woody material such as branches to browse.
  • A range of animals as well as pigs respond to boredom and frustration by showing stereotypic behaviour. An alternative response, again shown in a range of species including pigs, is to stop responding to the environment at all and to become apathetic. Opportunity for discussion: this sow appears to be ignoring her environment, but might just be resting. How could one tell? (One method is to see how the sow responds to her environment, for example apathetic sows are significantly less responsive when cool water is poured onto them; another method would be to log an animal’s responses over the course of a day and compare with others). How do you prevent stereotypic or apathetic behaviours? (possible answers in next slides, eg provide opportunities for foraging and other natural behaviours, keep in groups, permit space, enrich environments etc)
  • The best ways to prevent stereotypic and apathetic behaviours are to provide sows with something to do and to deal with motivations such as hunger.
  • There are also boars, kept for mating with the sows. In some countries such as the UK, boars must be provided with bedding, but in other parts of the world they are kept in barren pens or even in stalls.
  • New EU rules require dry sows to be provided with high-fibre food so that hunger is dealt with as well as energy needs.
  • For these reasons, the sow stall is banned or is due to be banned in a number of countries. More details on pig welfare legislation across the world in Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book chapter 16
  • See Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book chapter 5
  • Sows naturally live in small groups that know each other well and have developed a dominance hierarchy early in life. This helps to reduce aggression.
  • On the other hand, under commercial conditions, aggression between sows in groups can be a significant problem.
  • This slide, extracted from the Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production film, illustrates the problems that can occur at feeding time when hungry sows compete for a restricted food supply.
  • These Kenyan sows are being fed leaves. Note the mild aggressive interaction. Opportunity for discussion: Why is the aggression milder here on this free-range Kenyan farm? Possible reasons: Clearly this isn’t a concentrated food and the motivation is lower. However, it is widely believed that free-range sows are more laid-back with each other. These sows are kept in a stable group and clearly have developed a dominance order so disagreements can be quickly settled. The provision of high fibre food and opportunities for rooting can help to give the sows gut-fill. With plenty of space, sows can settle their disagreements with less stress. Having plenty to do can also reduce stress.
  • These Kenyan sows are being fed leaves. Note the mild aggressive interaction. Opportunity for discussion: Why is the aggression milder here on this free-range Kenyan farm? Possible reasons: Clearly this isn’t a concentrated food and the motivation is lower. However, it is widely believed that free-range sows are more laid-back with each other. These sows are kept in a stable group and clearly have developed a dominance order so disagreements can be quickly settled. The provision of high fibre food and opportunities for rooting can help to give the sows gut-fill. With plenty of space, sows can settle their disagreements with less stress. Having plenty to do can also reduce stress.
  • Several feeding systems have been devised which keep sows apart at feeding time. This is an electronic feed stall. Each sow can enter the stall in turn. She wears a transponder to indicate to the computer whether the sow is due to be fed and how much.
  • Advantages and disadvantages – on slide Advantages: sows kept apart; can feed in peace without fear of aggression; a sow in poor condition can be given additional feed; system is automatic Disadvantages: sows cannot feed at once (they will get hungry in response to seeing each other feed); there may be aggression over order of entry; aggression can occur in systems where sow has to reverse out after feeding – risk of vulva biting; feeding doesn’t occupy much of their time) Lecturers’ note: This farm used this system for sows who have recently been weaned and mixed together again. This is the point at which sows are most likely to be aggressive and are most likely to benefit from extra feed if out of condition. The sows were later moved into a smaller pen in which feed was scattered onto the straw.
  • In this system the sows are let into feeding stalls just for feeding. Once they are all finished, they are let out.
  • Opportunity for discussion: Advantages, disadvantages. Advantages: Adv of sow stalls without the disadvantages; can feed in peace; sows in poor condition can be given extra; all sows feed at the same time as they would naturally – they don’t have to wait for more dominant sows to fed Disadvantages: this system is expensive to set up; feeding doesn’t occupy a large part of the day In this college system, this is only used for gilts and recently weaned sows. These may have recently been mixed, leading to increased risk of aggression. This is also the point at which it is most important to feed up sows in poor condition.
  • In this trickle-feed system, pellets are introduced into each feeding station a few at a time. Sows will stay at their own station as they wait for the next pellets to arrive
  • Advantages : All the sows can feed at the same time over a period of time. It doesn’t make sense to leave a station to try and get another sow’s feed since that means missing the next lot at one’s own station. Disadvantages: sows can’t be fed different amounts individually etc
  • In this system, feed is scattered all over the pen and into a straw substrate. Opportunity for discussion: Advantages, disadvantages – on slide Advantages: All the sows can feed at once. The feed is widely dispersed, so there is less risk of fighting. They can spend hours looking for the last morsels of feed and will eat fibre at the same time, helping to achieve gut-fill. Disadvantages: If scattering ineffective, there may still be some risk of aggression; sows in poor condition can’t be given extra (NB a case for using feeding stalls immediately after weaning, then into a system like this)
  • In this system, food is dumped automatically from the ceiling once a day. Opportunity for discussion: Advantages, disadvantages – similar to previous one, though feed may be less well scattered Advantages: All the sows can feed at once. They can spend hours looking for the last morsels of feed and will eat fibre at the same time, helping to achieve gut-fill. Disadvantages: Scattering may be ineffective, there may still be some risk of aggression; sows in poor condition can’t be given extra (NB a case for using feeding stalls immediately after weaning, then into a system like this)
  • This College system was designed to give sows plenty of space in an enriched environment. It worked well and was highly productive for sows which had 25% Chinese Meishan genetics. Opportunity for discussion: Advantages of system 1 – spacious, plenty of escape areas, enriched, dump-feed system, separate resting, feeding and excretory areas etc Disadvantages – frequent mixing can cause stress and aggression. This was not a problem with the Meishan cross sows which were of a calm disposition. Unfortunately, the meat produced had too high a fat content for the UK market. When they converted to a Large White/Landrace cross to produce pigs with a lower fat content, inseminated sows would often come back into oestrus. Opportunity for discussion: causes and solutions. Cause – mixing sows back into group likely to cause aggression and stress, leading to loss of early pregnancy. Solutions – avoid mixing When the college de-populated the unit to deal with disease problems, they broke the area up into small pens. This allowed the sows to be kept in smaller and, where possible, stable groups. Food is now scattered into the straw by hand. Opportunity for discussion: advantages/ disadvantages Advantages – stable groups mean less aggression; still has plenty of straw to forage in Disadvantages – less space, so less time spent feeding. NB newly weaned sows in this farm go to pen with feeding stalls seen earlier to enable sows in poor condition to receive extra feed
  • Summary – see Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book chapters 5 & 12
  • The next section looks at the welfare of farrowing sows
  • Here is a wild boar nesting
  • A domestic sow behaves in the same way, just before she gives birth to piglets. This one is carrying branches to her nest in the woods.
  • Opportunity for discussion: Why is piglet crushing a problem? large size of sow, small size of piglet The modern sow is very much larger than her new-born piglets and she produces large litters – usually about 10 compared to the litters of 5 or 6 produced by wild boar sows. The piglets are therefore prone to being accidentally crushed or trampled.
  • A key to reducing piglet mortality lies in genetics. Some sows are better mothers than others and will naturally behave in ways that reduce the risk of piglet crushing. For example: Sows respond instinctively to a piglet’s squeal and will get up if they do accidentally lie on a piglet. Sows will naturally check through the bedding and shift piglets out of the way before lying down. The sow will need plenty of space to enable her to manoevre with enough care to avoid crushing her piglets.
  • A key to reducing piglet mortality lies in genetics. Some sows are better mothers than others and will naturally behave in ways that reduce the risk of piglet crushing. For example: Sows respond instinctively to a piglet’s squeal and will get up if they do accidentally lie on a piglet. Sows will naturally check through the bedding and shift piglets out of the way before lying down. The sow will need plenty of space to enable her to manoevre with enough care to avoid crushing her piglets.
  • Although farrowing crates can reduce the risk of crushing piglets, the sow suffers as a result of being severely restricted.
  • This sow is showing stereotyped nesting behaviour (clip from Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production film) A few hours before birth, she would be building a nest Without nesting material she goes through a repetitive nesting behaviour, resulting from her frustration. Opportunity for discussion: effects of this later – answers on slide (stress hormone build-up, delayed birth leading to higher rates of stillbirths). The stress may also contribute to a higher sow death-rate. (NB This clip is also used in Farm Animals & Us 2, Compassion in World Farming’s video for older school pupils and adults).
  • The risk of savaging is especially high for gilts
  • One compromise is to release the sow from the crate three days after farrowing once the main risk of crushing is over. Opportunity to discuss advantages and disadvantages of this.
  • A range of alternatives to the farrowing crate have been developed. In this Swedish system, sows remain in their groups. When ready to farrow, they can choose an individual farrowing box to build their nest.
  • Another alternative is to provide sows with individual farrowing pens. This system has been set up in an agricultural college in the United Kingdom to replace their farrowing crates. They found no increase in piglet death rate compared with the crates Opportunity for discussion: Advantages and disadvantages? Answers on screen: Advantages This provides the isolated nesting spot that a sow would naturally seek out. This helps to reduce piglet mortality. Nesting material is provided for the farrowing sow. The sow has some freedom of movement, though less than in the previous system. Piglet safety features. Disadvantages: Piglets cannot mix with other litters which would reduce the stress at weaning when they are finally mixed. Additional discussion point: the safety bars may help protect piglets, but they may impede the sow in trying to get down carefully – it is important in free-sow systems that she still has enough space to do this.
  • These are outdoor farrowing arcs. In the UK, 35% of piglets are produced in systems similar to this. The sows farrow in group pens surrounded by electric fences. Barriers help to prevent very small piglets from straying. Opportunity for discussion: How does this tie in with natural sow behaviour? It allows sows to farrow in separate nesting areas, though with less seclusion than would be possible in the wild. The lack of seclusion can result in a slightly higher level of piglet mortality, especially for gilts who are more likely to try to farrow in the same huts as each other. The piglets from different litters can mix as soon as they are old enough to get over the hut barriers.
  • Lecturer note: Keeping the sows separate during farrowing can reduce piglet mortality compared to the system on the previous slide. The piglets can mix with each other by running under the electric fence. The sows can’t mix until the fences are removed.
  • The figures in this table have been averaged from statistics published each year by the Meat and Livestock Commission in the UK. Opportunity for discussion of the figures and reasons for them: see next slide
  • (see previous slide) Can these results be explained? Higher sow mortality in indoor herds. Possible explanation – stress caused by the frustration of the nesting instinct may cause increased mortality in farrowing crates. Higher piglet mortality in indoor herds. Possible explanation – frustration of nesting instinct and consequent higher stress hormone levels can delay birth and therefore increase risk of piglets being stillborn. Lower mortality amongst piglets born outside. This appears surprising. Higher rates of death from crushing might be expected in outdoor herds since these do not use farrowing crates. Strains of sows used outdoors have been bred for better mothering ability and this may explain lower mortality. Where strains of sow with higher fat levels are kept, it is possible that piglets may be better nourished. Lower rates of savaging likely for sows which have had a proper chance to interact properly with their piglets immediately after birth. More piglets reared per litter in outdoor sows. Likely to be due to lower mortalities above. More piglets reared per sow per year indoors. (NB This is the only figure which was not consistent for each of the five years averaged). Indoor sows have slightly more litters per year resulting in slightly higher overall productivity.
  • (see Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book chapter 6) The farrowing crate is a technological solution to the problem of piglet mortality. An alternative biological solution is to breed sows to be better mothers and to provide an environment in which they can nest safely.
  • Script on slide Lecturers’ note: The amount of milk which goes to each teat declines the further the teat is along the body. This is a tendency inherited from the wild boar. In the wild animal, this would mean that, if food was scarce, only the piglets on the front two or four teats would get enough milk. The others would starve, but the favoured few would have an increased chance of survival. If the sow was in better condition or had access to more food, then there would be enough milk for more piglets to survive. During each suckling period, the sow puts milk down into the teats for about a minute. Once the dominance hierarchy is established and each piglet has laid claim his or her teat, it does not make sense to squabble too much for a better teat since they would then lose out on that suckling opportunity. If, however, there is relatively little milk available to a piglet, then it would make more sense for them to try to fight for a better teat. In this situation, injuries due to fighting are much more likely to occur. N.B. In the modern sow, if she is not in good condition it remains common for the weakest piglets to fail to thrive. This is probably because they are not getting enough milk. Sows in farrowing crates sometimes eat less food and this may result, due to smaller milk supplies, in more piglets failing to thrive
  • Lecturer note: Cross fostering is where litter sizes are equalised by fostering piglets from large litters onto sows with small litters. It is carried out to improve the survival chances of small piglets from really large litters.
  • This farm in France promotes high welfare keeping all the pigs on deep bedding. They breed Large-White x Landrace sows that have large litters and sometimes injuries do occur due to competition for teats. The farmer inspects the piglets shortly after birth and if injuries occur, he uses a teeth grinder to blunt the incisors.
  • Eastbrook farm is an organic unit with high welfare standards. They have chosen to use Saddleback sows that are a traditional breed more suited to outdoor conditions. The sows have around 8 piglets per litter rather than 10+. Since they have not been bred to have reduced backfat, they stay in condition for longer
  • Compassion in World Farming supports EU regulations that require farmers to take steps to improve the environment of piglets and reduce stocking densities before resorting to mutilations such as tail-docking or the reduction of corner teeth.
  • See Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book Chapter 7
  • Piglets will scream when they are handled whether or not they are castrated. Some people have argued that that piglets are more stressed by the process of being handled than by the actual castration. The science suggests otherwise. This piece of scientific research compared the calls of 2 groups of piglets. The first group was castrated. The second group was handled in a similar way, but the actual operation was not carried out. Both groups of piglet were distressed by the process of being lifted up and restrained, and made a series of high-pitched calls. However, the sham-castrated piglets gradually calmed down as they became used to the restraint. However, the castrated piglets continued to call out, and this reached a peak at the moment the spermatic cords were cut.
  • Piglets will scream when picked up but this study showed that the intensity of the scream is much greater during castration. This research suggests that the process of castration is very painful.
  • This farm in France is based on high welfare deep bedded system throughout. Unfortunately the male piglets have to be castration. This is insisted by the buyers of the pigs who do not want the risk of boar taint in the meat. To reduce stress and pain, each male piglet receives a course of 4 injections of local anaesthetic. Lecturer note: Anaesthetics provide relief from the critical pain caused by castration. Male piglets which have received anaesthetics do not exhibit the extra vocalisations shown on previous slides. Analgesics are required to prevent the longer-term chronic pain which persists for several days after the operation. There is a need for governments to license suitable anaesthetics and analgesics for use during operations such as castration which cause pain.
  • Lecturer note: Immunocastration involves vaccinating male piglets against their own male sex hormones. This requires two injections, the second of which is applied two weeks or so before slaughter. The second injection results in a reduction in male sex hormones and in boar taint. The process does not seem to present significant welfare problems to the pig. It is essential to ensure that the operator does not inject him or herself (it is particularly important not to inject oneself a second time which could result in at least temporary sterility – the manufacturers insist that an operator who has had an accidental injection should not be allowed to use the vaccine again). Immunocastration has been practised in Australia for some years. The manufacturers are applying for licenses for use elsewhere in the world, eg the European Union. A production advantage of immunocastration over surgical castration is that, like entire animals, the male pigs continue to grow faster and leaner until the second injection. It remains to be seen whether the public will accept the process. In countries such as the UK and Ireland where castration is rarely if ever practised, consumers seem to have become less sensitive to boar taint and it has been said that there has been a tendency gradually to increase again the ages at which pigs are slaughtered. Boar taint is caused by a range of different chemicals including Skatole and the male sex hormone androstenone. Selecting pigs for lower levels of androstenone may result in lower levels of male fertility. Time will tell. Herbs such as chicory, added to the diet in the last period of fattening, can reduce the amount of skatole in the meat. Herbs used in Chinese medicine for liver detoxification are currently being tested as a means of reducing a wider range of boar taint chemicals. Discouraging pigs from wallowing in their own faeces can also reduce skatole in the meat – regular cleaning out and keeping them naturally cool or providing natural wallowing opportunities can be helpful here. Use of sexed semen can reduce the number of males born. This is a more expensive process and requires artificial insemination. There may be fertility issues here. Carcases with high levels of boar taint can be removed at the slaughterhouse and used to produce processed meat. The processing reduces the level of taint. (Above information discussed at the PigCas Conference in Amsterdam, late 2007)
  • Lecturer note: Immunocastration involves vaccinating male piglets against their own male sex hormones. This requires two injections, the second of which is applied two weeks or so before slaughter. The second injection results in a reduction in male sex hormones and in boar taint. The process does not seem to present significant welfare problems to the pig. It is essential to ensure that the operator does not inject him or herself (it is particularly important not to inject oneself a second time which could result in at least temporary sterility – the manufacturers insist that an operator who has had an accidental injection should not be allowed to use the vaccine again). Immunocastration has been practised in Australia for some years. The manufacturers are applying for licenses for use elsewhere in the world, eg the European Union. A production advantage of immunocastration over surgical castration is that, like entire animals, the male pigs continue to grow faster and leaner until the second injection. It remains to be seen whether the public will accept the process. In countries such as the UK and Ireland where castration is rarely if ever practised, consumers seem to have become less sensitive to boar taint and it has been said that there has been a tendency gradually to increase again the ages at which pigs are slaughtered. Boar taint is caused by a range of different chemicals including Skatole and the male sex hormone androstenone. Selecting pigs for lower levels of androstenone may result in lower levels of male fertility. Time will tell. Herbs such as chicory, added to the diet in the last period of fattening, can reduce the amount of skatole in the meat. Herbs used in Chinese medicine for liver detoxification are currently being tested as a means of reducing a wider range of boar taint chemicals. Discouraging pigs from wallowing in their own faeces can also reduce skatole in the meat – regular cleaning out and keeping them naturally cool or providing natural wallowing opportunities can be helpful here. Use of sexed semen can reduce the number of males born. This is a more expensive process and requires artificial insemination. There may be fertility issues here. Carcases with high levels of boar taint can be removed at the slaughterhouse and used to produce processed meat. The processing reduces the level of taint. (Above information discussed at the PigCas Conference in Amsterdam, late 2007)
  • See Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book chapter 7
  • These three litters of pigs are between seven and nine weeks old. They are eating increasing amounts of solid food but, as you can see, their mothers are still providing some milk.
  • At this age, piglets are much more able to cope on their own.
  • These pigs have been weaned early. In the EU, pigs may not be weaned till 4 weeks, except in some “All-in All-out” systems designed for additional biosecurity. In the US, weaning can be as early as two weeks.
  • After weaning, milk production stops and the sow soon comes into oestrous again. Early weaning means that a sow can become pregnant again quickly and produce more piglets per year. Loss of condition is a particular problem for the modern sow because she has been bred to produce a larger litter, increasing demands on her to produce milk. At the same time, pigs have been bred to produce leaner meat so she has lower fat reserves. This means that she is more prone to lose condition during lactation.
  • This Swedish group farrowing system takes a number of measures to try and reduce the stress at weaning: The piglets mix with each other gradually so that any fighting is spread out over time. The piglets remain in familiar surroundings after weaning and so are less stressed. They are kept in warm comfortable surroundings enriched with deep bedding
  • Eastbrook farm produces organic pigs to a very high welfare standard. Organic rules delay weaning till at least 40 days so that piglets can remain healthy without the use of antibiotics. On this farm, they go even later to ensure that the piglets are fit and healthy. The piglets are supplemented with solid food so that the sow can recover condition quickly before she becomes pregnant again
  • See Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book chapter 7
  • Tail biting starts when one or more growing pigs start to nibble at the tail of another pig out of boredom, or frustration or the lack of other suitable substrates to nibble on. Eventually one of these investigative nibbles may result in a wound. The wound attracts other pigs and the behaviour can quickly spread through the whole group.
  • Tail-biting is a sign of poor welfare resulting from inadequate environments, management and/or nutrition
  • The ground wood is more likely to be effective because it fulfils more of the pigs foraging motivation. They can investigate it by rooting. They can chew it and if the mood takes them, even eat it!
  • Zonderland et al investigated the effects of different forms of enrichment a chain, rubber toy, straw hopper and straw on the floor. They measured the number of mild and serious lesions caused by tail-biting. Data: Treatment Mild lesions (%) Serious lesions (%) Chain 88 58 Rubber toy 79 54 Straw hopper 75 29 Straw on floor 16 4 The quanitity of straw placed on the floor was significantly greater than that placed in the hopper.
  • Compassion in World Farming supports EU regulations that require farmers to take steps to improve the environment of piglets and reduce stocking densities before resorting to mutilations such as tail-docking or the reduction of corner teeth.
  • The Brazilian research institute EMBRAPA have been experimenting with deep bed systems. In particular, they are developing systems which can provide decent incomes for small farmers. The migration of small farmers to the cities where there is already high unemployment is a worrying social issue in Brazil. According to EMBRAPA: deep bed systems are much cheaper to set up they produce 50% less ammonia. Other smelly pollutants such as hydrogen sulphide are also reduced they produce waste which requires less labour to dispose of and makes a better quality fertiliser (this is because the waste is in dry rather than liquid form) welfare is improved – comfortable bedding that provides foraging opportunities results in less cannibalism and lameness
  • This farm in southern Brazil experimented with the new deep bed system. They kept one group of piglets on the old slatted system. They kept a second group on a deep bed of peanut shells. The farmer noticed an improvement in both health and welfare on the deep bed system.
  • The deep bedded pigs kept busy foraging and were less afraid of visitors, as can be seen by the response to photographers in both pictures. Animals who have had plenty of varied experiences are likely later to cope better with new stressors such as transport. Stress before slaughter affects meat quality, increasing risk of PSE (Pale Soft Exudative) meat. Pigs which are used to a range of stimuli are likely to be calmer, and therefore less stressed, during the processes of transport and slaughter. Give pigs a more interesting life and meat quality will benefit.
  • See Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book Chapters 7, 8 & 11
  • Lecturer suggestion: Get the group to write down in a sentence (or discuss in groups) what makes a good stockperson or what is good stockmanship
  • an empathy for and rapport with pigs knowledge and experience, much of which will be absorbed in practice good observation skills – a good stockperson will often know instinctively when there is a problem conscientiousness – production, health and welfare are likely to be in the stockperson’s hands
  • Of course, males can also make very empathetic stockpeople!
  • For more information on legislation, see See Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book chapter 16
  • For more information on the principles of animal welfare including the five freedoms, see Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book chapter 1
  • Lecturer note: This last example is not just a health and welfare issue. Wallowing in their own dung can increase levels of skatole in the meat. This is one of the chemicals which causes boar taint.
  • The table shows that good interactions with pigs can reduce the time taken for pigs to react with a person. This is likely to be associated with reduced fear and stress, as suggested by the reduced concentration of corticosteroid, a hormone associated with stress and arousal. Reduced stress helps gilts to maintain their pregnancies. It also results in higher growth rates in growing pigs.
  • Stockpeople should be trained : in the natural behaviour of pigs to recognise abnormal behaviours in pigs and to understand their causes and prevention to have an understanding of good handling techniques to understand the five freedoms, how they apply to pigs and how they can be achieved to be conscientious and empathetic towards pigs to develop good observation skills to learn from their own and others’ experience to develop a general knowledge of pig welfare and production principles This list is not exhaustive. Answers can be phrased in a variety of ways.
  • Discussion point: Are there any criticisms of this procedure/facilities? Answer: the walkway could be better designed so that the pigs can only go one way at the end of the corridor ie in the direction they are meant to be going. Lecturer note: Stressed pigs are more likely to produce: PSE meat (Pale Soft and Exudative) – caused by critical stress in the period immediately before slaughter resulting in glycogen being converted in lactic acid DFD meat (Dark, Firm and Dry) – caused by long period chronic stress before slaughter resulting in loss of glycogen stores
  • There are inherent welfare problems for the sow in the first system which good stockmanship cannot entirely solve. There are welfare risks in the second system which can result in poor welfare if stockmanship and management are poor. However, extensive systems have high welfare potential which can be achieved if the management and stockmanship are good.
  • See Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book chapters 11 & 15
  • More than 1.1 billion pigs are produced each year worldwide, making the pig the most common mammal reared for meat.
  • Good welfare depends on providing pigs with a good environment. Opportunity for discussion: What must the environment provide? – answers on screen – shelter, comfort, space, foraging etc All of these can be provided in good indoor and outdoor systems
  • Welfare also depends on genetics. Opportunity for discussion: How can good breeding benefit welfare? Answers on screen. Pigs need to be adapted to local climates and resistant to local diseases They need good mothering ability to ensure that their piglets survive They need to be able to sustain a full lactation without unsustainable loss of condition if later weaning is to be sustainable They need to produce litters that they can feed. otherwise, the weakest piglets will starve. They need to have a good temperament towards people and other pigs. To summarise the last two slides, pigs need to be adapted to their environment but environments must also be adapted to pigs.
  • Good stockmanship ensures that systems achieve their welfare potential, that pigs get what they need, that disease and welfare problems are quickly diagnosed and that pigs come to feel relaxed in the presence of people
  • This presentation will deal with the animal welfare aspects of pig production using material from case studies from across the world. Animal welfare is a key part of Good Agricultural Practice. Lecturer note: Additional script and lecturer notes will appear in this window where necessary. Some slides have questions which can be used for discussion – these are in blue and fly up from the bottom of the slide when running the presentation. This Powerpoint presentation is part of a package which includes a book and a film. If showing the film first, you may wish to use a shorter version of this presentation which aims to avoid repetition. This is available separately. For references to information contained in this presentation, please see the Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice – pig production book.

GAP Pigs GAP Pigs Presentation Transcript

  • ANIMAL WELFARE ASPECTS OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE PIG PRODUCTION
  • ANIMAL WELFARE ASPECTS OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE (GAP) pig production This presentation has been adapted for use on shareview Full version available free from ciwf.org/gap on DVD-ROM Full version includes embedded video clips and interactive animation DVD-ROM also includes film, book and lecturers’ notes GAP Pigs DVD-ROM
  • GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES:
    • produce safe, healthy, high-quality food for consumers
    • provide jobs with fair incomes for rural communities
    • are socially and environmentally sustainable
    • provide high standards of animal welfare
    This presentation will concentrate on animal welfare aspects
  • ANIMAL WELFARE ASPECTS OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE PIG PRODUCTION
    • Contents:
    • Chapter 1 Natural behaviour and production systems - 4
    • Chapter 2 Space and foraging needs for dry sows - 19
    • Chapter 3 Avoiding aggression in dry sows - 35
    • Chapter 4 Space and nesting needs of farrowing sows - 50
    • Chapter 5 Avoiding teeth clipping in piglets - 70
    • Chapter 6 Avoiding castration in male piglets - 82
    • Chapter 7 Avoiding early weaning - 94
    • Chapter 8 Avoiding tail docking and tail biting - 106
    • Chapter 9 Good stockmanship - 122
    • Chapter 10 Summary - 144
    To return to the contents list at any time, type 3 and press ENTER To jump to any slide in this presentation, type the number of the slide and press ENTER
  • Worldwide, 1.1 billion pigs are raised for meat each year CHAPTER 1 natural behaviour & production systems
  • Pigs are descended from the wild boar ANCESTRY  Dale Arey/CIWF
  • ANCESTRY Some breeds have been developed for hot climates like these small black Iberian pigs Some breeds have been developed for cold climates like these hairy Mangalicas
  • ANCESTRY Some traditional breeds still closely resemble their wild boar ancestors like these Tamworth crosses Most pigs used in production are based on these Large White x Landrace crosses Pigs of all breeds have inherited most of the behaviours of the wild boar
  • SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR Pigs naturally live in social groups of 2-4 sows, often sisters or otherwise related, along with their offspring
  • MATERNAL CYCLE Nest away from group Return with piglets to group Suckle young Gradually wean  Dale Arey/CIWF  Marek Spinka  Fiona Chambers of Fernleigh Free-Range
  • ADAPTATION TO ENVIRONMENT Pigs have evolved to live in a complex environment
  • browsing grazing rooting  Marek Spinka  Marek Spinka FEEDING BEHAVIOUR Pigs have evolved a range of foraging strategies to live in that environment
  • DIURNAL BEHAVIOUR The day is divided between periods of foraging (for up to nine hours a day) and resting
  •  MAEP/CIWF THERMOREGULATORY BEHAVIOUR Huddling for warmth Wallowing for skin care and cooling Pigs mainly control their temperature through behaviour Shade Film of wallowing behaviour follows 
  • PLAY BEHAVIOUR Young pigs also use their environment for recreation
  • INTENSIVE PRODUCTION some intensive systems fail to satisfy behavioural needs of pigs Dry sows Farrowing sows Weaners Growing pigs Could these systems be modified to meet behavioural needs?
  • MODERN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS methods of providing behavioural needs of pigs Foraging Secluded nesting Comfortable rest Separation of dunging and lying areas
  • EXTENSIVE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS methods of providing behavioural needs of pigs Shelter Protection from predators Temperature control Posts for rubbing Film of post-rubbing behaviour follows 
  • NATURAL BEHAVIOUR AND PRODUCTION summary
    • Pigs are descended from wild boar and have inherited most of their behavioural patterns
    • Pigs live in social groups consisting of mothers and their young
    • Pigs are adapted to complex environments that contain woodland and water
    • Pig behaviour has developed to utilise the environment for food, water, shelter, resting, temperature control, skincare, dunging and recreation
    • Intensive environments do not provide for these complex behaviours and give rise to many welfare problems
    • Modern systems can be designed to meet the behavioural needs of pigs
  • CHAPTER 2 space and foraging needs for dry sows
    • Diane Halverson /
    • Animal Welfare Institute
  • PREGNANT (DRY) SOWS sow stall (gestation crate) – a confinement system Why are most sows kept in stalls?
    • To reduce space and thereby costs
    • To prevent aggression
    • To simplify management and observation
  • PREGNANT (DRY) SOWS tether stall – another confinement system Film of bar-biting behaviour by tethered sow follows 
  • SOWS IN STALLS health issues Possible explanations for health problems suffered by sows in stalls Health problem Weak bones Leg problems Urinary disorders Possible explanation Lack of exercise Lack of exercise Unable to excrete away from lying area
    • Sows cannot:
      • exercise
      • forage
      • socialise properly
      • dung away from their lying area
      • regulate their body temperature through behaviour
    SOWS IN STALLS Welfare issues What important behaviours are sows in stalls unable to carry out?
  • SOWS IN STALLS welfare issues What abnormal behaviours are observed as a result of this close confinement and hunger? In addition, dry sows are fed once a day on a maintenance ration which leaves them feeling hungry See next slide
  • STEREOTYPIES bar-biting This sow may be hungry, but is unable to forage. This may be a displaced feeding behaviour. Unlike normal feeding, this is very repetitive and cannot fill her stomach. Film of bar-biting behaviour follows 
  • What are the key features of stereotypic behaviour? What kind of stereotypy is this? What other kinds are there? What causes stereotypies? Bar-biting Sham chewing, excess drinking etc Frustration of natural behaviours Repetitive and apparently devoid of function STEREOTYPIES
  • STEREOTYPIES sham-chewing Sham-chewing is also thought to be caused by frustration, boredom and hunger Film of sham-chewing behaviour follows 
  • STEREOTYPIES excessive drinking How could you find out whether this drinking was excessive? Compare water intake of this sow with one that was completely satiated and not frustrated This is another form of stereotypy Film of excessive drinking behaviour follows 
  • STEREOTYPIES IN BARREN PENS bar-biting sham-chewing tongue rolling Stereotypies can also occur in pens where there is no bedding to occupy the sows and provide gut fill Film of these three behaviours follows 
  • APATHY Another response to confinement and frustration This sow might be resting. How would one distinguish apathetic behaviour from natural resting behaviour? Test how responsive she is to different stimuli like cold water or novel food Film of possibly apathetic behaviour follows 
  • GOOD PRACTICE providing resources for natural behaviour
    • Providing sufficient space
    • Keeping sows in natural social groups
    • Providing an enriched environment with foraging material
    Outdoor systems Indoor systems How can stereotypic and apathetic behaviours be reduced?
  • The same is true for boars which in many countries are not provided with bedding GOOD PRACTICE providing resources for natural behaviour
  • “ (7) To satisfy their hunger and given the need to chew, all dry pregnant sows must be given a sufficient quantity of bulky or high-fibre food as well as high-energy food.” Council Directive 2001/88/EC 23 rd October 2001 EU REGULATIONS requirement for high fibre food
    • The tether stall is banned in:
    • European Union
    • The sow stall is banned in:
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • United Kingdom
    • Florida
    • Sow stall use is restricted in:
    • Philippines
    • Sow stall is due to be banned in:
    • European Union (2013, except for first four weeks of pregnancy)
    • New Zealand (2015, except for first four weeks of pregnancy)
    • Australia (2017, except for first six weeks of pregnancy)
    LEGISLATION TO RESTRICT THE SOW STALL current and future bans
  • SPACE AND FORAGING NEEDS FOR DRY SOWS summary
    • Most sows spend their entire pregnancies in confinement systems such as the sow stall
    • These severely restrict natural behaviour and cause a range of health and welfare problems
    • Restrictions on natural behaviour can lead to apathy and stereotypies such as bar-biting, sham-chewing, tongue rolling and excessive drinking
    • A key problem is hunger due to restricted diets – EU regulations require dry sows to be provided with high-fibre food to satisfy this hunger and the need to chew
    • Stereotypies can be avoided by satisfying the need of sows for space, company and foraging material
  • CHAPTER 3 avoiding aggression in dry sows  Dale Arey / CIWF
    • Competition for food and other resources
    • Mixing sows that are unfamiliar with each other
     Marek Spinka AGGRESSION BETWEEN DRY SOWS What are the main causes of aggression in dry sows?
  • AGGRESSION DURING FEEDING sow pens Why is aggression at feeding a particular problem with dry sows?
    • food restricted to a maintenance diet so sows remain hungry
    • only fed once a day
    • diet is low in fibre
    • food not widely spread out
    Film of aggression over food follows 
  • AGGRESSION DURING FEEDING free-range sows feeding with less aggression Film of mild dominance behaviour follows  Why is aggression over food milder in the following film ?
  • AGGRESSION DURING FEEDING free-range sows feeding with less aggression Why was aggression milder here ?
    • lower motivation for less concentrated feed
    • sows in stable groups have clear dominance order
    • access to high fibre food reduces hunger
    • spacious environment reduces stress
  • AVOIDING AGGRESSION - INDIVIDUAL FEEDING SYSTEMS electronic sow feeders photos and video  ASAB Each sow wears a transponder. In the feeding stall, a computer provides each sow with an individual ration Film of use of electronic sow feeder follows 
  • AVOIDING AGGRESSION - INDIVIDUAL FEEDING SYSTEMS electronic sow feeders photos and video  ASAB What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? Advantages Sows free from harassment in stall Individual sows can be given extra food if needed Can be run automatically Disadvantages Sows cannot feed simultaneously as they would normally Aggression can occur outside the stall Sows not occupied searching for main food supply
  • Feeding Release AVOIDING AGGRESSION - INDIVIDUAL FEEDING SYSTEMS feeding stalls In this system, the sows have access to a straw area and are locked in the stalls just at feeding time Film of use of feeding stalls and subsequent release follows 
  • AVOIDING AGGRESSION - INDIVIDUAL FEEDING SYSTEMS feeding stalls What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? Advantages Sows free from harassment in stalls Individual sows can be given extra food if needed Sows can be fed simultaneously Disadvantages Expensive to set up Sows don’t have to search for their food
  • Top view Front view Food is delivered slowly over longer periods. Sows that bully others out of their place lose out because food builds up in their own feed space AVOIDING AGGRESSION - DISPERSED FEEDING trickle feed systems
  • AVOIDING AGGRESSION - DISPERSED FEEDING trickle feed systems What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? Disadvantages Aggression might still be a problem Individual sows cannot be given extra food Sows don’t have to search for their food Advantages Sows feed simultaneously Aggression minimal since sows occupied in own stations Feeding process can occupy sows for longer
  • AVOIDING AGGRESSION - DISPERSED FEEDING scatter-feeding systems What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system?  Dale Arey/CIWF Film of scatter feeding follows  Advantages Sows feed simultaneously Aggression minimal since food dispersed Feeding process naturally occupies sows for a long time Extra fibre consumed at same time Disadvantages Aggression might still be a problem Individual sows cannot be given extra food
  •  Colin Seddon / CIWF What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? Food is automatically dumped from the feeders at the top of the picture AVOIDING AGGRESSION - DISPERSED FEEDING dump-feeding systems Similar to previous system, though food less well dispersed
  • AGGRESSION AT MIXING Another major cause of aggression is mixing sows that are unfamiliar with each other
  • CASE STUDY - STRESS AT MIXING College farm experiences infertililty problems  Colin Seddon / CIWF System worked well for Meishan cross sows mixed in large enriched pen%. However the meat was too high in fat content for the UK market so they switched to Large White x Landrace crosses. Unfortunately sow fertility suffered as a result of stress, perhaps caused by aggression. They switched to housing sows in small groups and try to keep sows together in original groups to minimise stress
  • AVOIDING AGGRESSION IN SOWS summary
    • Sows should be fed separately and simultaneously where possible
    • Alternatively, feed should be spread out over as wide an area as possible or released slowly
    • Sows should be kept in small stable groups
    • The sow system should not be overcrowded and should allow sows to escape from each other
  • CHAPTER 4 space and nesting needs of farrowing sows
    • Diane Halverson
    • Animal Welfare Institute
  • MATERNAL BEHAVIOUR nesting in wild boar  BBC Motion Gallery Film of nesting behaviour in wild boar sow follows 
  • MATERNAL BEHAVIOUR nesting in domestic sows  Diane Halverson / Animal Welfare Institute Domestic sows have inherited the same nest building instincts as seen in wild boar What is the function of the nest?
    • The nest provides protection from weather and predators
    • It helps protect the piglets from being accidentally crushed by the sow
    Film of nesting behaviour in domestic sow follows 
  •  Marek Spinka FARROWING SOWS AND THE RISK OF CRUSHING Why is the risk of crushing high with modern breeds? Sows are larger; litters larger, so piglets smaller
  • FARROWING SOWS AND THE RISK OF CRUSHING 1. Sows respond naturally to a piglet’s squeal How does the sow’s behaviour reduce the risk of crushing? Film of Hungarian sow’s response to a piglet’s squeal follows 
  • FARROWING SOWS AND THE RISK OF CRUSHING 2. Sows check through the bedding and remove piglets before lying down. The sow needs plenty of space to be able to lie down carefully. How does the sow’s behaviour reduce the risk of crushing?  Film of Hungarian sows checking through the bedding before lying down follows
  • FARROWING CRATES Most sows are housed in farrowing crates prior to giving birth Farrowing crates are designed to reduce piglet crushing by slowing down the movements of the sow Film of sow in farrowing crate trying to lie down follows 
    • Sows in farrowing crates cannot:
    • walk or turn round
    • lie down comfortably
    • perform important behaviours such as nest building
    • interact naturally with her piglets
    How is the behaviour of the sow affected in the farrowing crate? FARROWING CRATES AND SOW BEHAVIOUR Her ability to move is very restricted Film of sow in farrowing crate trying to get up follows 
  • FRUSTRATED MATERNAL BEHAVIOUR nesting  BBC Motion Gallery What effects can be caused by this frustration?
    • high blood levels of cortisol, a stress hormone
    • delayed birth, leading to increased piglet mortality
    The farrowing crate causes particular stress to a sow trying to build a nest before farrowing Film of frustrated nesting behaviour in sow follows 
  • What are the risks of frustrating normal interactions between the sow and her piglets? Sows in farrowing crates are more likely to savage their young. The risk of this may be increased if the sow cannot make normal contact FRUSTRATED MATERNAL BEHAVIOUR interaction with young Shortly after giving birth, sows naturally sniff their newborn piglets. This helps to create a bond between them Film of sow trying to make contact with newborn piglet follows 
  • STRESS HORMONE LEVELS in sows in farrowing crates
    • Possible reasons include:
    • The sow cannot escape from her piglets
    • In the barren environment piglets may begin to bite and chew at the sow
    • The sow is likely to have lost condition in the process of feeding a large litter
    • These rise at two times:
    • Just before birth
    • (Due to frustration of the nesting instinct)
    • 3-4 weeks after farrowing
    Why do they rise again 3-4 weeks after farrowing?
  • Family group system, Brazil. Sows are released into groups after 3 days in farrowing crate. What are the advantages and disadvantages of doing this? RELEASING SOWS EARLY
    • Disadvantages:
    • Sow still confined for at least a week
    • Nesting instinct still frustrated
    • Early interactions between sow and piglets still impeded
    • Advantages:
    • Sow only confined during period of highest crushing risk
    • Piglets can mix before weaning
  • photos  Marek Spinka ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE Swedish group farrowing system The sows have a communal straw area with individual boxes to farrow in
  • photo  Marek Spinka ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE How far does this system tie in with natural behaviour? Differences Sows cannot find an entirely isolated spot to nest Risk of two sows nesting in same box Similarities Nesting material readily available Sows can nest separately Piglets can mix once large enough to escape nest-box
  • ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE individual farrowing pens
    • Advantages:
    • Isolated nesting spot
    • Nesting material available
    • Protection for piglets with safety bars and heated safety area
    What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system?
    • Disadvantages:
    • Piglets cannot mix with other litters
  • ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE outdoor free-range farrowing huts Each sow has a separate hut to farrow in The barriers contain very young piglets in the huts. In the UK, 35% of piglets are produced outdoors
  • ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE outdoor free-range farrowing huts Individual paddocks Some outdoor units have individual paddocks for each sow and litter What are the advantages and disadvantage of this?
    • An advantage is that the sows are not disturbed by other sows
    • A disadvantage is that it obviously costs more in time and effort
    Once the piglets are four weeks old, the electric fences separating the paddocks are removed to allow the families to mix
    • Breeds which make good mothers
    • Sufficient space for sow to be able to manoeuvre to avoid crushing piglets
    • Excellent stockmanship
    • Plenty of bedding material for nesting and warmth
    • Safety areas for piglets
    • Good shelter from all types of weather
    ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE What features are required to make non-confinement systems work effectively?
  • SOW AND PIGLET MORTALITIES UK figures comparing outdoor & indoor herds UK averages for 2000-2004 (calculated from Meat and Livestock Commission Pig Yearbooks 2001-5) Can these results be explained? Year ending September Outdoor herds Indoor herds Sow mortality annually (%) 2.84 5.92 Piglets: Pigs born dead per litter 0.79 0.96 Mortality of pigs born alive (%) 9.46 11.60 Pigs reared per litter 9.74 9.64 Pigs reared per sow per year 21.14 21.49
  • UK SOW AND PIGLET MORTALITIES possible explanations for figures Feature Lower free-range sow mortality Fewer free-range pigs born dead Lower mortality for free-range piglets More outdoor pigs reared per litter More indoor pigs reared per sow per year Possible explanation/s Use of farrowing crate can lead to higher sow death-rate Stress of farrowing crate can delay birth, increasing mortality Savaging rates may be higher with farrowing crates. Free-range sows bred for good mothering abilities Lower mortality for free-range pigs Indoor sows had slightly higher frequency of litters
  • SPACE AND NESTING NEEDS OF FARROWING SOWS summary
    • The large litters and small piglets of most modern breeds means that they are prone to being crushed
    • Farrowing crates were designed to reduce this risk
    • Confinement at farrowing causes stress particularly at the time when the sow wants to build a nest
    • Systems which give the sow more freedom are better for welfare and can give good production figures
    • Free farrowing systems require good management and breeds with good maternal abilities
  • CHAPTER 5 avoiding teeth clipping in piglets
  • TEETH CLIPPING why it is carried out As soon as they are born, piglets compete to select a teat on the sow’s udder to which they remain attached until weaning Piglets suckle own teat Why do piglets compete for teats? The older and stronger piglets try to select the anterior (front) teats that tend to produce more milk Why do the front teats produce more milk? It is probably an evolutionary strategy to ensure some piglets survive when food is short. When food is plentiful, the sow can produce enough milk for all her piglets.
  • TEETH CLIPPING why it is carried out Piglets are born with sharp incisor teeth which they use to fight for the best teat and then to defend their teat This defence can cause injuries to other piglets and also to the sows udder How do the piglets compete for teats? Vigorous teat defence © Dale Arey
  • TEETH CLIPPING the problems that it causes
    • Teeth-clipping is likely to cause severe pain during the procedure
    • Damage to the teeth leaves them prone to infection
    • Infection can lead to abscesses and long-term pain
    Farmer clipping teeth What are the likely health and welfare consequences of this procedure? Soon after they are born, the piglets’ incisors are cut with sharp clippers or side-cutters The pig industry’s solution to problems with injuries is to teeth clip
  • TEETH CLIPPING how it can be reduced or prevented
    • Larger litters increase the amount of competition
    • Fostering piglets from large litters onto smaller litters also increases competition
    • Reduction in milk supply through poor condition, sow illness e.g. mastitis or sow discomfort due to confinement or lack of bedding
    Piglet with facial injuries What factors might increase the risk of this occurring? Piglets are more likely to fight for a better teat if they are not getting enough milk
  • TEETH CLIPPING how it can be reduced or prevented
    • Use breeds that have slightly smaller litters
    • Minimise cross-fostering
    • Ensure good hygiene and sow health to reduce the risk of infections
    • Keep sows in free-farrowing systems with plenty of bedding
    Piglets more settled with reduced competition How can good management practice reduce the risk of injuries?
  • TEETH CLIPPING how it can be reduced or prevented If injuries do become a problem a less invasive technique is to use teeth grinders Grinders have a small abrasive wheel designed to blunt the sharp tip of the incisors This procedure is likely to cause less pain and is less likely to leave the teeth open to infection Tooth clipping is banned in several countries including Denmark and Germany which only allow tooth grinding Tooth grinding is still a painful mutilation. Routine tooth clipping and grinding are both banned throughout the EU Farmer clipping teeth
  • CASE STUDY enriched indoor production, Schleithal, France If injuries occur, the farmer uses a teeth grinder This farm does not clip teeth
  • CASE STUDY organic production, Eastbrook farm, UK This farm uses traditional breeds like Saddlebacks that have slightly smaller litters and the sows maintain condition. The farm does not tooth clip
  • “ Neither tail docking nor reduction of corner teeth must be carried out routinely but only where there is evidence that injuries to sows' teats or to other pigs' ears or tails have occurred. Before carrying out these procedures, other measures shall be taken to prevent tail biting and other vices taking into account environment and stocking densities (our emphasis). For this reason inadequate environmental conditions or management systems must be changed.” Annex to Council Directive 91/630/EEC EU REGULATIONS REQUIRE:
  • TEETH CLIPPING summary
    • Injuries caused by teat defence are reduced by teeth-clipping
    • Teeth-clipping causes pain and can lead to infection
    • Tooth-grinding is a less invasive method that can be used to blunt teeth
    • Injuries are mainly a problem if sows do not produce enough milk for all their piglets
    • Breeding sows with smaller litters and which can produce plenty of milk is part of the solution
    • Avoiding udder infections and keeping the sow in a comfortable high welfare environment can also help improve milk supply
    • Avoiding cross fostering can also reduce the risk of injuries
    • Routine tooth clipping and grinding are not permitted in the EU and should be avoided by good breeding, environment and management
  • CHAPTER 6 avoiding castration in male piglets
  • CASTRATION Why it is carried out Shortly after birth, male piglets testes are removed This is because when they become sexually mature, they can leave an odour in the meat known as ‘boar taint’ which some people find unpleasant Some meat buyers insist that farmers castrate male pigs
  • CASTRATION How it is carried out The testes are removed through slits in the scrotum made with a scalpel Piglet about to be castrated Anaesthetics are rarely used even though the procedure causes severe pain Some people argue that it is the handling of pigs which is stressful, not the castration itself. How do we know the procedure causes pain? see next slides
  • After Weary et al 1998 IS CASTRATION MORE STRESSFUL THAN HANDLING? Vocal responses of castrated piglets were compared with those of piglets which were similarly handled but without castration. What do the results show?
  • (after Wemelsfelder & van Putten 1985) IS CASTRATION MORE STRESSFUL THAN HANDLING? The frequency (Hz) of vocal responses of piglets was measured at various stages of castration. What do these results show?
  • CASTRATION is there further distress after castration? Following castration, a study showed that piglets:
    • were less active
    • showed more trembling, leg shaking, sliding and tail jerking
    • took longer to lie down
    • lied down in a way protective of the hindquarters
    (after Wemelsfelder & van Putten 1985)
  • CASE STUDY enriched indoor production, Schleithal, France The farmer therefore uses a local anaesthetic before castration The buyers of these pigs insist on castration because of the risk of boar taint in the meat Anaesthetics provide short-term pain relief Analgesics are also needed to provide long-term pain relief
  • CASE STUDY Sparsholt College, UK In the UK, pigs are very rarely castrated because they are slaughtered at an earlier age. How does this avoid the need for castration? The pigs are just over 6 months at slaughter and are sexually immature so boar taint is less of a problem
    • Avoiding castration means that male pigs grow faster and produce a leaner meat.
  • WHICH IS THE BEST SOLUTION? It could be a combination of more than one of these
    • Surgical castration without pain relief
    • Surgical castration with short and long term pain relief
    • Immunocastration
    • No castration, but one or more of the following:
    • Risk boar taint
    • Kill male pigs younger
    • Selectively breed pigs for less boar taint
    • Use herbal additives in the diet to reduce boar taint
    • Use sexed semen to increase the percentage of females born
    • Test carcases for boar taint in the slaughterhouse
  • WHICH IS THE BEST SOLUTION?
    • Compassion in World Farming believes that:
    • surgical castration without pain relief is unacceptable
    • In the medium term, surgical castration should be avoided altogether
    • In the long run, farmers should move towards keeping all pigs entire
  • summary CASTRATION IN MALE PIGLETS
    • Male piglets are castrated to avoid ‘boar taint’
    • The testes are removed through two slits in the scrotum made with a scalpel
    • The procedure causes acute pain and can affect piglet behaviour for days
    • Pain can be reduced using a local anaesthetic and a longer acting analgesic
    • In the UK pigs are slaughtered before they become sexually mature and so boar taint is less of a problem
    • A number of other alternatives to castration are being considered
  • CHAPTER 7 avoiding early weaning
  • NATURAL WEANING What is the natural weaning age for pigs?
    • Piglets:
    • begin to eat solid food at about three weeks
    • gradually eat more as they get older
    • are completely weaned between 13-17 weeks
     MAEP/CIWF Weaning is the process by which the sow gradually reduces the amount milk given to her piglets making them more reliant on solid food
  • EARLY WEANING in intensive production Early weaned piglets What is the usual weaning age for commercial piglets?
    • Weaning ages:
    • EU – 4 weeks (3 weeks for “all in/all out” systems)
    • US – as low as 2 weeks
    Intensively reared piglets are weaned by forcibly removing them from their mother
  • EARLY WEANING in intensive production
    • Late weaning can lead to loss of condition in sows because:
    • modern sows produce larger litters
    • they have been bred for low fat content, so have fewer reserves to draw on for milk production
    Irish sow with her litter Why does the sow lose condition? What are the reasons for early weaning?
    • Early weaning:
    • induces oestrus so sow can become pregnant again
    • reduces loss of condition in the sow
    • Because of:
    • Removal from their mother
    • Sudden change of diet from milk to solid food
    • Sudden change of environment
    • Being mixed with piglets from other litters
    • Aggression for dominance as a result of mixing
    EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare Why is early weaning particularly stressful for piglets? These stresses are compounded by the fact that they all happen at the same time
  • EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare This behaviour of early-weaned piglets is called belly nosing  ASAB Film of belly-nosing in early-weaned piglets follows 
  • EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare Belly nosing.  ASAB Belly-nosing resembles the way in which piglets massage the sow’s udder prior to suckling Film of piglet massaging sow’s udder follows 
  • Belly-nosing also continues in older pigs. Naturally they wouldn’t be weaned until 13-17 weeks old. It is thought to be a sign of frustration Belly-nosing is less common in enriched environments with plenty of straw. Why might this be? Belly-nosing is a displaced foraging behaviour. Providing plenty of foraging material may help the weaning process. Film of belly-nosing in older pigs follows  EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare
  •  Marek Spinka EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare What are the likely causes of these problems? Problems with early weaning Belly nosing Digestive problems Weight loss or growth check Increased risk of disease Increased use of antibiotics - desire to suckle - sudden change in diet - diet change and digestive problems - lowered immunity caused by stress - lowered immunity
  • EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare
    • Stress can be reduced by:
    • Getting piglets used to solid food before weaning
    • Using liquid feeds after weaning
    • Putting piglets into groups before weaning
    • Leaving piglets in a familiar environment after weaning
    • Providing a comfortable and enriched environment throughout
    • Weaning later wherever possible
    How can stress caused by early weaning be reduced?
  • CASE STUDY loose-housed farrowing system, Sweden Piglets can escape from the hut when bigger They mix with the other piglets The sow is removed at weaning Sows farrow in groups photos  Marek Spinka
  • CASE STUDY – LATER WEANING organic production Eastbrook farm, UK Wean at 8 weeks or later (organic rules state minimum 40 days) Use breeds like saddlebacks (left) that have better fat reserves and produce slightly smaller litters so they can wean later
  • EARLY WEANING summary
    • Piglets naturally wean at 13-17 weeks old
    • Commercial piglets are weaned early at 2-4 weeks old to increase number of pigs produced per sow
    • Early weaning causes stress leading to a range of piglet health and welfare problems
    • Stress can be reduced by good management practice
    • Organic systems wean at 6-8 weeks to reduce health and welfare problems and the need for antibiotics
    • Later weaning requires breeds of sows capable of sustaining a full lactation with good fat reserves and slightly smaller litters
  • CHAPTER 8 avoiding tail-docking and tail biting
  • TAIL-BITING This pig’s tail has been bitten by one or more of her companions
  • TAIL-BITING what causes it What factors have been linked to the likelihood of tail-biting in intensive production?
    • Barren environments: there are no suitable substrates for the pigs to forage and chew
    • Overcrowding: there is little opportunity for pigs to avoid each other
    • Poor environments: discomfort can increase restlessness and frustration
    • Poor nutrition: lack of feeder space and/or nutrients in the diet
  • TAIL-BITING the problems it causes Seemingly innocent nibbling can rapidly spread through the whole group and take on the resemblance of cannibalism The wounds can cause considerable pain to the tail-bitten pig Infections can get into the central vertebrae causing serious health problems and carcass damage It is a sign of poor environments and/or management It is one of the greatest economic losses to pig production
  • On this farm, this was the only case of tail-biting observed in over 100 pigs. Why wasn’t it more common? The farm manager attributed a low level of tail-biting to an enriched high-welfare environment with straw. TAIL-BITING the problems it causes
  • TAIL-BITING the industry’s solution to the problem Shortly after birth, each piglet’s tail is docked with a blade or a hot wire What is the industry’s solution to the problem?
  • TAIL-BITING the industry’s solution to the problem How is tail-docking likely to reduce tail-biting?
    • Removing most or just part of the tail may work by:
    • making the tail less obvious to a foraging pig
    • making the tail more sensitive to investigation, so pigs are less likely to tolerate tail-nibbling
  • TAIL-DOCKING arguments for and against Lesions from tail-biting
    • Arguments for:
    • Tail-docking is a simple way of reducing tail-biting
    • Arguments against:
    • Tail-docking causes pain, distress and risk of infections
    • It can lead to the formation of neuromas (swollen nerves)
    • Tail-docking does not address the causes of the problem
    What are the arguments for and against tail-docking?
  • TAIL-BITING how it can be reduced or prevented Some farms provide chains and toys to try and reduce problems with tail-biting Which of these two methods of enrichment are likely to be most effective in reducing tail-biting? Wood shavings, see next slide
  • TAIL-BITING methods of enrichment that work best Zonderland et al investigated the effects of different kinds of enrichment on the number of mild and serious injuries caused by tail-biting. What do the results show?
  • TAIL-BITING methods of enrichment that work best
    • There are three stages to foraging behaviour:
    • Searching
    • Manipulating
    • Eating
    • Which of these stages are provided by:
    • Chains?
    • Ropes?
    • Beds of saw dust or straw?
    • Rough ground, pasture or woodland?
    An increasing amount of foraging is enabled as you go down the list Film of rooting behaviour follows 
  • “ Neither tail docking nor reduction of corner teeth must be carried out routinely but only where there is evidence that injuries to sows' teats or to other pigs' ears or tails have occurred. Before carrying out these procedures, other measures shall be taken to prevent tail biting and other vices taking into account environment and stocking densities (our emphasis). For this reason inadequate environmental conditions or management systems must be changed. “ Pigs must have permanent access to a sufficient quantity of material to enable proper investigation and manipulation activities, such as straw, hay, wood, sawdust, mushroom compost, peat or a mixture of such …” Annex to Council Directive 91/630/EEC EU REGULATIONS REQUIRE:
  • Deep-bed of rice hulls CASE STUDY - DEEP BED SYSTEM developed by EMBRAPA, Brazil
    • Suitable for small-scale farming:
    • capital costs 40-60% lower
    • existing buildings can be adapted
    • Better for the environment:
    • reduce ammonia emissions 50%
    • produce less waste and a better fertiliser
    • Good for production and welfare:
    • reduce tail-biting and lameness
    • provide foraging opportunities
    • provide comfort
  • CASE STUDY – SLATTED vs DEEP BED SYSTEM experiment on Brazilian farm Experimental group on deep-bed Group on part slatted system
    • Weaners on the deep bed system:
    • kept warmer and huddled less
    • suffered less from diarrhoea
    • were more active and less fearful
    See next slide
    • Environmental enrichment can:
    • reduce fearfulness of novel situations and human interaction
    • later reduce stress during transit
    • benefit health, welfare and food quality
    CASE STUDY – SLATTED vs DEEP BED SYSTEM Why do these two groups of pigs respond so differently to photographers?
    • The pigs on the right are used to:
    • a more stimulating environment
    • interaction with people
  • TAIL-BITING IN GROWING PIGS summary
    • Tail-biting is a major problem for welfare and production
    • Tail-biting is a displaced foraging behaviour and a sign of poor welfare
    • Tail-docking is a common method of reducing tail-biting
    • Tail-docking causes pain and risks infection. It deals with the symptoms of the problem, not the causes
    • Environmental enrichment with straw or other fibrous material reduces tail-biting by encouraging normal foraging behaviour
    • Chains and toys are less effective enrichments since they don’t allow the full range of foraging behaviour
    • European Union regulations require environmental enrichment to be tried before resorting to tail-docking
  • CHAPTER 9 good stockmanship
  • STOCKMANSHIP good welfare depends on good stockmanship What makes a good stockperson?
    • Some views of stockpeople:
    • “ Good stockmanship is about understanding your pigs”
    • “ A good stockperson is always checking that everything is alright”
    • “ A good stockperson knows instinctively when something is wrong”
    • “ It is a job you have to need to do”
    • “ It takes a lifetime to learn”
  • STOCKMANSHIP good welfare depends on good stockmanship
    • A good stockperson needs:
    • Empathy
    • Knowledge and experience
    • Good observation skills
    • Conscientiousness
    How do these make a difference?
  • STOCKMANSHIP empathy Empathy is all about how you would feel if in the pigs situation This stockperson is aware that this sow is stressed because she is about to give birth in a farrowing crate. She therefore tries to soothe the sow and cool her down. Do some people naturally make more empathetic stockpersons? This farm deliberately chooses female staff for supervising farrowing sows Film of cooling farrowing sow follows 
  • STOCKMANSHIP knowledge and experience These pig producers attend regular meetings where they share the latest scientific information
  • STOCKMANSHIP good observation skills Recognising signs that pigs are thriving and content or not These stockpersons know that ‘bedding down’ is a good time to observe the sows for any sign of illness or poor welfare Film of bedding down of sows follows 
  • STOCKMANSHIP good observation skills Any sick or injured pigs should be moved immediately to a sick pen Sick pen deep bedded with straw Health problems should be monitored and vets should be consulted regularly
  • STOCKMANSHIP conscientiousness Paying careful attention to the pigs and the equipment they rely on These farmers check whether there is sufficient bedding in the arcs
  • STOCKMANSHIP welfare codes The “5 freedoms” form the basis of welfare codes that are recommended for pigs Many different countries produce welfare codes that provide a useful reference for stockpersons Although they are not always legally binding, they can be cited in prosecutions In the UK, the law states that every person caring for animals must have instruction in the codes English Welfare codes  Defra
  • STOCKMANSHIP welfare codes are based on the five freedoms
    • All stockpersons must be aware of the “5 freedoms”:
    • freedom from hunger and thirst
    • freedom from discomfort
    • freedom from illness
    • freedom to perform natural behaviour
    • freedom from fear and distress
    • Most stockpersons readily recognise the first three freedoms but freedom from fear and distress and freedom to perform natural behaviour can too easily be overlooked
  • STOCKMANSHIP freedom to perform natural behaviour Stockpersons need to be aware of the natural behaviour and ethology of the pig It is common for stockpersons to see bar biting as normal behaviour having never seen pigs in a more natural environment
  • STOCKMANSHIP freedom to perform natural behaviour Pigs are naturally clean animals and will select a particular part of the pen away from the main lying area for dunging If pigs are overcrowded and become too hot, they will start to use the dunging area as a wallow to try to cool down
  • STOCKMANSHIP freedom to perform natural behaviour For outdoor sows it is even more important to have the correct provisions so that they can regulate body temperature through their own natural behaviour Wallows Well bedded shelters
  • STOCKMANSHIP freedom from fear and distress Pigs are naturally fearful of humans The attitude and behaviour of the stockperson is important for reducing this fear Reducing fear not only improves welfare it also improves performance Film of fearfulness in early-weaned piglets follows 
  • STOCKMANSHIP freedom from fear and distress Several studies have compared the effects of stockperson interaction on performance in pigs (Gonyou et al. , 1986; Hemsworth et al. , 1986; 1987) What do these results suggest? Type of interaction Good None Poor Time to react with person (s) 10 92 160 Corticosteroid (ng/ml) 1.6 1.7 2.5 Pregnancy rate of gilts (%) 88 57 33 Growth rate 8-18 weeks (g/d) 897 881 837
  • STOCKMANSHIP welfare and production
    • Good interactions with pigs reduce both fear and stress
    • Reducing stress improves performance
    • This is because stress can have a negative effect on:
    • growth
    • reproductive functioning
    • immunity
    Regular inspection reduces stress Better interactions with pigs can be developed through training What would this training need to include?
  • STOCKMANSHIP effects of training on both welfare and production A four year study looking at 40 farms showed that the training of stockpeople can have a beneficial effect on both welfare and production The training developed an understanding of the behaviour of pigs and a knowledge of how they should be handled correctly. The training encouraged the stockpeople to develop more empathetic attitudes to pigs (Hemsworth et al., 1987) Effect of training Abnormal behaviours -36% Fear of humans -29% No. of piglets weaned +4.8% Pigs/sow/year +6%
  • STOCKMANSHIP handling pigs The most common interaction between stockpersons and pigs occurs when they are being moved Good handling can have a beneficial effect on meat quality How? Because stress before slaughter increases the risk of PSE (Pale Soft Exudative) meat, reducing meat quality Film of pig-handling follows 
  • STOCKMANSHIP handling pigs
    • Make sure the passageway is secure and uncluttered
    • A thin layer of bedding can be used to cover any distractions in the floor surface
    • Always use a pig board to prevent escape back to where they came from
    • Use encouraging tones and gentle slapping to let the pigs know where you are and to achieve a steady flow
    • Electric goads and sticks should be prohibited
    What are the important things to remember when moving pigs?
  • STOCKMANSHIP welfare potential Pigs can suffer in any system if stockmanship is poor However, systems vary in their potential to provide good welfare In most intensive systems, the stockperson is limited to ensuring that the pigs do not face any additional stressors Most extensive systems have a higher welfare potential but this can be highly dependent on good stockmanship Which of these systems has the higher potential for good welfare?
  • STOCKMANSHIP summary
    • A good stockperson has empathy, knowledge, good observation and conscientiousness
    • Stockpersons must be aware of the “5 Freedoms” and Welfare Codes and any related laws issued by their particular country
    • Good stockmanship is a main factor for the benefit of both pig welfare and performance
    • Good handling using correct procedures can be beneficial for meat quality
    • Stockmanship can be significantly improved by training
  • STOCKMANSHIP “ In many situations, the importance of the stockperson as a ‘welfare worker’ is undervalued “
  • CHAPTER 10 summary
  • PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY good welfare depends on good environments
    • The environment must provide:
    • Shelter and comfort
    • Appropriate space
    • Appropriate company
    • Appropriate facilities for the expression of natural behaviours
    • Material for foraging
    All can be provided in good indoor and outdoor systems What must a good environment provide?
  • PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY good welfare depends on good genetics
    • Good breeding should ensure that:
    • Pigs are healthy and are adapted to the local climate and conditions
    • Sows have good mothering skills
    • Sows can sustain a full lactation without unsustainable loss of condition
    • Sows do not produce larger litters than they can rear
    • Pigs display a good temperament to each other and to people when properly treated
    How can good breeding improve welfare?
  • PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY good welfare depends on good stockmanship
    • Ensure the needs of pigs are provided for
    • Recognise welfare problems whenever they arise
    • Achieve the welfare and production potential of the farming system
    • Ensure that pigs come to feel appropriately relaxed in the company of humans
    What are the crucial roles of the stockperson?
  • PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY Animal welfare aspects of Good Agricultural Practice
    • Environments
    • Genetics
    • Stockmanship
    • Health care
    • Nutrition
    All are essential If any of these are missing, welfare is likely to be poor Which of these is the most important? Pig welfare therefore depends on good:
    • Biological systems are more complex than technological ones
    • The most intensive systems are not necessarily the most advanced
    • Farm animals are sentient beings. They have feelings which matter to them
    • For animals to grow well, their needs have to be understood, which are emotional as well as physical
    • Developing good stockmanship is one the best investments that can be made for welfare and production
    PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY Animal welfare aspects of Good Agricultural Practice Finally, it is important to remember:
  • ANIMAL WELFARE ASPECTS OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE (GAP) pig production This presentation has been adapted for use on shareview Full version available free from ciwf.org/gap on DVD-ROM Full version includes embedded video clips and interactive animation DVD-ROM also includes film, book and lecturers’ notes GAP Pigs DVD-ROM
  • PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice THE END