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- 1. Carlos Albizu University<br />San Juan, Puerto Rico<br />Master Syllabus<br />RMIC-725 <br />(Thursday, 5:00-7:30 p.m.)<br />Dr. Lymaries Padilla Cotto<br />(787) 725-6500 Ext. 1123<br />lpadilla@sunmail.albizu.edu<br />Office: Research Training Program (Third floor), CAU<br />Fall, 2009 <br />CARLOS ALBIZU UNIVERSITYSAN JUAN CAMPUS<br />MASTER SYLLABUS<br />RMIC-725: INTRODUCTION TO SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH<br />CREDITS: 3CONTACT HOURS: 45<br />COURSE DESCRIPTION<br />The course offers an introduction to scientific research pertinent to the field of psychology within the quantitative and qualitative perspectives and traditions. The main methodological approaches to experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational and descriptive/exploratory research are presented. The course requires the formulation of appropriate research problems relevant to the psychologist’s work in his/her social context, and the integration of such problems and hypotheses, when applicable, with an adequate research design. Basic concepts, such as the formulation of research questions, problems and hypotheses, variables, operational definitions, types of research and research designs are covered. Topics such as hypothesis testing, research design, sampling, analyzing and interpreting quantitative and qualitative data and statistical power analysis are included. <br />PRE-REQUISITES<br />PSYF-568 Inferential Statistics<br />COURSE OBJECTIVES<br />Upon completion of the course students are expected to compare/contrast the epistemologies underlying the quantitative and qualitative research traditions in the social sciences. They should master the basic research concepts and research designs, including both mixed methods and action research designs. Students will be able to develop a research plan, considering issues such as the research problem, variables and operational definitions, formulation and testing of hypotheses, research design, sampling of subjects, threats to internal and external validity and statistical analysis. <br />Upon completion of the course, the student is expected to:<br />Compare and contrast the epistemological bases underlying research as they apply to the quantitative and qualitative perspectives.<br />Demonstrate comprehension of the scientific method and of research methods most common in the social sciences.<br />Master basic concepts such as research problem, hypothesis, dependent and independent variables, operational definitions, research design, internal and external validity, sampling, and statistical power, among others.<br />Present the steps in a research plan, as they apply to problems in the field of <br /> psychology.<br />Formulate a research problem, review the relevant literature and design an adequate research plan for its study.<br />Critically analyze research reports presented in professional journals.<br />Write a research proposal that includes a review of current literature, as well as a research plan appropriate to the problem and approach used.<br />REQUIRED TEXT BOOKS<br />Creswell J.W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. <br />ISBN 978-1-4129-6556-9<br />ISBN 978-1-4129-6557-6<br />Hernández Sampieri, R., Fernández Collado, C., & Baptista Lucio, P. (2006). Metodología de la investigación (4ta ed.). México: McGraw-Hill.<br />ISBN-13: 978-970-10-5753-7<br />ISBN-10: 970-10-5753-8<br />Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H. B. (2002). Investigación del comportamiento: Métodos de investigación en Ciencias Sociales. (4ª ed.). México: McGraw-Hill.<br />ISBN-13: 978-970-103070-7<br />ISBN-10: 970-103070-2<br />(ISBN 968-422-463-X-Tercera Edición)<br />McBurney, D. H., & White, T. L. (2007). Research Methods (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.<br />ISBN: 0495092088<br />ISBN-13: 9780495092087, 978-0495092087<br />ITINERARY OF CLASS UNITS<br />Unit 1:Introduction to scientific research and research methods<br />Unit 2: Stages in a scientific research plan: Identifying a research problem, reviewing the literature and specifying a research problem or hypothesis <br />Unit 3: Stages in a scientific research plan: Collecting, analyzing, interpreting, reporting and evaluating research data<br />Unit 4: Non-experimental, pre-experimental, quasi- and experimental <br /> approaches to research <br />Unit 5: Research designs - Experimental and correlational research <br />Unit 6: Research designs – Single case study, observational, quasi-experimental and survey research<br />Unit 7: Midterm Exam<br />Unit 8: Sampling <br />Unit 9: Validity and reliability<br />Unit 10: Data collection <br />Unit 11: Statistical analysis <br />Unit 12: Writing a research proposal / report<br />Unit 13: Ethical standards and issues in research<br />Unit 14: Final Exam<br />COURSE CONTACT HOURS <br />Professors who teach the course must divide the contact hours the following way:<br />Face-to-face time in the classroom must not be less than 40.0 hours (16 classes, 2.5 hours each class).<br />For the remaining hours (≥ 5 hours), students will conduct research projects or homework outside the classroom. These projects or homework will include, but are not limited to: review of empirical articles from professional journals (e.g. Psychological Bulletin, Clinical Psychology Review or Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice) and written critiques of research reports published in scholarly journals. <br />METHODOLOGY<br />Teaching methodology for this course can include, among others: conferences by the professor, group discussions, class research projects, student presentations and assigned problems and exercises involving real or hypothetical research situations.<br />EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUES<br /> <br />The techniques could include: PowerPoint presentations and discussion<br />EVALUATION<br />Class attendance and punctuality are required to approved the course <br />Submitting of required tasks and research proposal (4 group paper of 25 points each)<br />Two tests of 100 percent (mid-term) must be approved <br />Active participation in class<br />The professor could required quizzes for reading check<br />RESEARCH COMPETENCIES<br />Compare/contrast the quantitative/qualitative perspectives in terms of their assumptions, research approaches and methodology used.<br />Develop skills to understand the main stages in a research plan <br />Develop skills to understand scientific literature and evaluate how the findings contribute to the existing knowledge base.<br />Formulate a research problem and a general research plan with well formulated ethical procedures within the two research traditions.<br />Develop hypothesis that can be evaluated by research studies <br />Compare/contrast experimental and non-experimental designs in research<br />Describe different sampling procedures and how they are applied in quantitative research<br />Describe data collection methods in the quantitative and qualitative approaches.<br />Develop a research proposal within one of the research traditions: quantitative or qualitative.<br />Develop skills to judge the overall significance of a study and how it contributes to the existing knowledge base.<br />ATTENDANCE POLICY<br />Class attendance is mandatory for all students. After two unexcused absences, the student will be dropped from the class, unless the professor recommends otherwise. When a student misses a class, he/she is responsible for the material presented in class. <br />AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)<br />Students that need special accommodations should request them directly to the professor during the first week of class.<br />COURSE UNITS<br />UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE<br />Upon completion of this unit, students should understand the importance of research for theory development and how both research traditions --quantitative and qualitative—contribute to knowledge construction. They should understand the role and importance of the scientific method in relation to psychological research, as well as comprehend basic concepts in both the quantitative and qualitative research perspectives and traditions.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Identify, compare and contrast the epistemological bases of the quantitative and qualitative approaches to research.<br />Describe the general characteristics of science and the scientific method<br />Describe the functions/roles of theory for scientific explanation and prediction <br />Define “scientific research” within the main research perspectives<br />Understand the scientific approach and apply it to issues in their area of study<br />Understand the language of experimentation<br />Describe basic and applied research<br />Define concepts such as: epistemological perspectives, paradigm, research problem, hypothesis, variable, operational and conceptual definitions<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006)<br />Chapter 1 – Research process and the qualitative-quantitative methodology: Toward an integrative model <br />Chapter 2 – The idea in research: A new research project is born <br />2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 1 – Science and the scientific approach<br />Chapter 2 – Problems and hypothesis<br />Chapter 3 – Constructs, variables and definitions<br />UNIT 2: STAGES IN A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH – IDENTIFYING A RESEARCH PROBLEM, REVIEWING THE LITERATURE AND SPECIFYING RESEARCH PROBLEM OR HYPOTHESIS<br />Upon completion of this unit, students should understand the stages involved in the development of a research plan, and be able to apply this knowledge to a research problem in an area of interest within the field of psychology using either the qualitative or the quantitative approach.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Develop a research topic<br />Formulate research problems applied to quantitative/qualitative research<br />Translate a research problem into research hypotheses for each research perspective, when applicable<br />Understand the importance of research problems and hypotheses<br />Understand the role of the literature review in research, and be able to complete such a review<br />Formulate operational definitions of concepts and constructs<br />Understand the role of variables in research and be able to define the variables in a study<br />Describe different types of variables<br />Understand the proper use of psychological instruments in research<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006)<br />Chapter 2 – The idea in research: A new research project is born<br />Chapter 3 – Planning process: Formulation of selected problem, scope, objectives, major research questions and significance of the study<br />Chapter 5 – General typology of research designs: exploratory, descriptive, correlational and casual-comparative.<br />2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 2 – Problems and hypothesis<br />Chapter 3 – Constructs, variables and definitions<br />3. Creswell, J.W. (2008) <br />Chapter 1 – Selection of a research design<br />Chapter 2 – Review of the literature<br />Chapter 3 – The Use of theory <br />4. McBurney, D.H, & White, T.L. (2004)<br />Chapter 2 – Developing a research question<br />Chapter 5 –Variables<br />UNIT 3: STAGES IN A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH - COLLECTING, ANALYZING, INTERPRETING, REPORTING AND EVALUATING RESEARCH DATA<br />Upon completion of this unit, students should understand the steps involved in the development of a research plan, and be able to apply this knowledge to a research problem in an area of interest within the field of psychology.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES: <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Explain and apply the procedures involved in the development of a research plan for either the quantitative or the qualitative approach.<br />Understand the steps involved in the process of sampling and data collection.<br />Understand the role of statistical analysis in its relation to the research design.<br />Prepare the presentation of research results in a research plan / report<br />Describe the conclusions as part of the preparation of a research report <br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 18 – Research design: purpose and principles<br />Chapter 19 – Inadequate designs and design criteria<br />2. Creswell, J.W. (2008) <br />Chapter 5 – The introduction <br />Chapter 6 – The purpose statement<br />Chapter 7 – Research questions and hypotheses <br />UNIT 4: NON-EXPERIMENTAL, PRE_EXPERIMENTAL, QUASI<br /> EXPERIMENTAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES <br /> TO RESEARCH <br />Upon completion of this unit, students should understand different approaches to research, including non-experimental, pre-experimental, quasi- and experimental approaches. They should understand the differences between such approaches, as well as the applications, advantages, and limitations of these designs. <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Describe the characteristics of non-experimental, pre-experimental, quasi- and experimental research and their applications<br />Discuss the differences between non-experimental, pre-experimental, quasi- and experimental approaches to research. <br />Explain the rationale and process of hypothesis-testing in the context of each approach.<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006)<br />Chapter 4 – The conceptual framework: Literature review and the construction of a theoretical perspective<br />Chapter 6 – Formulation and Statement of a Research Hypothesis<br />2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 20 – Conceptual foundation of research design <br />UNIT 5: RESEARCH DESIGNS – EXPERIMENTAL AND CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH <br /> <br />Upon completion of this unit, students should demonstrate knowledge of specific research designs within the different approaches to research, including experimental and correlational research designs. They should understand the applications of the basic designs within each approach, as well as their effectiveness in relation to threats to internal validity. They should be able to apply the specific designs to problems in their area of study.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Understand experimental and correlational research and be able to apply some of the most important designs of this type<br />Understand advantages and limitations of specific experimental and correlational designs <br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006)<br />Chapter 7 – Research designs<br />2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 21 – Research design applications: Randomized groups and correlated groups <br />3. McBurney, D.H. & White, T.L. (2004)<br />Chapter 12 –True experiments, Part 2: Factorial designs<br />4. Campbell, D. & Stanley, J. (1973)<br />Chapter 12 – The separate-sample pretest-posttest design<br />Chapter 13 – The separate-sample pretest-posttest control group design<br />Chapter 14 – The multiple time-series design<br />5. Creswell, J.W. (2008) <br />Chapter 8 – Quantitative methods<br />UNIT 6: RESEARCH DESIGNS – SINGLE CASE STUDY, OBSERVATIONAL, QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL AND SURVEY RESEARCH <br />Upon completion of this unit, students should demonstrate knowledge of specific research designs within the different approaches to research, including non-experimental, pre-experimental and quasi experimental research designs. They should understand the applications of the basic designs within each approach, as well as their effectiveness in relation to threats to internal validity. They should be able to apply the specific designs to problems in their area of study.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Understand cuasi-experimental research and be able to apply some of the most important designs of this type<br />Understand advantages and limitations of specific cuasi-experimental designs<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006)<br />Chapter 7 – Research designs<br />2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 22 – Quasi-experimental and N=1 designs of research<br />Chapter 23 – Non-experimental research<br />3. Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D.T. (1979)<br />Chapter 3 – Quasi-experiment: Nonequivalent control group designs<br />4. McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004)<br />Chapter 10 – Non experimental research, Part 2: Survey research <br />Chapter 13 – Single-participant experiments<br />Chapter 14 – Quasi experiments<br />5. Creswell, J.W. (2008) <br />Chapter 10 – Mixed methods procedures<br />6. Campbell, D. & Stanley, J. (1973)<br />Chapter 10 – The nonequivalent control group design<br />UNIT 7: MID TERM EXAM<br />UNIT 8: SAMPLING<br />Upon completion of this unit, students should gain an understanding of the different types of samples used in research, as well as different procedures used for sampling and their applications.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Describe the different types of samples used in research <br />Describe specific sampling procedures<br />Describe the use of informants in qualitative research and how it differs from sampling<br />Comprehend the importance of the relation between sampling and statistical power<br />Comprehend the relation between sampling and external validity in research.<br />Understand the concept of randomization and its application to psychological research<br />Describe the functions accomplished by random assignment<br />Describe power analysis<br />Be able to identify the size of the effect and the meaning of this concept<br />Use power tables<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006)<br />Chapter 8 – Sample selection <br />2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 8 – Sampling and randomness <br />UNIT 9: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY <br />Upon completion of this unit, students should understand the concepts of internal validity, external validity and reliability. They should demonstrate knowledge of threats to internal validity and methods for their control. They should be able to apply this knowledge to the critical analysis of published research, as well as the design of their own research plan.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Explain the concept of internal validity and discuss threats to internal validity and techniques for their control.<br />Explain different types of validity.<br />Describe the problem of “validity” in qualitative research<br />Explain the concept of external validity and understand its relation to sampling<br />Identify different threats to validity, and explain and apply different techniques to control them.<br />Identify extraneous variables.<br />Understand control techniques and their application in the development of a research plan<br />Discuss the importance of the minimization of error variance<br />Explain the concepts of reliability and replicability in terms of scientific research<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 26 – Foundations of measurement <br />Chapter 27 – Reliability<br />Chapter 28 – Validity<br />2. McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004)<br />Chapter 7 – Validity<br />Chapter 8 – Control <br />3. Rogelberg, S.G. (2002)<br />Chapter 3 – Validity and reliability<br />Chapter 4 – The relative validity and usefulness of various empirical research designs<br />4. Roberts, M.C. & Ilardi, S.S. (2005)<br />Chapter 2 – Addressing validity concerns in clinical psychology research<br />UNIT 10: DATA COLLECTION <br />Upon completion of this unit, students should become familiar with the steps and concepts involved in data collection procedures in a research plan. They should understand the uses and applications of various measures for the observation of variables. They should describe the strengths and limitations of different measures, and be able to apply them to research problems in their particular area of interest.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Describe and apply several measures of behavior, including interviews, behavior rating scales, questionnaires and checklists, objective tests and scales, among others<br />Discuss and apply several measures of behavior for the study of specific research problems<br />Identify problems in the observation and measurement of behavior<br />Describe the role of the researcher in qualitative research<br />Understand the applications of tests, questionnaires, electronic methods and checklists<br />Understand the applications of interviews and self-report measures <br />Describe the combine use of quantitative and qualitative data in research<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006)<br />Chapter 9 – Data collection <br />2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 29 – Interview and interview schedules<br />Chapter 30 – Objective tests and scales <br />3. Rogelberg, S.G. (2002)<br />Chapter 8 – Qualitative data collection and analysis<br />4. Creswell, J.W. (2008) <br />Chapter 9 – Qualitative procedures<br />UNIT 11: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS<br />Upon completion of this unit, students should comprehend the different methods for statistical analysis and their relation to research design and the testing of different types of hypotheses. They should become familiar with several statistical tests as they apply to research designs. They should understand the concepts related to making inferences, including Type I and II Error, statistical power and significance level. <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Describe different methods available for statistical analysis, and their relation to research design<br />Select statistical analysis procedures appropriate for a specific research design and problem<br />Understand the two types of error in probabilistic decision-making, and the relation between the two <br />Explain and apply the concept of statistical power, and describe the process and purposes of statistical power analysis<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006)<br />Chapter 10 – Data analysis <br />2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 9 – Principles of analysis and interpretation <br />Chapter 10 – The analysis of frequencies <br />Chapter 11 – Statistics: Purpose, approach and method<br />Chapter 12 – Testing hypothesis and the standard error<br />3. McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004)<br />Chapter 6 – Tabular and graphical description of data<br />Appendix A – Review of statistics <br />UNIT 12: WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL/REPORT <br />Upon completion of this unit, students should demonstrate the skills necessary for the preparation of a research proposal or report in accordance with the style presented in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Describe the sections that comprise a research plan and apply this knowledge to the preparation of a research proposal on a topic of their choice<br />Prepare a research proposal on a topic of their choice that includes the following sections: abstract, introduction (including background and justification), methods (subjects, instruments and procedure), results, discussion and reference list<br />Describe the process and style of qualitative report writing<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006)<br />Chapter 11 – Writing the research report<br />2. McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004)<br />Chapter 4 – The written report <br />3. Rogelberg, S.G. (2002)<br />Chapter 22 – Writing research articles: Update on the Article <br /> Review Checklist<br />4. Roberts, M.C. & Ilardi, S.S. (2005)<br />Chapter 3 – The scientific process and publishing research<br />5. Creswell, J.W. (2008) <br />Chapter 4 – Writing strategies and ethical considerations<br />UNIT 13: ETHICAL STANDARDS AND ISSUES IN RESEARCH <br />Upon completion of this unit, students should demonstrate knowledge of the ethical standards, principles and issues that pertain to the conduct of scientific research. They should be able to apply this knowledge to real and simulated research situations.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:<br />Explain and apply ethical principles included in the principal ethical standards and codes of conduct relevant to the conduct of psychological research<br />Evidence knowledge of concepts pertaining to the rights and protection of human subjects in research, including informed consent, confidentiality, and other issues<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. American Psychological Association (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. <br />2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002)<br />Chapter 17 – Ethical considerations in conducting behavioral science research<br />3. McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004)<br />Chapter 3 – Ethics in research <br />4. Kimmel, A. J. (2007)<br />Chapter 1 – Introduction to research ethics<br />Chapter 5 –Ethical issues in the conduct of field research<br />Chapter 8 – Recruitment and selection of research subjects<br />Chapter 10 – Ethical review and the communications of results<br />5. Roberts, M.C. & Ilardi, S.S. (2005)<br />Chapter 4 – Ethical considerations in clinical psychology research<br />UNIT 14: FINAL EXAM<br />REFERENCES<br />American Psychological Association (1999). Standards for educational and <br />psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.<br />American Psychological Association (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.<br />American Psychological Association (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and <br />code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57(12), 1060-1073. <br />Anderson, C. A., Lindsay, J. J., & Bushman, B. J. (1999). Research in the<br />psychological laboratory: Truth or triviality? Current Directions in Psychological<br />Science, 8, 3-9.<br />Auerbach, C.F. & Silverstein, L.B. (2003). Qualitative data: An introduction to coding <br />and analysis. New York: New York University Press.<br />Bordens, K.S. & Abbott, B.B. (1991). Research design and methods: A process <br />approach (2nd ed.). California: Mayfield Publishing Company.<br />Campbell, D. & Stanley, J. (1973). Diseños experimentales y cuasi-experimentales en la investigación social. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu Editores. <br />Chambers, R. L., & Skinner, C. J. (2003). Analysis of survey data. San Francisco: <br />Jossey-Bass. <br />Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159.<br />Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D.T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis <br />issues for field settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.<br />Creswell, J.W. (1999). Mixed-method research: introduction and application. In Cizek <br />G.J., (eds.). Handbook of Educational Policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, California: Academic Press. <br />Creswell J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications. <br />Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill-<br />Pearson Education.<br />Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.<br />Creswell, J. W. & Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods <br />research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.<br />Creswell, J.W., Plano-Clark, V.L., Guttman, M., & Hanson, W. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori, & C. Teddlie (eds.) Handbook on <br />mixed methods in the behavioral and social sciences (pp. 209-240). Thousand <br />Oaks, California: Sage Publications.<br />Cronbach, L. J. & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity of psychological tests. <br />Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-92.<br />Czaja, R., & Blair, J. (2004). Designing surveys: A guide to decisions and procedures. <br />Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.<br />DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications. (2nd ed.). <br />Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. <br />Diekhoff, G.M. (1996). Basic statistics for the social and behavioral sciences. New <br />Jersey: Prentice Hall.<br />Dillon, D. R., O’Brien, D. G., & Heilman, E.E. (2000). Literacy research in the next millennium: From paradigms to pragmatism and practicality. Reading Research Quarterly, 35(1), 10-26.<br />Enserink, M. (2000). Helsinki's new clinical rules: Fewer placebos, more disclosure. Science, 290, 418-419. <br />Fink, A. (2005). How to conduct surveys: A step-by-step guide (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.<br />Fink, A. 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