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  • 1. CARLOS ALBIZU UNIVERSITYSAN JUAN CAMPUS<br />MASTER SYLLABUS<br />PSYF-505: ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT<br />CREDITS: 3CONTACT HOURS: 45<br />COURSE DESCRIPTION<br />The purpose of this course is to introduce topics related to ethical issues, legal issues, and professional conduct in the practice of psychology. Analysis of value conflicts including those that may reflect different cultural orientation, decision making, maintenance of high professional standards, confidentiality, as well as standards for human research are some of the topics to be addressed in this course. Legal aspects, such as risks for malpractice suits and license requirements will be discussed.<br />PRE-REQUISITES<br />None<br />COURSE OBJECTIVES<br />The course provides an introduction to the professional norms, standards, legal statutes and case law that apply to the practice of psychology and the analysis and resolution of ethical dilemmas. The focus is on the process of analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas following the decision making process model. The course seeks to develop awareness in the student of the implications of membership in a licensed health profession with resultant obligations, responsibilities and benefits. The course provides opportunities for the student to develop sensitivity towards individual rights and differences and the need to provide safeguards for community and consumer welfare. Additional course objectives are to foster sensitivity in the delivery of health care systems to the needs of ethnic populations, especially Hispanic and those individuals with special needs. The student is expected to develop the ability to analyze a variety of practical situations in different work settings and with diverse client populations within the context of social and cultural diversity.<br />REQUIRED TEXT BOOKS<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.<br />ISBN-13: 978-0-19-514911-1 www.apa.org/books<br />Fisher, C.B. (2008). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists. (2nd. Ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.<br />ISBN: 978-1-4129-5916-2 www.amazon.com<br />ITINERARY OF CLASS UNITS<br />Unit 1: Ethical codes and controversies in professional regulation<br />Unit 2: Ethical decision making and ethics committee review procedures<br />Unit 3: Privacy, confidentiality and record keeping norms<br />Unit 4: Ethical issues in psychological testing and assessment<br />Unit 5: Ethical issues in psychotherapy<br />Unit 6: Midterm exam<br />Unit 7: Ethical issues in Finances and managed care<br />Unit 8: Ethical issues in advertising and the public media TC l1 "<br />Unit 9: Ethical issues in professional competence<br />Unit 10: Dual relationships and professional relationships with colleagues<br />Unit 11: Ethical issues in specialized work settings: school, public sector, correctional settings, private practice, and consulting<br />Unit 12: Ethical issues in teaching and publishing<br />Unit 13: Ethical issues in research and publishing<br />Unit 14: Final exam<br />COURSE CONTACT HOURS <br />Professors who teach the course must divide the contact hours the following way:<br />Face-to-face time in the classroom must not be less than 40.0 hours (16 classes, 2.5 hours each class).<br />For the remaining hours (≥ 5.0 hours), students will conduct research projects or homework outside the classroom. These projects or homework will include, but are not limited to, case discussions,<br />METHODOLOGY<br />The specific methodology will be selected by the professor who offers the course. These methodologies may include, but are not limited to; conferences, group discussions, research projects, student presentations, individual meetings with students and/or sub-groups in the classroom.<br />EDUCATIONAL ADVANCE u 3 ADVANCE d 3TECHNIQUES<br />The professor who offers the course will select the specific educational techniques. These techniques may include, but are not limited to; debates, practical demonstrations, films, video presentations, simulations, slide shows and forums.<br />EVALUATION TC l3 "<br />The professor who offers the Course will select the specific evaluation criteria. These methodologies may include, but are not limited to-term papers, projects, literature reviews, exams and class presentations.<br />RESEARCH COMPETENCIES<br />This course intends to develop the following research competencies for Ph.D. and Psy.D. students:<br />Understand general ethical standards relevant to research on humans: informed consent, conflicts of interest and duty to share research results.<br />Discuss and apply ethical standards related to research planning and development.<br />Increase the ability to use critical thinking skills when faced with research ethics issues.<br />Understand the research responsibilities regarding the selection of subjects and research on special populations (e.g. minorities, persons with developmental disabilities, prisoners, children and adolescent). Research must be conducted with respect for under-represented social groups and the avoidance of marginalization or exclusion of these.<br />Promote respect and appreciation for the individuality and diversity of research participant beliefs, values, spirituality and culture.<br />Understand issues of sociocultural diversity and social concerns of justice and professional responsibility in research. <br />Understand the research responsibilities of being sensitive not only to how privacy and confidentiality concerns will be approached, but also how participants are going to be notified of any unforeseen findings from the research. <br />Understands the function, structure, and requirements of Institutional Review Board (IRB). <br />ATTENDANCE POLICY<br />Class attendance is mandatory for all students. After two unexcused absences, the student will be dropped from the class, unless the professor recommends otherwise. When a student misses a class, he/she is responsible for the material presented in class. <br />AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)<br />Students that need special accommodations should request them directly to the professor during the first week of class.<br />COURSE UNITS<br />UNIT 1: ETHICAL CODES AND CONTROVERSIES IN PROFESSIONAL <br /> REGULATION<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical codes and controversies in professional regulation.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:<br />Identify and discuss the legislation, case law and jurisprudence relevant to the practice of psychology in Puerto Rico.<br />Discuss the applicable ethical codes in Puerto Rico and understand of the goals of ethical codes of conduct.<br />Identify and discuss the professional guidelines and standards applicable to the practice of psychology in Puerto Rico and in the United States.<br />Discuss the norms and procedures of the Puerto Rico Licensing Board and voluntary professional organizations.<br />Understand the ethical decision making process and modifications during emergency situations.<br />Discuss the basic concepts of standard of car ADVANCE u 3 ADVANCE d 3e, duty of care, and the definition of an emergency.<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). <br />Chapter 1: On being ethical<br />Fisher, C.B. (2008)<br />Chapter 1 – A Code of Ethics for psychologists: How did we get here?<br />Chapter 2 – The introduction and applicability Section, Preamble, and General Principles: What do they mean? <br />Chapter 3 – Changes from the 1992 Ethics Code: What you may need to know now.<br />American Psychological Association. (1981). Specialty guidelines for the delivery of services by clinical, counseling, industrial/organizational, school psychologists. American Psychologist, 36, 640-681.<br />American Psychological Association. (1993). Guidelines for providers of psychological services to ethnic, linguistic, and culturally diverse populations. American Psychologist, 48, 45-48.<br />Junta Examinadora de Psicólogos. (1991). Reglamento de Educación Continuada y Registro para la Recertificación de los Psicólogos. Num. 4532 del 6 de septiembre de 1991.<br />Junta Examinadora de Psicólogos. (1992). General rules (includes the ADVANCE u 3 ADVANCE d 3Ethics Code). San Juan, PR: Department of Health.<br />Nagy, T.F. (2000). Ethics in plain English: An illustrative casebook for psychologists (p.7). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.<br />UNIT 2: ETHICAL DECISION MAKING AND ETHICS COMMITTEE REVIEW <br /> PROCEDURES<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical decision making process and ethics review procedures.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:<br />Identify and discuss the types of conduct that are sanctioned by the ethics code.<br />Discuss the procedures followed by the ethics committee in processing ethics complaints.<br />Identify and discuss the professional resources and informal means of regulation used by licensed professions.<br />Identify and discuss the legal rules, concepts and standards that apply to malpractice litigation.<br />Discuss the basic concepts such as: fiduciary duty, breach of duty, proximate cause, and cause in fact; exploitation, insensitivity, incompetence, abandonment, irresponsibility and the legal requirements for a professional relationship to exist.<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008).<br />Chapter 2- Making ethical decisions and taking action.<br />Fisher, C.B. (2008)<br />Chapter 5- Name of chapter<br />Junta Examinadora de Psicólogos. (1992). Reglamento General (includes the Ethics Code and procedures).<br />American psychological Association, Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1992). Rules and Procedures. American Psychologist, 47,1612- 1628.<br />http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/guidelines.html (Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay & Bisexual Clients).<br />UNIT 3: PRIVACY, CONFIDENTIALITY AND RECORD KEEPING NORMS<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand concepts such as: confidentiality and privacy, and applicability of record keeping norms.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to-<br />Understand the concepts of privacy, confidentiality and privileged communication.<br />Discuss the limits to confidentiality and when, how, and for whom the limits apply.<br />Discuss the Tarrasof vs. Regents of the University of California I and II cases and the ability to discuss the impact of the duty to warn, duty ADVANCE u 3 ADVANCE d 3to assess, and the duty to protect on the practice of psychology.<br />Explain the legal concept of informed consent and how informed consent is processed in the practice of psychology.<br />Discuss the mandatory reporting laws and application.<br />Discuss the legal and professional norms for record keeping. <br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008).<br />Chapter 8: Privacy, confidentiality, and record keeping. <br />Fisher, C.B. (2008)<br />Chapter 7- Standards on privacy and confidentiality<br /> TC l2 "<br />American Psychological Association. (1993). Record keeping guidelines.<br />Harding, A., Gray, L. & Neal, M., (1993). Confidentiality limits with clients who have HIV: a review of ethical- and legal guidelines and professional policies, 297-305.<br />Monahah, J. (1993). Limiting therapist exposure to Tarasoff Liability, Guidelines for risk containment, 242- 250.<br />Ribera, J. (1987). El principio de la confidencialidad y sus referentes legales. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 4, 73-91.<br />UNIT 4: ETHICAL ISSUES IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING AND ASSESSMENT<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand ethical issues in psychological testing and assessment.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:<br />Discuss professional guidelines and standards for testing and assessment, and test security<br />Identify and discuss the legal requirements of reasonable accommodation when evaluating special populations.<br />Discuss the professional debates on test construction, testing, normative data bases, and the application of testing norms to culturally diverse populations.<br />4. Discuss the concepts of Test Bias, Job Relatedness, Reliability, and <br /> Validity.<br />ASSIGNED READINGS: <br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008).<br />Chapter 9- Psychological assessment: Testing Tribulations.<br />Fisher, C.B. (2008)<br />Chapter 12-Standards on assessment <br />American Psychological Association. (1993). Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations.<br />Asociación de Psicólogos de Puerto Rico. (1991). Guías profesionales para la evaluación psicológica.<br />Canino, I. A., & Spurlock, J. (1994). Culturally diverse children and adolescents: Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.<br />Committee on Ethical guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. (1991). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.<br />Geisinger, K. ( 1992). Psychological Testing of Hispanics.<br />Nagy, T. F. (2000). Ethics in Plain English: An Illustrative Casebook for Psychologists. Pág. 59<br />Ribera, J. &. Romey, C. (1988). Issues éticos y legales en la evaluación psicológica.<br />American Educational Research Association, Committee to Develop Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing.<br />American Psychological Association (1990). Guidelines for providers of psychological services to ethnic, linguistic, and c culturally diverse populations. American Psychologist, 48, 45-48. <br />http://apa.org/practice/dementia.html (Guidelines for the Evaluation of Dementia and Age-Related Cognitive Decline)<br />http://apa.org/practice/childcustody.html (Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce proceedings)<br />Samuda, R.J. (1998). Psychological Testing of American Minorities. Thousand Oaks, CA: <br />Sage Publications.<br />UNIT 5: ETHICAL ISSUES IN PSYCHOTHERAPY<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand ethical issues in <br />psychotherapy.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:<br /> 1. Discuss and debate on right to treatment and right to refuse treatment.<br />2. Discuss the role specifications of a psychotherapist including <br /> responsibilities and obligations.<br />3. Discuss the ethical and professional norms in treatment planning.<br />4. Discuss the debates associated with specific techniques used in <br /> therapy systems.<br />5. Explain the process of peer review and the option of a second opinion.<br />6. Explain the concepts of Duty to Refer, Triage and Third Party Review.<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008).<br />Chapter 5- Psychotherapy Part I: Ethical obligations of psychotherapists.<br />Chapter 6- Psychotherapy Part II: Techniques and controversies.<br />Fisher, C.B. (2008)<br />Chapter 13- Standards on therapy. <br />American Psychological Association. (1981). Specialty guidelines for the delivery of services by clinical (counseling, industrial/organizational, school) psychologists.<br />Deliz-Román, J. (1987). La relación psicoterapista-paciente. Forum, 3, 17-26. <br />Pope, K., Sonne, J., & Holroyd, J. (1993). Sexual Feelings in Psychotherapy. Washington, <br />DC: American Psychological Association.<br />UNIT 6: MIDTERM EXAMINATION<br />UNIT 7: ETHICAL ISSUES IN FINANCES AND MANAGED CARE<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical issues in finances and managed care.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:<br />1. Discuss fee schedules and practice management issues.<br />2. Discuss the issues around managed care and the legal and professional <br /> controversies of pre-paid health care.<br />3. Explain the concepts of pro-bono, retainer fees, fee-splitting, contingency <br /> fees, fraud, and bartering.<br />ASSIGNED READING:<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008).<br />Chapter 7- The mental health business: Money and managed care.<br />Small, R.F. & Barnhill, L.R. (Eds.) (1998). Practicing in the new mental health marketplace. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.<br />UNIT 8: ETHICAL ISSUES IN ADVERTISING AND THE PUBLIC MEDIA<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical issues in advertising and the public media,<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to”<br />Discuss the Federal Trade Commission ruling and its impact on the practice of psychology.<br />Identify and discuss the professional norms for advertising and announcing services.<br />Explain the concepts of false representation, and deceptive advertising.<br />Discuss the ethical norms ADVANCE u 3 ADVANCE d 3that apply to the participation of psychologists in radio and television programs and in newspaper reporting.<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008).<br />Chapter 14- Marketing and professional services.<br />Chapter 15- The public face on mental health professionals.<br />American Psychological Association. (1993). Consent agreement with the Federal Trade Commission.<br />Fisher, C.B. (2008)<br />Chapter 8- Standards on advertising and other public statements.<br />Shapiro, E.L., Ginzberg, R. (2003). To accept or not to accept: Referrals and the maintenance of boundaries. Professional psychology: Research and practice, 34, (3), 258-263.<br />UNIT 9: ETHICAL ISSUES IN PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical issues in professional competence.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:<br />Discuss the ethical controversies in academic settings ADVANCE u 3 ADVANCE d 3with student evaluations and supervision.<br />Discuss the professional norms of continuing education and recertification requirements.<br />Identify and discuss the professional guidelines for disabled and troubled psychologists.<br />Discuss legal regulations of specialization and acquisition of new areas of specialty.<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008).<br />Chapter 4- Knowing thyself: Understanding competence and credentials.<br />Fisher, C.B. (2008)<br />Chapter 5- Standards on competence. <br />Junta Examinadora de Psicólogos. (1991). Reglamento de Educación Continuada y Registro para la Recertificación de los Psicó1ogos, No. 4532. September 6, 1991.<br />Fisher, C.B. & Fried, A.L. (2003). Internet-mediated psychological services and the <br />American Psychological Association Ethics Code. Psychotherapy: Theory, research, <br />practice, training, 40,103-111. (Article).<br />UNIT 10: DUAL RELATIONSHIPS AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS <br /> WITH COLLEAGUES TC l1 "<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical issues in dual relationships and professional relationships with colleagues.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:<br />Discuss the difficulties associated with the practice of psychology <br /> in small communities<br />Explain the concepts of dual roles, dual relationships and conflict of interests<br />Identify and discuss the ethical means to avoid, reduce and resolve ADVANCE u 3 ADVANCE d 3dual relationships<br />Discuss the controversies associated with sexual relations within a professional relationship<br />Identify and discuss the norms that define a hostile environment and the various forms of harassment<br />Explain the norms that apply to the duty to refer.<br />Describe the professional expectations and norms that apply to peer review and monitoring<br />Identify and discuss the professional norms for the supervisory role<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008).<br />Chapter 13- Relationships with colleagues, students, supervisees, and employees.<br />Younggren, J.N. & Fottlieb, M.C. (2004). Managing risk when contemplating multiple relationships. Professional psychology: Research and practice, 35, 3, 255-260.<br />UNIT 11: ETHICAL ISSUES IN SPECIALIZED WORK SETTINGS: SCHOOL, <br /> PUBLIC SECTOR, CORRECTIONAL SETTINGS, PRIVATE PRACTICE, <br /> AND CONSULTING<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical issues in specialized work settings.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to-<br />Compare and contrast the differences in confidentiality and reporting norms between a management-initiated referral and a client-initiated referral.<br />Discuss the ethical dilemmas of whistle-blowing and associated ethical responsibilities.<br />3. Identify and discuss the ethical issues in settings with multiple clients and <br /> competing loyalties and responsibilities.<br />4. Discuss relevant ethical issues that arise in correctional settings, military, and <br /> industry.<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008).<br />Chapter 16- Ethical dilemmas in academic settings.<br />Chapter 17- Mental health practitioners in the legal system: Tort and retort.<br />Chapter 18- Challenging work settings : Juggling porcupines.<br />American Psychological Association (1981). Specialty guidelines for the delivery of services by clinical (counseling, industrial/organizational, school) psychologists.<br />American Psychological Association (1993). Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations.<br />Committee on Ethical guidelines for Forensic ADVANCE u 3 ADVANCE d 3Psychologists (1991). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.<br />Gelsinger, ADVANCE d 3 ADVANCE u 3K. (1992). Psychological Testing of Hispanics.<br />UNIT 12: ETHICAL ISSUES IN TEACHING AND PUBLISHING<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical issues in teaching and publishing.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: <br />Discuss the norms for publications and crediting authorship<br />2. Discuss the ethical norms that apply to teaching, course preparation <br /> and evaluation<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />Fisher, C.B. (2008)<br />Chapter 10- Standards on education and training.<br />UNIT 13: ETHICAL ISSUES IN RESEARCH<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical issues in research<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:<br />1. Identify and discuss the ethical norms and guidelines that apply to <br /> research with human subjects and animals.<br />Discuss the ethical dilemmas of research with populations that cannot give informed consent and/or subjects at risk.<br />Identify and discuss the controversies surrounding the use of deception in research methodologies and measures to minimize  negative effects.<br />Discuss the issues in reporting research results.<br />5. Explain the terms of surrogate consent, assent, Nuremberg code, <br /> placebo, competence and de-briefing.<br />Assigned Readings:<br />Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008).<br />Chapter 19- Scholarly publication and the responsible conduct of research.<br />Fisher, C.B. (2008)<br />Chapter 11-Standards on research and publication<br />American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles in the conduct of research with human participants.<br />Committee on Animal Research and Ethics. (1993). Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use or Animals.<br />Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Privacy Protection For Research Subjects, October, 2000.<br />National Institutes of Health (NIH), Office for Protection from Research Risks. Code of Federal Regulations, December 2001.<br />UNIT 14: FINAL EXAMINATION<br />REFERENCES<br />Alarcon, R. D., Foulks, E. F., & Vakkur, M. (1998). Personality Disorders and Culture: Clinical and Conceptual Interactions. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.<br />American Educational Research Association, Committee to Develop Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. (1985). Standards for Educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.<br />American Psychological Association. (1981). Specialty guidelines for the delivery of services by clinical, counseling, industrial/organizational, school psychologists. American Psychologist, 36, 640-681.<br />American Psychological Association. (1982). Ethical principles in the conduct of research with human participants Washington, DC: Author.<br />American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Washington, DC: Author.<br />American Psychological Association, Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1992). Rules and procedures. American Psychologist, 47, 1612-1628.<br />American Psychological Association. (1993). Consent agreement with the Federal Trade Commission. Washington, D.C.: Author.<br />American Psychological Association. (1993). Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations. American Psychologist, 48, 45-48.<br />American Psychological Association (2007)). Record keeping guidelines. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association..<br />American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists. American Psychologist. 58, 377-402.<br />Anderson, J.R., & R.L., Barret (Eds.). (2001). Ethics in HIV-related psychotherapy: Clinical decision making in complex cases. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.<br />APA's Task Force on Diversity Issues at the Pre-college and Undergraduate levels of Education in Psychology (1998, May). Tips for incorporating culture in class. APA Monitor. Retrieved April 28, 2003, from http://www.apa.org/monitor/mav98/culture.html.<br />Asociación de Psicología de Puerto Rico, (1978). Ethics Code. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Author.<br />Asociación de Psicó1ogos de Puerto Rico. (1991). Guías Profesionales para la ADVANCE u 3 evaluación psicológica. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Author,<br />Austin, W., Rankel,M., L., Bergum, V., & Lemermeyer,, G. (2005). To stay or to go, to speak or to stay silent, to acto r not to act: Moral distress as experienced by psychologists. Ethics & Behavior, 15,197-212.<br />Baker, E.K. (2003). Caring for ourselves: A therapist’s guide to personal and profesional well-being. Washington, DC: American Psychologiacal Association.<br />Barnett, J.E., & Hillard, D. (2001). Psychologist distress and impairment: The availability, nature, and use of colleague assistance programs for psychologists. Professional Psychology, 32, 205-210.<br />Bennett, B.E., Bricklin, P.M. & VandeCreek, L. (1994). Response to Lazarus’s “How certain boundaries and ethics diminish therapeutic effectiveness:. Ethics & Behavior, 4, 263-266.<br />Bernal, G., Bonilla, J., & Bellido, C. (1995). Ecological validity and cultural sensitivity for outcome research: Issues for the cultural adaptation and development of psychosocial treatments with Hispanics. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 67-87.<br />Bernal, G., & Enchautegui-de-Jesús, N., (1994). Latinos and Latinas in Community Psychology: A review of the literature. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 531-557.<br />Bernal, G., & Scharron del Río, M. R. (2001). Are empirically supported treatments valid for ethnic minorities? Toward an alternative approach to treatment research. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7, 328-342.<br />Caudill, B. (2002). Riskmanagement for psychotherapists: Avoiding the pitfalls. In L.VandeCreek and T.L. Jackson (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book (Vol. 20 pp.307-323. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resources Press.<br />Comas-Díaz, L., Brinton-Lykes, M., & Alarcon, R.D. (1998). Ethnic conflict of the Psychology of Liberation in Guatemala, Peru and Puerto Rico. American Psychologist, 53, 778-792.<br />Canino, I. A., & Spurlock, J. (1994). Culturally diverse children and adolescents: Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.<br />Castillo, R. (1997). Culture and Mental Illness: A Client Centered Approach. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.<br />Constantino, G., Malgady, R. G. (1996). Culturally sensitive treatment: Cuento and hero/heroine modeling therapies for Hispanic children and adolescents. In E. D. Hibbs & P. S. Jensen (Eds.), Psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent disorders (pp. 639-670). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.<br />Constantino, G. & Malgady, R. (1996). Development of the TEMAS, A multicultural thematic apperception test: Psychometric properties and clinical utility. In G. R., Sodowsky, & J. Impara (Eds.). (1996). Multicultural assessment in counseling and clinical psychology (pp.85-136). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.<br />Committee on Ethical guidelines for Forensic Psychologist. (1991). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists. Law ADVANCE u 3 ADVANCE d 3and Human Behavior, 5 (6), 655-665.<br />Cunningham, M. (2000). Spirituality, cultural diversity and crisis intervention. Crisis Intervention and Time-Limited Treatment, 6- 65-77.<br />Dana, R. H. (1993). Multicultural Assessment Perspectives for Professional Psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.<br />Dana, R. H. (1997). Understanding Cultural Identity in Intervention and Assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.<br />Darder, A., Tores, R. and Gutierrez, H. (Eds.) (1997). Latinos and Education: A Critical Reader. New York: Routledge.<br />De la Cancela, V.L. & Zavala Martinez, I.Z. (1983). An analysis of culturalism in Latino Mental Health: Folk medicine as a case in point. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 5, 251-274.<br />Deliz-Román, J. (1987). La relación psicoterapista-paciente. Forum, 3, 17-26.<br />De la Rosa, D., Maw, C. E., (1990). Hispanic Education: A Statistical Portrait 1990. 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