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    Guías estudio doctoral industrial organizacional Guías estudio doctoral industrial organizacional Document Transcript

    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUAN Guía de Estudio Examen de Calificación DoctoralPrograma: Psicología Industrial Organizacional Áreas: Ética Adultez, trabajo y jubilación Comportamiento organizacional Interacción grupal y toma de decisiones Psicología de personal Técnicas de evaluación: temas y conceptos básicosFundamentos teoría y metodología del adiestramientoEstadística: correlación regresión y análisis de varianza Investigación científica y metodológica Medición y evaluación de métodos transculturales
    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUANGUIAS DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN COMPRENSIVOS CALIFICATIVOS Y REVÁLIDAPSY. D., PH.D. CLÍNICO Y PH.D. INDUSTRIAL ÉTICA Y CONDUCTA PROFESIONAL
    • GUÍA PARA EXAMENES COMPRENSIVOS EN EL ÁREA DE ÉTICA Y CONDUCTA PROFESIONAL Revisado por: Dra. Gladys Altieri y Dr. Noel Quintero (Junio/2010)CÓDICOS DE ÉTICA, COTROVERSIAS EN LA REGLAMENTACIÓN DE UNA PROFESIÓN Conocer la legislación y jurisprudencia vigente en Puerto Rico que aplica a la profesión de la psicología especialmente en las áreas de: a. la reglamentación de la profesión de la psicología. b. la reglamentación de la relación paciente-terapista c. legislación federal que aplica a poblaciones con necesidades especiales: Ley 96 – Reglamentación de la profesión de la psicología del 4 de junio de 1983. Ley 47 – Enmienda – regula áreas específicas del 13 de diciembre de 1990. Ley A.D.A. – Legislación aplicada a personas con necesidades especiales. Ley 408 – Código de Salud Mental de 2 de octubre de 2000. Ley 177 – Bienestar Integral de Menores Ley HIPPA- Conocer la nueva ley HIPPA Conocer los códigos de ética vigente en Puerto Rico (APA, y APPR). Conocer el Código de Ética de la APA (2002). Conocer las funciones y metas de un código de ética. Conocer el funcionamiento de la Junta Examinadora de Psicólogos Conocer el proceso de toma de decisiones éticas Terminología relevante (definición, desarrollo histórico del concepto y aplicabilidad).
    • EL PROCESO DECISIONAL EN CONTROVERSIAS ETICAS:FUNCIONAMIENTO DE COMITÉS DE ÉTICA * Los tipos de conducta que son más frecuentemente sancionados por un comité de ética. * Los procedimientos que rigen eI proceso de formular una querella por conducta no-ética. * Las sanciones que podrían ser utilizadas por el Comité de Ética de Ia Junta Examinadora en Puerto Rico o por APA. Terminología: a. Explotación b. Insensibilidad c. Incompetencia d. Abandono e. Irresponsabilidad f. Definición de una ―Relación Profesional‖PRIVACIDAD, CONFIDENCIALIDAD Y CONSERVACIÓN DE EXPEDIENTES * Los conceptos de privacidad, confidencialidad, comunicación privilegiada. * Los límites de confidencialidad y cómo, a quién y cuándo se aplican. * Los casos de Tarasoff v. Regents of University of California (I y II). * Los conceptos y aplicabilidad de: a. Duty to Warn b. Duty to Assess c. Duty to Protect *El proceso de obtener Consentimiento Cabal. d. definir los tres (3) aspectos del consentimiento cabal. * Los procedimientos legales relacionados a Ia obligación legal de informar casos de maltrato y abuso. *Las normas profesionales que rigen el manejo y conservación de expedientes. *Quién y bajo qué circunstancias tiene acceso a qué parte(s) del expediente. *La aplicabilidad del concepto de confidencialidad en el caso de menores y adolescentes (psicólogo-cliente-padres). *La aplicabilidad de la confidencialidad en casos de VIH/SIDA.
    • LAS EVALUACIONES PSICOLÓGICAS *Las guías profesionales para Ia evaluación psicológica (APPR) *Las controversias éticas relevantes a Ia evaluación de grupos especiales. *Terminología relevante: a. Test bias b. Confiabilidad c. Validez d. Seguridad de las pruebasLA PSICOTERAPIA *Conocer el concepto de Derecho a Tratamiento y el Derecho a Rehusar Tratamiento. *Las obligaciones y responsabilidades del terapeuta. *Las controversias éticas relevantes a un plan de tratamiento. *Las controversias asociadas con técnicas especializadas de psicoterapia *Dificultades especiales con múltiples clientes (e.g. terapia de pareja, terapia de grupo). *Controversias e implicaciones éticas asociadas al establecimiento de relaciones íntimas con pasados clientes (pacientes). *Terminología relevante: d. Deber de referir e. TriageLA ÉTICA Y ASUNTOS FINANCIEROS *Cómo se establece y se cobra honorarios profesionales. *Controversias existentes en Puerto Rico con el ―managed care‖ o cuidado dirigido.*Terminología relevante: a. Pro-bono b. Retainer fees c. Fee-splitting d. Fraude e. Bartering
    • f. ―Creaming and dumping‖EL MERCADEO DE LA PSICOLOGÍA *Conocer las limitaciones éticas aplicables a anuncios por servicios profesionales. *Terminología relevante: *Falsarepresentación *Anuncios engañosos *El uso correcto de Ia mención de otras credenciales, afiliaciones y endoso de productos.LA ÉTICA Y LOS MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN*Controversias éticas asociadas con la participación de psicólogos en programas en los medios de comunicación masiva (radio y televisión).*Controversias asociadas a reportajes de periódicos.*Aplicabilidad de los siguientes conceptos en Ia ética y los medios de comunicación: a. Responsabilidad social b. Competencia y bienestar del consumidor c. Roles duales d. Privacidad, confidencialidad y consentimiento informado e. Respeto a otros profesionales f. Presentación y proyección profesional*Controversia relacionada a las terapias experimentales (nuevas).COMPETENCIA PROFESIONAL*Competencia profesional y competencia personal.*Controversias asociadas con el rol de estudiante y bajo supervisión.*Controversias asociadas con profesionales incapacitados.
    • *Controversias asociadas con evaluación de estudiantes.*Estándares profesionales que aplican aI proceso de especialización y recertificación.ROLES DUALES Y CONFLICTOS DE INTERESES*Controversias asociadas con Ia práctica de Ia psicología en pueblos pequeños.*Conocer cómo definir una relación como tipo ―dual‖ y qué medidas se puede tomar para reducir el conflicto (ie: terapeuta-evaluador; supervisor-profesor).*Controversias asociadas con relaciones sexuales entre psicólogo y cliente.*Aceptación de favores y regalosRELACIONES PROFESIONALES*Controversias asociadas con Ia continuidad de servicios terapéuticos y eI deber de referir.*Conocer las expectativas de Ia profesión relacionadas a Ia monitoría de Ia conducta profesional entre pares.*Conocer las expectativas de Ia profesión relacionadas con las relaciones entre empleados, supervisores y estudiantes.TEMA XII: CONTROVERSIAS ÉTICAS EN EL ESCENARIO DE EMPLEO *La diferencia entre un referido iniciado por Ia gerencia y unreferido iniciado por el cliente (determinación de quién es el cliente). *Controversias asociadas con el rol de identificar y de señalar posibles violaciones éticas en el trabajo. *Conocer las controversias cuando el psicólogo responde a múltiples presiones ocupacionales y lealtades conflictivas entre el patrono, los empleados y los clientes de Ia organización. *Las controversias particulares en escenarios tales como: a. psicólogos en Ia escuela b. psicólogos en el gobierno c. psicólogos en instituciones correccionales d. psicólogos en práctica privada e. psicólogos en clínicas de Ia comunidad f. psicólogos en organizaciones privadas g. psicólogos en el tribunal
    • TEMA XIII: CONTROVERSIAS ÉTICAS EN EL ESCENARIO ACADÉMICO *Criterios a utilizarse en Ia definición del autor principal y co-autor. *Deberes y responsabilidades éticos del maestro en el salón, en el diseño y ofrecimiento de los cursos. *Deberes y responsabilidades éticos de instituciones educativas *Controversias éticas relevante a Ia supervisión y los deberes éticos del supervisor y el supervisado. *Roles y funciones de supervisor/supervisado; contratos de supervisión; la evaluación en la supervisión; *Diversidad en la supervisión.CONTROVERSIAS ÉTICAS EN LA INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTÍFICA *Normas éticas que aplican a las investigaciones científicas con seres humanos y con animales. *Conocer Ia posición de Ia profesión en cuanto al uso de engaño en el diseño de investigación. *Controversias en el reportaje de resultados de Ia investigación *Identificar las poblaciones a riesgo en una investigación y las medidas que éticamente hay que tomar para velar por su bienestar. *Controversias sobre Ia investigación y Ia privacidad y confidencialidad. *Guías federales recientes y ley HIPPA relacionadas con la investigación con seres humanos. *Requisitos éticos en proyectos de investigación sometidos a los IRB (Institutional Review Board/Comité de Ética Institucional). *Terminología relevante: a. consentimiento subrogado b. placebo c. De-briefing
    • BIBLIOGRAFÍA PARA LAS GUÍAS DE ÉTICAAmerican Psychological Association (2007)).Record keeping guidelines. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association..American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists. American Psychologist. 58, 377-402.Anderson, J.R., & R.L., Barret (Eds.). (2001). Ethics in HIV-related psychotherapy: Clinical decision making in complex cases. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.APAs Task Force on Diversity Issues at the Pre-college and Undergraduate levels of Education in Psychology (1998, May). Tips for incorporating culture in class. APA Monitor. Retrieved April 28, 2003, from http://www.apa.org/monitor/mav98/culture.html.Austin, W., Rankel,M., L., Bergum, V., & Lemermeyer,, G. (2005). To stay or to go, to speak or to stay silent, to act or not to act: Moral distress as experienced by psychologists. Ethics & Behavior, 15,197-212.Baker, E.K. (2003). Caring for ourselves: A therapist’s guide to personal and profesionalwell- being. Washington, DC: American Psychologiacal Association.Barnett, J.E., & Hillard, D. (2001). Psychologist distress and impairment: The availability, nature, and use of colleague assistance programs for psychologists. Professional Psychology, 32, 205-210.Barnett, J.E.& Johnson, W.B. (2008). Ethics desk reference for psychologists. American Psychological Association.
    • Bennett, B.E., Bricklin, P.M. & VandeCreek, L. (1994). Response to Lazarus‘s ―How certain boundaries and ethics diminish therapeutic effectiveness:. Ethics & Behavior, 4, 263- 266.Caudill, B. (2002). Risk management for psychotherapists: Avoiding the pitfalls. In L.VandeCreek and T.L. Jackson (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A sourcebook (Vol. 20 pp.307-323. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resources Press.Fisher, C.B. (2009). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide forpsychologists. Second Ed. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: Standards and cases. Third ED. Oxford University Press.O‘Donohue, W. & Ferguson, K.E. (2003). Handbook of professional ethics for psychologists: Issues, questions and controversies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUAN GUÍA DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORAL ÁREA: ADULTEZ, TRABAJO Y JUBILACIÓNPROGRAMA: PSICOLOGÍA INDUSTRIAL/ ORGANIZACIONAL
    • GUÍA DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACION DOCTORAL AREA: PSICOLOGIA INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZACIONAL AREA: ADULTEZ, TRABAJO Y JUBILACIÓNPREPARADO Y REVISADO POR DR. MIGUEL MARTINEZ LUGO (Septiembre 2010)I. Definiciones básicas 1. Envejecimiento 2. Gerontología 3. Gerontología industrial 4. Geriatría 5. Senectud 6. Senilidad 7. Edadismo (―Ageism‖)/Viejismo 8. GeneraciónII. Teorías de desarrollo A. EM. Erikson B. D. Levinson C. R. Gould D. Otros: Havighurst, Peck, Vaillant, Bühler, Arnett, SuperIll. Etapas de desarrollo A. Adultez temprana 1. Características 2. Adultez temprana y trabajo
    • B. Adultez media 1. Desarrollo físico 2. Desarrollo cognoscitivo 3. Desarrollo social 4. Adultez media y trabajo a. ¿Qué buscan los empleados en adultez media en sus trabajos? 5. Crisis laborales en adultez mediaC. Baby Boomers 1. Early Boomers 2. Segunda Ola 3. Late Boomers 4. Baby Boomers y trabajo 5. Baby Boomers y Generación X 6. Datos en Puerto Rico: Martínez, Rodríguez y Vargas; Sepúlveda NicholsD. Vejez 1. Teorías biológicas del envejecimiento: microbiológicas y macrobiológicas a. Uso y desgaste b. Hormonal c. Colágeno d. Autoinmunidad 2. Desarrollo cognoscitivo
    • 3. Funcionamiento psicológico 4. Datos demográficos 5. Categorías de viejos a. Butler b. Flores Nazario 6. Vejez en la literatura 7. Vejez en los medios de comunicación 8. Vejez en contexto social, cultural e histórico a. Estereotipos b. Representación social 9. Acercamientos teórico-sociales a la vejez a. Separación o retraimiento b. Modernización c. Estratificación por edad d. Ciclo vital e. Actividad f. Subcultura g. Continuidad h. Intercambio en la vejez i. Medio social10. Satisfacción con la vida a. Neugarten b. Estudios en Puerto Rico
    • 11. Patrones de adaptación a la vejezIV. Vejez y Trabajo A. Definiciones de trabajador viejo 1. Acercamiento cronológico/legal 2. Acercamiento funcional 3. Acercamiento psicosocial 4. Acercamiento organizacional 5. Acercamiento de ciclo de vida B. Características del trabajador viejo 1. Mitos 2. Realidades: Estudios en Puerto Rico C. ¿Qué buscan los empleados viejos en sus trabajos? D. Adiestramiento y desarrollo E. Evaluación de desempeño F. Discrimen por edadV. Jubilación/Retiro 1. Definiciones 2. Tipos de jubilación 3. Legislación relacionada 4. Etapas del retiro a. Modelos: Atchley y Moragas 5. Teorías sobre el efecto del retiro a. Crisis
    • b. Continuidad c. Actividad d. Desvinculación6. Actitudes hacia la jubilación7. Expectativas hacia la jubilación: Midelo de Hornstein y Wapner8. Ajuste a la jubilación a. Modelo de Taylor-Carter y Cook b. Estudios/investigaciones c. Efecto del género sexual9. Preparación para el retiro: socialización anticipatoria, programas pre- retiro, socialización para el ocio a. Aplicación del modelo de Taormina de socialización organizacional b. Estudio de Donate (2009) y Galiano (201010. Alternativas organizacionales al retiro11. Empleo de transición
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    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUAN GUÍA DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORAL PSICOLOGÍA INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZACIONALÁREA:COMPORTAMIENTO ORGANIZACIONAL
    • GUÍA DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORAL PSICOLOGÍA INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZACIONAL ÁREA: COMPORTAMIENTO ORGANIZACIONAL PREPARADO POR: DRA. GLORIA OLIVER REVISADO POR: DR. MIGUEL MARTÍNEZ LUGO (Septiembre 2010) Lista de conceptos básicos:1. Definición comportamiento organizacional2. Metas del comportamiento organizacional: descripción, explicación, control,predicción3. Técnicas de investigación del comportamiento organizacional4. Características del campo del comportamiento organizacional5. Enfoque conductual6. Enfoque de contingencias7. Diferencias individuales8. Enfoque dirigido hacia la productividad9. Percepción selectiva10. Autoeficacia11. Enfoque de sistemas lineales y no lineales12. Teoría X y teoría Y13. Enfoque histórico del desarrollo organizacional14. Teoría del caos15. Teoría de la construcción social de Ia realidad16. Organizaciones postmodemas17. Modelo de custodia18. Modelo autocrático19. Modelo colegial20. Paradigmas21. Premisas basadas en hechos
    • 22. Premisas basadas en valores23. Visión organizacional24. Diversidad cultural25. Choque cultural26. Efectos funcionales y disfuncionales27. Cultura organizacional28. Clima organizacional29. Contrato psicológico30. Papeles31. Ambigüedad de papeles32. Cultura social33. Equilibrio social34. Responsabilidad social35. Socialización36. Posición social37. Ansiedad ante la posición social38. Símbolos de posición social39. Ética de trabajo40. Dimensiones internacionales de la conducta organizacional41. Distanciamiento cultural42. Empatía cultural43. Etnocentrismo44. Gerentes expatriados45. Individualismo/colectivismo46. Masculinidad/femineidad47. Modelo de Hosftede48. Multiculturalismo49. Organizaciones multinacionales50. Distanciamiento ante el poder51. Choque cultural revertido52. Teoría Z
    • 53. Empleados transculturales54. MacDonalización de la sociedad55. Ambientes organizacionales turbulentos56. Proceso de comunicación57. Disonancia cognitiva58. Control ecológico59. Correo electrónico60. Comunicación no-verbal61. Comunicación patológica62. Comunicación paradójica63. Comunicación digital y analógica64. Comunicación de contenido y de relación65. Sintáctica66. Semántica67. Pragmática68. Paradoja69. Antinomia70. Instituciones paradójicas71. Modificación del comportamiento72. Impulsos motivacionales73. Modelo E-R-G de Alderfer74. Extinción75. Modelo de metas76. Jerarquía de necesidades77. Motivación extrinseca e intrinseca78. Reforzamiento negativo79. Retrocomunicación sobre desempeño80. Reforzamiento positivo81. Castigo82. Tipos de programas de reforzamiento83. Moldeamiento
    • 84. Aprendizaje vicario85. Teoría de atribución86. Teoría equidad87. Programas de retribución88. ―Gain sharing‖89. ‗Profit sharing‖90. Paga por destrezas adquiridas91. Actitudes92. Conductas intencionales93. Preguntas cerradas94. Nivel en que empleado se involucra en trabajo95. Satisfacción laboral96. Compromiso organizacional97. Efecto del derrame (spillover effect)98. Modelo patrón-metas (Path goal model)99. Modelo toma de decisiones de del comportamiento organizacional Vroom100. Super liderazgo101. Apoderamiento102. Involucrado con el ego103. Proceso de participación104. Factores de contingencia105. Gerencia participatoria106. Calidad total107. Manejo de cambio108. Efecto de Hawthorne109. Resistencia al cambio110. Curva de aprendizaje organizacional111. Etapas de cambio: modelo de Lewin112. Desarrollo organizacional
    • 113. Teoría de sistemas114. Consultoría de proceso115. Grupos de encuentro116. Formación de equipos de trabajo117. Conflicto de grupos118. División de trabajo119. Delegación120. Supervisor como punto de enlace121. Teoría de aceptación de autoridad122. Burocracia123. Organizaciones matriciales124. Calidad de vida en trabajo125. Enriquecimiento en trabajo126. Modelo de características del trabajo de Hackman y Oldham127. Sistemas sociotécnicos128. Horarios flexibles129. Teoría de Ia conformidad130. Desesperanza aprendida131. Pruebas de droga y alcohol132. Pruebas genéticas133. Hostigamiento sexual134. Comportamiento ético en empresas135. Conflicto interpersonal136. Conflicto intergrupal137. Conducta afirmativa138. Análisis transaccional139. Poder y política organizacional140. Dinámica de grupos141. Reunión creativa (brainstorming)142. Técnica dialéctica de toma de decisiones143. Estrés individual
    • 144. Estrés organizacional145. Síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (burnout)146. Personalidad resistente147. Inteligencia emocional148. Modelo de demanda-control de Karasek149. Estratégias de manejo del estrés150. Consejería en el trabajo151. Programas de ayuda al empleado152. Reingeniería153. Bienestar en el trabajo154. Vinculación psicológica con el trabajo (engagement)155. Resiliencia156. Espiritualidad en el trabajo157. Conductas de ciudadanía organizacional158. Modelo demandas-recursos
    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUAN GUÍA DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORALPROGRAMA: PSICOLOGIA INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZACIONAL ÁREA: INTERACCIÓN GRUPAL Y TOMA DE DECISIONES
    • GUÍA DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORAL PSICOLOGIA INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZACIONAL ÁREA: INTERACCIÓN GRUPAL Y TOMA DE DECISIONES PREPARADA Y REVISADA POR: DR. MIGUEL MARTÍNEZ LUGO (Septiembre 2010)I. Introducción A. Importancia de los grupos B. Diferencias entre grupo y agregado C. Definiciones de grupo D. Criterios de los grupos E. Tipos de gruposII. Evolución de los acercamientos teóricos al estudio de los grupos A. Antecedentes: Aristóteles y Platón B. La perspectiva colectivista a. Orientación sociológica b. Perspectiva psicosocial C. Perspectiva individualista D. Perspectiva interaccionista E. Perspectiva interindividualista F. Pérdida de identidad de la investigación grupal G. Enfoque europeo H. Época actual: eclecticismo y enfoques multidisciplinaresIII. El origen de los grupos A. ¿Por qué la gente se une a los grupos? B. Etapas en el desarrollo del grupo 1. Modelos lineales 2. Modelos no lineales 3. Modelos integradores
    • C. Criterios para evaluar madurez del grupo D. Escisión del grupo E. Tipos de membresíaIV. Estructura del grupo A. Componentes de la estructura B. Normas C. Estatus D. Diferenciación de papeles E. Cultura F. Cohesión G. Pensamiento de grupo H. Tamaño del grupoV. El grupo en la organización A. Evolución histórica B. Sistema C. Viejos y nuevos valores en el mundo del trabajo D. Contrato psicológico E. Diversidad y los grupos F. Conductas de ciudadanía organizacional G. Conductas de denuncia H. Conductas pro-sociales I. Cinismo organizacional J. Vinculación psicológica con el trabajo (engagement) K. Características de los grupos efectivosVI. Atributos básicos de los grupos en las organizaciones A. Tipos de grupos organizacionales B. Funciones de los grupos C. Utilidad de los grupos organizacionales D. Grupos informales E. El equipo en la organizaciónVII. Conflicto organizacional A. Definiciones
    • B. Visiones del conflicto C. Puntos de vista al abordar el conflicto D. Enfoques para analizar los conflictos E. Aspectos positivos y negativos del conflicto F. Causas del conflicto G. Reacciones al conflicto H. Conflicto interpersonal I. Acoso psicológico en el trabajo (Mobbing)VIII. Toma de decisiones A. Definiciones B. Tipos de decisiones C. Principios en la toma de decisiones D. Estilos en la toma de decisiones E. Modelos decisionales 1. Racional 2. Normativo 3. Participativo 4. Heller 5. N. Maier
    • REFERENCIASArgyle, M. (1989). The social psychology of work. New York: Penguin Books.Arroyo Vargas, J. (2004). El acoso psicológico en el trabajo: Descripción del fenómeno en una muestra de empleados en Puerto Rico. Disertación inédita. Universidad Carlos Albizu, Recinto de San Juan.Bastons i Prat, M. (2000). La toma de decisiones en la organización. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel.Berne, E. (1963). The structure and dynamics of organizations and groups. New York: Ballantine Books.Brown, J.A.C. (1998). La psicología social en la industria. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.Sáez, M.C. y García-Izquierdo, M. (2001). Violencia psicológica en el trabajo: El mobbing. En J. Buendía y F. Ramos. Empleo, estrés y salud. Madrid: Pirámide.Candelario Cáliz, A.N. (2001). Teoría del conflicto: Hacia un entendimiento de las relaciones humanas. Revista del Colegio de Abogados de Puerto Rico, 62, 180- 194.Cannon-Bowers, J.A., Tannenbaum, S.I., Salas, E. y Volpe, C.E. (1995). Defining competencies and establishing team training requirements. En R.A. Guzzo, E. Salas & Associates (Eds.), Team effectiveness and decision making in organizations, (pp. 333-380). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Canto Ortiz, J. (2000). Dinámica de grupos. Málaga: Ediciones Aljibe.
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    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUAN GUÍA DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORAL ÁREA: PSICOLOGÍA DE PERSONALPROGRAMA: PSICOLOGIA INDUSTRIAL/ ORGANIZACIONAL
    • GUÍA DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORAL PSICOLOGIA INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZACIONAL ÁREA: PSICOLOGÍA DE PERSONAL PREPARADO Y REVISADO POR: DR. MIGUEL MARTÍNEZ LUGO (Septiembre 2010)I. Introducción A. Psicología industrial organizacional: Áreas de estudio y de desempeño B. Psicología de personal y Administración de recursos humanos C. Enfoque virtual en recursos humanos D. Tipos de organizaciones: monolíticas, pluralistas, multiculturales E. Diversidad en la fuerza laboral y su manejo F. La psicología de personal como sistema G. Aspectos legales y éticosII. Planificación del recurso humano A. Definición B. Componentes C. Proceso estratégico de personal de Walker y BechetIII. Análisis de puestos A. Definición B. Propósito C. Usos D. Componentes E. Técnicas utilizadas
    • IV. Reclutamiento A. Definición B. Propósito C. Importancia D. Fuentes 1. Internas 2. ExternasV. Selección A. Definición B. Propósito C. Criterios y predictores D. Técnicas utilizadas E. Evaluación psicológica F. Centros de evaluación ("Assessment Centers")VI. Socialización laboral A. Definición B. Suposiciones básicas C. Modelos de socialización: Modelos de etapas y modelo de proceso continuo y de áreas múltiples (Taormina) D. Dimensiones de la socialización
    • VII. Evaluación de desempeño A. Definiciones 1. Desempeño 2. Evaluación 3. Medición 4. Niveles de desempeño B. Propósito C. Pasos al implantar programa D. Técnicas utilizadasVIII. Terminación de empleo A. Reducción de fuerza laboral B. Aspectos a considerar C. Guías para terminación de empleo D. Procesos organizacionales en terminación E. Proceso psicológico F. Repercusión psicológica G. Resultados de la terminación: sociedad, organización, individuo H. Entrevista de salida I. Enfermedad del sobreviviente J. Codependencia organizacional K. Modelo piramidal de intervención L. Programas para empleados desplazados (Outplacement)IX. VIH/SIDA en el trabajo A. Definiciones básicas B. Psicología del afectado con VIH/SIDA
    • C. Estudios organizacionales D. Programas organizacionales 1. Recomendaciones de la OMS 2. Requisitos 3. Contenido E. Síndrome de Lázaro y reingreso a la fuerza laboralX. Violencia de pareja A. Definición B. Manifestaciones en los contextos laborales C. Manejo organizacional
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    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUANGUÍA DE ESTUDIO PARA EXÁMENES CALIFICATIVOS TÉCNICAS DE EVALUACIÓN PSICOLÓGICA INDUSTRIAL/ ORGANIZACIONAL TEMAS Y CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS
    • GUÍA DE ESTUDIO PARA EXÁMENES CALIFICATIVOS TÉCNICAS DE EVALUACIÓN PSICOLÓGICA PARA LA INDUSTRIA TEMAS Y CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS REVISADO POR: DR. JOSÉ ARMANDO PÉREZ (JUNIO/2007)1. Uso de pruebas. a. Selección b. Clasificación c. Diagnóstico d. Investigación e. Ubicación f. Ascensos g. Despidos h. Reubicación i. Detectar necesidades j. Evaluar ejecución2. Tipos de pruebas. a. Individuales b. Grupales c. Papel y lápiz d. Instrumentales e. Inventarios f. Aptitud3. Otras pruebas. a. Perfección b. Orales c. Invención de respuestas
    • d. Reconocimiento e. Rapidez f. Potencia g. Instrumento clínico4. Clasificación de pruebas según A.P.A. (A,B,C).5. Estandarización6. Objetividad7. Normas8. Confiabilidad a. Test-retest (prueba y re-prueba) b. Formas alternas y equivalentes c. División en mitades (split half)9. Validez a. Aparente b. Relacionada con el criterio c. Predictivo d. Concurrente e. Contenido f. Constructo g. Divergente h. Convergente10. Administración de las pruebas a. Condiciones físicas b. Características del examinador c. Ansiedad ante los exámenes11. Análisis de varianza12. Fuentes de error a. Aleatoria b. Sistemática13. Proporción de varianza de la prueba
    • 14. Batería de pruebas15. Análisis de regresión múltiple16. Análisis de correlación múltiple17. Análisis de correlación simple18. Análisis de regresión simple19. Escalas de medición a. Nominal b. Ordinal c. Razón d. Intervalo20. Distribución de frecuencias21. Rango percentil22. Percentila23. Puntuaciones tipificadas24. Meta-análisis25. Conocer toda la secuencia del proceso de implantación de evaluación psicológica.26. Conocer toda la secuencia del proceso de implantación de un centro de evaluación de potencial gerencial.27. Inventarios de Personalidad. a. Inventario Multifásico de Minnessota (MMPI) b. Inventario Psicológico de California (CPI) Revisado c. Prueba de Apercepción Temática d. La Prueba Proyectiva de Manchas de Tinta Rorschach e. ―Woodworth Personal Data Sheet‖ f. Sixteen Personality Factor g. Myers Briggs Type Indicator28. Pruebas de inteligencia a. Escala de Inteligencia de Wechler b. Escala Binet Simon c. Escala Stanford
    • d. Escala Raven de Matrices Progresivas29. Diagrama de dispersión30. Correlación positiva31. Correlación negativa32. Nivel de significancia33. Tipos de variables a. Continua b. Dicótoma natural c. Dicótoma Artificial34. Correlación biserial35. Correlación punto biserial36. Correlación tetracórica37. Teoría de respuesta al ítem38. Análisis de reactivos39. Edad mental40. Modelo de Rasch41. Pruebas Army Alfa y Beta42. Diferencias individuales43. Análisis de factores44. Coeficiente de generalización45. Estadísticas descriptivas46. Estadísticas inferenciales47. Población48. Muestra49. Juegos de negocio50. Discusión de grupo sin líder51. Entrevista a. Estructurada b. No-estructurada c. Semi-estructurada d. Selección acertada
    • e. Individual f. Grupal52. Centro de Evaluación de Potencial Gerencial53. Aspectos legales a. Ley de Derechos Civiles b. Ley de Discriminación por Edad c. ADA d. Ley Núm. 100 del 30 de junio de 1959 e. Constitución de Puerto Rico, Artículo II f. Ley HIPPA54. Aspectos éticos a. Competencia b. Integridad c. Responsabilidad profesional y científica d. Respeto a la dignidad de otros e. Preocupación por el bienestar de otros f. Responsabilidad social g. Confidencialidad h. Consentimiento i. Adecuacidad de la prueba j. Administración de la prueba k. Sesgo de la prueba l. Puntuaciones obsoletas m. Acceso a datos de las pruebas55. Impacto adverso56. Consideraciones en el diseño evaluativo ante personas con impedimentos.57. In-basket58. Grafología59. Polígrafo60. Pruebas proyectivas61. Pruebas para detección de drogas
    • 62. Biodatos63. Selección por competencias64. Selección para equipos de trabajo65. Pareo persona-organización66. Análisis de puesto67. Diseño evaluativo a través de competencias68. Componentes de una evaluación psicológica industrial69. Pruebas de honestidad
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    • Tenopyr, M. L. (1981). The realities of employment testing. American Psychologist, 36,1120-1127.Thorndike, R. L. y Hagen. E. (1982). Test v técnicas de medición en psicoloqía y educación.Mexico: Trillas.Tyler, L. E. (1971). Tests and measurements.New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Webster, E. C. (1982). The employment interview. Canada: S.LP. Publications.Wexley, 1K. N. y YukI, G. A. (1977). Organizational behavior and personnel psychology. Illinois: Reichard D. Irwin.Whittaker, A. (1995). Involving people with learning difficulties in staff selection. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 3 (4), 221-226.Wilkinson, L. (1997). Generalizable biodata? An application to the vocational interests of managers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, (1) 49- 61.Winfred, A. & Doverspike, D. (1997). Employment-related drug testing: Idiosyncratic characteristics and issues. Public Personnel Management, 26 (1), 77-87.
    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUAN GUÍA DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORAL ÁREA: FUNDAMENTOS, TEORÍA Y METODOLOGÍA DEL ADIESTRAMIENTOÁREA: PH.D. PSICOLOGÍA INDUSTRIAL/ ORGANIZACIONAL Y PH.D. GENERAL
    • GUÍA DE ESTUDIO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORAL ÁREA: FUNDAMENTOS, TEORÍA Y METODOLOGÍA DEL ADIESTRAMIENTO PREPARADA Y REVISADA POR: DR. JOSÉ ARMANDO PÉREZ (JUNIO/2007)I. Introducción al tema del adiestramiento I. Aportación del adiestramiento en eI logro de Ia misión organizacional. 2. Definir qué es adiestramiento y sus conceptos básicos. 4. Describir diferentes tipos de adiestramiento y métodos generales de implantación. 5. Describir las funciones y competencias del adiestrador. 6. Identificar las controversias en Ia diversidad que impactan el diseño, desarrollo y ofrecimiento de un adiestramiento. 7. Utilizar un acercamiento sistemático al desarrollar programas de adiestramiento.II. Principios andragógicos y estilos de adiestrador 1. Examinar las características del aprendizaje en adultos. 2. Planificar actividades de aprendizaje a tono con éstas características. 3. Preferencias de aprendizaje y sus implicaciones al ofrecer adiestramiento. 4. Estilos de adiestrador. 5. Cualidades personales que pueden ayudar a ser adiestradores efectivos. 6. Cómo los adiestradores pueden utilizar el poder y la autoridad para lograr efectos positivos en los adiestrados.III. Identificar las necesidades de adiestramiento 1. Identificar las etapas que constituyen el proceso de evaluación de necesidades.
    • 2. Conocer y seleccionar los métodos apropiados para Ia recolección de datos. 3. Análisis de datos y retrocomunicación apropiada. 4. Diseño inicial del plan de adiestramiento.IV. La redacción de objetivos instruccionales 1. Definir las metas y objetivos de un adiestramiento. 2. Describir los beneficios de establecer objetivos claros y compartirlos con los adiestrados. 3. Escribir los objetivos de adiestramiento en un formato efectivo. 4. Utilizar los objetivos como base para el diseño y desarrollo del programa.V. Diseño del plan instruccional 1. Elementos para desarrollar un diseño instruccional. 2. Conocimiento y selección de métodos apropiados de instrucción. 3. Determinar Ia secuencia del contenido y las actividades. 4. Seleccionar materiales apropiados para los participantes. VI. Selección, diseño ydesarrollo de métodos de adiestramiento 1. Conocer las principales actividades instruccionales que pueden utilizarse. 2. Identificar sus ventajas y desventajas. 3. Utilizar métodos activos de adiestramiento para aumentar la retención y comprensión 4. Adaptar estas actividades a diversos contenidos de adiestramiento. VII. Preparación del ambiente de adiestramiento y el aspecto de transferencia 1. Conocer los diversos aspectos de planificación y preparación necesarios antes de una actividad de adiestramiento. 2. Preparar un salón de adiestramiento para lograr una máxima efectividad de aprendizaje.
    • 3. Crear un ambiente físico y psicológico positivo que estimule el aprendizaje 4. Desarrollar estrategias que propicien la transferencia de lo aprendido en el adiestramiento al lugar de trabajo.VIII. Destrezas de presentación oral y el uso de recursos visuales 1. Conocer las destrezas necesarias para presentar un material de manera efectiva. 2. Manejar situaciones y participantes difíciles. 3. Preguntar y contestar preguntas de la audiencia de forma efectiva 4. Conocer y describir las diversas ayudas visuales disponibles. 5. Utilizar el rotafolio, proyector vertical, entre otras ayudas, de forma efectiva. 6. Desarrollar una variedad de ayudas visuales para sus presentaciones IX. La evaluación del adiestrarniento 1. Comprender los cuatro niveles básicos de evaluación. 2. Elementos a considerar en el diseño de un plan evaluativo. 3. Desarrollar instrumentos de evaluación. 4. Utilizar los datos para retrocomunicar el diseño de adiestramiento.
    • REFERENCIAS SUGERIDASAlliger, G.&Tannenbaum, S.(1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology,50 (2).Arai, M, Thibault W. &Zalabak P. (2001). Communication Theory and Training Approaches for Multiculturally Diverse Organizations: Have Academics and Practitioners Missed the Connection? Public Personnel Management, 30 (4).Brown, Judith (2002).Training Needs Assessment: A Must for Developing an Effective Training Program. Public Personnel Management, 31 (4).Carlson, D., Bozeman, D., Kacmar, K., Wright, P.&McMahan, G. (2000). Training Motivation In Organizations: An Analysis Of Individual-Level Antecedents. Journal of Managerial Issues, 12 (3).Delgoulet, C. &Marquié, J. (2002).Age Differences in Learning Maintenance Skills: A Field Study. Experimental Aging Research, 28 (1).Desai, S. (2000). A Field Experiment: Instructor-Based Training vs. Computer-Based Training.Journal of Instructional Psychology,27 (4).Gavin, James (1996). Personal Trainers Perceptions of Role Responsibilities, Conflicts, and Boundaries.Ethics & Behavior,6 (1).Goldstein, R. (1993). Training in organizations. California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.Herold, D., Davis, W., Fedor, D., Parsons, C. (2002).Dispositional influences on transfer of learning in multistage training programs.Personnel Psychology,55 (4).
    • Jacobson, W., Rubin, E.&Selden, S. (2002).Examining Training in Large Municipalities: Linking Individual and Organizational Training Needs.Public Personnel Management,31 (4).Klatt, B. (1999). The ultimate training workshop handbook. New York: McGraw Hill.Lawson, K. (1998). The Trainer’s Handbook. California: Jossey Bass.Mead, S., Batsakes, P., Fisk, A.&Mykityshyn, A. (1999). Application of Cognitive Theory to Training and Design Solutions for Age-Related Computer Use.International Journal of Behavioral Development,23 (3).Mitchell, G. (1998). The trainer’s handbook: The Ama guide to effective training.Morin, L.&Latham, G. (2000). The Effect of Mental Practice and Goal Setting as a Transfer of Training Intervention on Supervisors Self-efficacy and Communication Skills: An Exploratory Study. Applied Psychology, 49 (3).Noe, R. (2002). Employee training and development. New York: McGraw Hill.Pereira, A. & Santiago, S. (1996). Manual de Adiestramiento. Puerto Rico: Centro Caribeño de Estudios Postgraduados.Quiñones, M. & Ehrenstein, A. (1997). Training for a rapidly changing workplace. Washington: American Psychological Association.Sartawi, A., Abu-Hilal, M.&Qaryouti, I. (1999). The Causal Relationship Between the Efficacy of Training Programs and the Work Environment for Workers with Disabilities.International Journal of Disability, Development & Education, 46 (1).Stevens, L. (1996). The Intranet: Your newest training tool?Personnel Journal, 75 (7).Tharenou, P. (2001). The relationship of training motivation to participation in training and development.Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology.74 (5).Warr, P.&Allan, C. (1999). Predicting three levels of training outcome.Journal
    • of Occupational & Organizational Psychology,72 (3)Westerman, A. (2001). The Relation Between Corporate Training and Development Expenditures and the Use of Temporary Employees.Ethics & Behavior, 11 (1).Yang, H.&Sackett, P. (1996). Statistical power and cost in training evaluation: Some new considerations.Personnel Psychology, 49 (3).
    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUAN GUÍAS ESTUDIO EXÁMEN CALIFICATIVOS PH.D. GENERAL, PH.D. CLÍNICO Y PH.D. INDUSTRIAL ESTADÍSTICA:CORRELACIÓN, REGRESIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE VARIANZA
    • LISTA DE CONCEPTOS GUÍAS PARA ESTUDIO ESTADÍSTICAS CALIFICATIVOPreparado por: Emily Seilhammer, Ph.D. y Juan Nogueras, Ph.D.Revisado por: Emily Seilhammer, Ph.D., Juan Nogueras, Ph.D., José Martínez, Ph.D. y Sean K. Sayers Montalvo, Ph.D. (Junio 2005) Sean K. Sayers Montalvo, Ph.D. (Junio 2006, Julio 2008, Diciembre 2009) ÁREA DE ESTADÍSTICATÓPICOS IMPORTANTESI. Correlación y regresión múltiple A. Coeficientes de correlación para datos/escalas nominales i. Tabla 2 x 2 (i.e. Phi, Lambda) ii. Tablas mayores de 2 x 2 (i.e. V de Cramér, Lambda) B. Coeficiente de correlación para escalas ordinales (i.e. Gamma, Spearman) C. Coeficientes de correlación para escalas de intervalo/razón (i.e. Producto Momento Pearson) D. Coeficientes de correlación para escalas nominal e intervalo/razón (i.e. Punto Biserial, Eta2) E. Correlación Punto Biserial (rpb) F. Regresión múltiple G. Correlación curvilínea H. Regresión logísticaII. Análisis de Varianza A. Requisitos para uso de la razón F B. Ventajas del ANOVA sobre la prueba t de Student C. ANOVA simple para muestras independientes D. Comparaciones múltiples: HSD Tukey y Scheffé E. ANOVA simple para muestras correlacionadas F. Análisis de Covarianza (ANCOVA) G. ANOVA de dos o más factores H. MANOVA
    • REFERENCIASAmerican Psychological Association (1982). Ethical principles in the conduct of research with human participants.Washington, DC: Author.American Psychological Association, Committee for the Protection of Human Participants in Research (1982). Ethical principles in the conduct of research with human participants.Washington, DC: Author.American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Cohen, J. & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for behavioral sciences.New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nded.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.Cone, J.D. & Foster, S.L. (1983). Dissertations and theses: From start to finish. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D.T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation design & analysis issues for field settings.Boston, MA: Hougton Mifflin. (clasificación: BF – 76.5 – C771).Coolidge, F.L. (2000). Statistics: A gentle introduction. London: Sage Publications.Cozby, P.C. (2004). Methods in behavioral research (8th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw- Hill Higher Education.Hersen, M. & Barlow, D.H. (1978). Single – case experimental designs. New York: Pergamon Press.Kazdin, A.E. (1992). Methodological issues & strategies in clinical research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Kerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H.B. (2002). Investigación del comportamiento: Métodos de investigación en las ciencias sociales (4ta ed.). México: McGraw-Hill.McGuigan, F.J. (1990). Psicología experimental. México: Editorial Trillas. (Clasificación: BF – 181 – M171 – 1990).Norusis, M.J. (1994). SPSS/PC+: SPSS for the IBM PC/XT/AAT. Chicago: SPSS, Inc.Portney, L.G. & Watkins, M.P. (1993). Foundations for clinical research: Applications to practice. Connecticut: Appleton & Lange.Rosenthal, R. & Rosnow, R. (1991). Essential of behavioral research: Methods and data analysis. New York: McGraw Hill.Rosnow, R.L. & Rosenthal, R. (1989). Statistical procedures and the justification knowledge in psychological science. American Psychologist, 44 (10), 1276- 1284.Sánchez-Viera, J.A. (2004). Fundamentos del razonamiento estadístico (3era ed. revisada). San Juan: Universidad Carlos Albizu.Winer, B.J., Brown, D.R. & Michels, K.M. (1991). Statistical principles in experimental design (3rded.). New York: McGraw Hill.
    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUAN GUÍA GENERAL PARA REPASO EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORALPH.D. GENERAL, PH.D. CLÍNICO Y PH.D. INDUSTRIAL ÁREA DE INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTÍFICA Y METODOLOGÍA
    • GUÍA GENERAL PARA REPASO EN EL ÁREA DE INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTÍFICA Y METODOLOGÍA EXAMEN DE CALIFICACIÓN DOCTORALPreparado por: Dra. Emily Seilhamer y Dr. Juan NoguerasRevisado por: Dra. Emily Seilhamer, Dr. José Martínez yDr. Sean K. Sayers Montalvo (Junio 2005) Dr. Sean K. Sayers Montalvo (Junio 2006, Julio 2008, Diciembre 2009)Esta es una guía general en el área de investigación científica para los exámenescalificativos. En la misma se incluyen los tópicos principales y una lista de conceptos.Es importante que el/la estudiante pueda demostrar dominio en la aplicación de losconceptos. La mera definición de los mismos no constituirá una preparación adecuadapara la aprobación de esta parte del examen. Sin embargo, te permitirá repasar laaplicación de los conceptos más relevantes en el área de investigación y metodología.Para lecturas específicas por sección, favor de referirse a los prontuarios maestros delos cursos de metodología (RMIC 725, RMIC 823 y RMIC 855).LISTADO DE TÉRMINOS BÁSICOS1. Asociación o correlación (relación) versus causalidad (causa y efecto)2. Control Experimental3. Técnicas a. Contrabalanceo b. Reducción del error de varianza a través del muestreo c. Análisis de covarianza d. Eliminación e. Constancia f. Balanceo4. Investigación Experimental5. Diseño6. Grupo Control7. Grupo Experimental8. Interacción9. Diseños factoriales10. Diseños cuasi experimentales11. Investigación no-experimental12. Observación natural13. Hipótesis14. Hipótesis nula15. Hipótesis alterna16. Muestra17. Muestra aleatoria o probabilística (aleatorización)
    • 18. Muestra no aleatoria o no-probabilística19. Población20. Distribución de muestreo21. Distribución de probabilidad22. Poder de la prueba (potencia)23. Variable24. Definición operacional25. Variable dependiente26. Variable independiente27. Validez28. Validez interna29. Amenazas a la validez interna a. Historia b. Maduración c. Efecto de prueba d. Instrumentación e. Regresión estadística f. Selección g. Mortalidad h. Situación (localización) j. Interacción con participante (actitud) k. Ambigüedad sobre la dirección de la influencia de causalidad l. Implementación (el/la administrador/a) m. Difusión o imitación de los tratamientos n. Igualación compensatoria de tratamientos o. Rivalidad compensatoria de participantes que reciben p. Resentimiento de participantes que reciben tratamientos menos deseables30. Validez externa: Amenaza a la validez externa a. Interacción entre Selección y Tratamiento b. Interacción entre ambiente y tratamiento c. Interacción entre historia y tratamiento d. Muestra e. Investigaciones en laboratorios f. Investigaciones en ambiente natural31. Validez estadística: Amenazas a la validez estadística: a. Poder estadístico bajo b. Violación de lo asumido en pruebas estadísticas c. Problema de la razón de error (―error rate‖) d. Confiabilidad de las medidas e. Confiabilidad de la implementación del tratamiento f. Irrelevancias al azar en el ambiente experimental g. Heterogeneidad al azar de los participantes
    • TÓPICOS PRINCIPALESI. Las Fases de un Proceso de InvestigaciónA. Fase I: Identificar la pregunta de Investigación 1. Formulación del Problema 2. Revisión de la Literatura 3. Identificar las Variables 4. Establecer la Hipótesis a. Definición conceptual b. Hipótesis científica c. Hipótesis estadística i. Hipótesis nula ii. Hipótesis alterna 1. Unilateral 2. Bilateral d. Funciones de las hipótesis B. Fase II: Diseño del Estudio1. Método para seleccionar los participantes2. Selección de los instrumentos de medición3. Procedimientos C. Fase III: Implantar el Plan de Investigación 1. Recoger los datos2. Organizar los datos3. Hacer los análisis estadísticos D. Fase IV: Análisis de los datos1. Analizar los resultados2. Interpretar los resultados3. Redacción del Informe E. Fase V: Comunicación 1. Presentar los resultados encontrados a la comunidad científicaII. El Problema de InvestigaciónA. Fases del Problema1. Identificación2. Elaboración3. Formulación
    • III. Hipótesis A. Definición Conceptual B. Hipótesis Científica C. Hipótesis Estadística 1. Hipótesis Nula 2. Hipótesis AlternaD. Funciones de las HipótesisIV. La Naturaleza de la Medición A. Definición del Concepto Medición B. Niveles de Medición 1. Nominal 2. Ordinal 3. Intervalo / razónV. Las Variables en la Investigación Psicológica A. Conceptos y Constructos B. Definición del Concepto Variable C. Clasificación de Variables a. Variables respuesta b. Variables estímulo c. Variables organísmicas d. Variables cualitativas e. Variables cuantitativas f. Variables continuas g. Variables dicotómicas h. Variables discretas i. Variable independiente j. Variable dependiente k. Variables contaminadoras / extrañas l. Variables activas m. Variables atribuidas n. Variable estimulo o. Variable respuesta p. Variable intermediaria
    • D. Las Variables Relevantes en la Investigación 1. Variable Independiente a. Tipos de variable independiente b. Niveles de Manipulación c. Investigaciones con más de una variable independiente 2. Variable Dependiente a. Selección de la Variable dependiente b. Investigaciones con más de una variable dependiente 3. Variables Contaminadoras / extrañas E. Definición Operacional de las variables en la investigaciónVI. El Control ExperimentalA. Definición Conceptual 1. Control 2. Control Experimental B. Varianza 1. El Concepto Varianza 2. División de la Varianza a. Varianza total b. Varianza primaria c. Varianza secundaria d. Varianza error C. Fuentes de Variables Contaminadoras 1. Clasificación a. Variables situacionales b. Variables del participante c. Variables que proceden de la secuencia y administración de los tratamientos experimentales 2. Variables Contaminadoras a. El investigador b. El participante c. Los procedimientos d. Los instrumentos o aparatos e. Error progresivo D. Validez 1. Definición Conceptual 2. Validez estadística 3. Validez interna 4. Validez externaE. La constancia en la Investigación
    • 1. Constancia ideal o absoluta 2. Constancia práctica F. Técnicas y procedimientos para variables, las variables contaminadoras / extrañas1. Definición conceptual de técnicas de control2. Técnicas y procedimientos a. Eliminación b. Constancia c. Balanceo / pareo d. Contrabalanceo o Equiponderación e. Selección al azar f. Procedimiento de control estadístico (ANCOVA) g. Seleccionar la variable secundaria como variable independiente h. El grupo control I. ―Blinding‖ 1. ―double-blind study‖ 2. ―single-blind study‖ j. Consolidación k. Series cronológicasVII. MuestreoA. Definiciones Conceptuales1. Población a universo2. Parámetro3. Muestra4. Estadística a estadígrafo5. Universo cautivo6. Aleatoriedad7. Técnica de muestreo B. Muestras sesgadas y no sesgadas C. Métodos de Muestreo1. Muestras Aleatorias o Probabilísticas a. Muestreo de reemplazo b. Muestreo sin reemplazo c. Muestreo aleatorio simple d. Muestreo sistemático e. Muestreo probabilístico por estrato proporcional f. Muestra aleatoria por conglomerado2. Muestras no Aleatorias o no Probabilísticas
    • a. Muestra por disponibilidad b. Muestreo por cuota c. Muestreo intencional d. Muestreo ―snowball‖ e. Muestreo sistemático D. Error de Muestreo 1. Tipos a. Sistemáticos b. Por azar a accidentales 2. Aspectos necesarios a considerar para reducir error de muestreo E. Cualidades de una Buena MuestraVIII. El Diseño de InvestigaciónA. Definición y concepto de diseño 1. Representación simbólica de los diseños B. Propósito del Diseño C. Clasificación de los diseños 1. Validez interna y externa 2. Número de Variables Independientes 3. Situación experimental a. Diseños intergrupos b. Diseños intragrupos c. Diseños mixtos 4. Según se forman los grupos experimentales a. Aleatorios b. De bloqueos c. Pareados D. Aspectos a considerar al seleccionar un diseño (i.e. uso de instrumentos) E. Técnicas de Control y Variables contaminadoras en los diseños clasificados por tipo de situación experimental.
    • 1. Diseños intra—grupo 2. Diseños entre—grupos 3. Diseños mixtosIX. Métodos de Investigación No Experimental A. Diseños descriptivos - correlacionales 1. Determinantes de la investigación correlacional 2. Ejemplo de diseños de investigación 3. Procedimientos de análisis estadísticos más frecuentesX. Diseños Experimentales A. Diseños Intragrupo 1. Diseños de un solo caso (diseños con N pequeña) a. Diferencias en relación al modelo tradicional b. Tipos de diseños 1. El diseño A-B 2. El diseño A-B-A 3. El diseño A-B-A-B 4. El diseño A-B-C-B 2. Diseño Intragrupo con medidas repetidas 3. Pruebas estadísticas usadas B. Diseños pre-experimentales 1. Diseño de grupo único con una medida postratamiento
    • 2. Diseño de grupo único con una medida Pretratamiento y postratamiento 3. Diseño estático utilizando dos grupos C. Diseños cuasi-experimentales 1. Diseño con medidas pretratamiento con grupo control no equivalente 2. Diseño con medidas pretratamiento y postratamiento con grupo control no equivalente 3. Diseño de series temporales interrumpidas con grupo de control no equivalente ó diseño de series cronológicas o de tiempo de serie con grupo de control no equivalente D. Diseños experimentales 1. Diseño de dos grupos aleatorios sólo con medidas postratamiento 2. Diseño de dos grupos aleatorios con medidas pretratamiento y postratamiento 3. Diseños multigrupos (grupos aleatorios) a. Diseño de cuatro grupos de Solomon b. Diseño multigrupos sólo con medidas postratamiento c. Diseño multigrupo con medidas pretratamiento y postratamientoXI. Diseños Factoriales A. Características de los diseños factoriales 1. Ventajas y desventajas B. Conceptos 1. Definición de factor y clasificación de los factores 2. Niveles de factores (2X2) 3. Concepto de interacción, de primer y Segundo orden 4. Efecto principal (―main effect‖) C. Diseños factoriales mixtos XII. Diseños de Encuesta A. Tipos de encuestas 1. Cross-seccionales 2. Longitudinales B. Pasos a llevarse a cabo en las investigaciones de encuesta C. Formas de recolección de datos 1. Administración directa 2. Teléfono 3. Correo 4. Entrevista
    • XIII. Investigación Cualitativa: Definición Conceptual y Usos A. Observación y entrevistas B. Análisis de contenido C. Estudios etnográficos D. Investigación históricaXIV. Diseños Utilizando Metodología Mixta (“Mixed methods approaches”) A. Mencionar las características de los diseños mixtos B. Conocer las diferentes estrategias que se pueden utilizar 1. Secuencial explicatorio 2. Secuencial exploratorio 3. Secuencial transformativo 4. Triangulación concurrente 5. Concurrente implantado (―nested‖) 6. Concurrente transformativa C. Identificar los pasos a seguirse en el proceso de recolección de datosXV. Métodos de evaluación en psicología clínica A. Investigación en psicoterapia B. Investigación en psicopatología XVI. Métodos de investigación en psicología industrial / organizacionalA. Productividad y ambiente organizacionalB. Satisfacción en el trabajoC. Estrés en el área laboral XVII. Consideraciones éticas al conducir una investigación A. Describa los conceptos de consentimiento informado, formas de consentimiento (padres de menores) y competencia en el consentimiento cabal. B. Principios de confidencialidad y anonimato C. Voluntariedad en la participación en la investigación D. Protección de los/as participantes en la investigación
    • 1. Grupos independientes y medidas repetidas 2. Pruebas estadísticas utilizadas E. Diseño de grupos apareados 1. Comparación entre el diseño de dos grupos seleccionados aleatoriamente. 2. Análisis de resultados de un diseño de grupos apareados F. Con medidas repetidas REFERENCIASAmerican Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association & National Council on Measurement in Education. (2000). Standards for educational and psychological testing (revised). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed). Washington, DC: Author.Bordens, K. S., & Abbott, B. B. (2008). Research design and methods: A process approach (7th ed.). San Francisco, CA: McGraw Hill.Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.Daniel, W.W. (2006). Bioestadística: Base para el análisis de las ciencias de la salud.México: Limusa Wiley.DeVellis, R.F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and application (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.Diekhoff, G.M. (1996). Basic statistics for the social and behavioral sciences. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows (2nd ed.). London: SAGE
    • Publications.Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2005). How to design and evaluate research in education (6th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Publishing Company.Goodwin, C.J. (1998). Research in psychology: Methods and designs (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Heaton, J. (1998). Secondary analysis of qualitative data. Social Research Update, 22. Retrieved May 14, 2003, from htttp://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/ sru/SRU22.html.Heiman, O.W. (1999). Research methods in psychology (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.Hernández Sampieri, R., Fernández Collado, C., & Baptista Lucio, P. (2006). Metodología de la investigación (4ta ed.). México: McGraw-Hill.Hunter, J.E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Isaac, S. & Michael, W.B. (1995). Handbook in research and evaluation (3rd ed.). San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Services.Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: Standards and cases (3rd ed.). New York: OxfordUniversity Press.Kerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H.B. (2002). Investigación del comportamiento: Métodos de investigación en ciencias sociales (4ta ed.). Méjico: McGraw Hill.Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Lipsey, M.W. & Wilson, D.B. (2000). Practical meta-analysis. Applied Social Method Research Series, 49. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
    • Locke, L.F., Spirduso, W.W. & Silverman, S.J. (1993). Proposals that work: A guide for planning dissertations and grant proposals (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Meléndez, J. (2006). Evaluating Autism interventions: A meta-analysis study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, CarlosAlbizuUniversity, San Juan, PR.Mertens, D.M. (2005). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Roberts, M.C. & Ilardi, S.S. (Eds.) (2005). Handbook of research methods in clinical psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner- researchers (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.Rogelberg, S.G. (Ed.) (2002). Handbook of research methods in industrial organizational psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Rosenthal, R. & Rosnow, R.L. (1991). Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data analysis (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Rosnow, R.L. & Rosenthal, R. (1989). Statistical procedures and the justification of knowledge in psychological science. American Psychologist, 44, 1276-1284.Sánchez-Viera, J.A. (2004). Fundamentos del razonamiento estadístico (3era ed. revisada). San Juan, PR: Universidad Carlos Albizu.Villeneuve-Román, M.I. (2001). Manual de investigación práctica: Desarrollo de destrezas básicas. Disertación doctoral inédita, Universidad Carlos Albizu, San Juan, PR.
    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUAN GUÍAS ESTUDIO EXAMEN CALIFICATIVOPH.D. GENERAL, PH.D. CLÍNICO Y PH.D. INDUSTRIAL RM630: SEMINARIO AVANZADO DE MEDICIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN DE MÉTODOS TRANSCULTURALES
    • LISTA DE CONCEPTOS GUÍAS PARA ESTUDIO SEMINARIO DE MEDICIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN DE MÉTODOS TRANSCULTURALES Preparado Por: Revisado por: Juan Nogueras, Ph.D. (Junio/2009)El curso de Seminario de Medición y Evaluación de Métodos Transculturales tiene unenfoque de medición a un nivel Transcultural. Pretende desarrollar destrezas en el/laestudiante para construir pruebas en otra cultura; adaptar pruebas de una cultura aotra; traducir pruebas y entrar en contacto con estrategias de medición propias de lasinvestigaciones multiculturales. Además, se incluyen aspectos técnicos de medicióncomo: confiabilidad y validez; validez interna y validez externa. Bosquejo de ContenidoA. Técnicas y estrategias de la investigación multicultural 1. Factores a considerarse en la preparación de una investigación (medición) en otra cultura. 2. Procedimientos de muestreo en diferentes culturas a. Niveles i. Culturas ii. Comunidades iii. Individuos iv. Conductas
    • 3. Encuestas a. Énfasis en la adaptación de la técnica de la entrevista en el desarrollo de encuestas multiculturales.B. Evaluación (Assessment) de rasgos de personalidad y sicopatología 1. Definiciones operacionales e términos como: a. Depresión b. Esquizofrenia c. Ansiedad d. Agresividad e. Liderato 2. Precauciones en la utilización de técnicas proyectivas en las diferentes culturasC. Evaluación (Assessment) de la conducta social y el proceso de aculturación 1. Adaptación de técnicas y estrategias de recoger información tales como: a. Encuestas b. Cuestionarios c. Entrevistas 2. Identificación del marco teórico del proceso de aculturación: a. Integración b. Asimilación c. Marginalización d. Separación
    • D. Traducción científica de instrumentos de medición1. Enfoque en el proceso de traducción revertida (back translation) de Richard Brislin a. Guía para la construcción y modificación de reactivos (ítemes) b. Importancia de utilizar profesionales bilingües y biculturales en el proceso de traducción c. Ventajas de utilizar sujetos monolingües en el proceso E. Teoría y práctica del proceso de medición1. Desarrollo histórico de las pruebas de medición2. desarrollo de técnicas de observación y recolección de datos a. participación intrusiva b. participación no intrusiva c. técnicas de muestreo en investigaciones de campo d. uso de confederados e. precauciones de tomarse cuando se comparan diferentes culturas en un mismo estudio. F. Utilización de las siguientes pruebas para Investigaciones Transculturales1. T.A.T2. C.A.T.
    • 3. TEMAS G. Medición de Identificación Cultural
    • CARLOS ALBIZU UNI VERSI TY S AN JU AN C AMPUS MASTER SYLLABUS RMIC-823: Experimental Design in PsychologyCREDITS: 3 CONTACT HOURS: 45COURSE DESCRIPTIONThis course presents the basic principles and methods of scientific research in psychology.Hypothesis testing, experimental design options, sample selection, control groups strategies,and criteria measures, data analysis and interpretation will be discussed. The course preparesthe students to design research by applying rigorous scientific methodology.PRE-REQUISITESRMIC-725: Introduction to Research, RMIC-822: Analysis of Variance and RMIC-824:Correlation and RegressionCOURSE OBJECTIVESTo lean the principles and methods of experimental research in psychology. These include:generalization, explanation and prediction in experimentation, logical bases of experimentalinferences, experimental control, experimental designs and their application to statisticalinterpretation. The student will learn to develop research projects. Also, be highlighted arethe values of scientific research from a social, professional, and ethical perspective. Thestudents will understand the importance of selecting an adequate research design to obtainsignificant results.
    • REQUIRED TEXT BOOKSMcBurney, D. H. & White, T. L. (2004).Research methods.Vermont, California: ThmsonWadsworth. ISBN: 0-534-52418-4Cook, D.T. & Campbell, D. (1979). Quasi experimentation design and analysis issues for setting. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN: 0-395- 307902Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (2003).How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (5th Edition). Boston: McGraw Hill. ISBN: 0-07-253184-3ITINERARY OF CLASS UNITSUnit 1: Formulating Questions: The Decision-Making ProcessUnit 2: The Nature of MeasurementUnit 3: ValidityUnit 4: GeneralizingUnit 5: The Sample SurveyUnit 6: Single-Case ResearchUnit 7: Mid-term examinationUnit 8: Experimental Research DesignsUnit 9: Continue Experimental Research DesignsUnit 10: Multifactorial Intragroup DesignsUnit 11: Multigroup and Factorial. DesignsUnit 12: Multigroup and Factorial. Designs (Continue)Unit 13: Ethical Considerations in the Conduct of Research
    • Unit 14: Final examinationCOURSE CONTACT HOURSProfessors who teach the course must divide the contact hours the following way:1. Face-to-face time in the classroom must not be less than 40 hours (14 units, 2.5 hours each unit. 16 sessions).2. For the remaining hours (= 5 hours), students will conduct research projects or homework outside the classroom. These projects or homework will include, but are not limited to application of experimental designs to different settings.METHODOLOGYThe professor who offers the course will select the specific methodologies. Thesemethodologies could include but would not be limited to: conferences by the professor,conferences by invited speakers, group discussion of assigned readings, class researchprojects, student presentations, individual meetings with students and working sub-groups inthe classroom.EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUESThe professor who offers the course will select the educational techniques. Thesetechniques could include but would not be limited to: debates, practicaldemonstrations, films/videos, simulations, slide shows and forums.EVALUATIONThe professor who offers the course will select the specific evaluation criteria. Thesemethodologies could include but would not be limited to: scholarly papers, class projects,literature reviews, exams and class presentations.
    • RESEARCH COMPETENCIESResearch competencies for Ph.D. students 1. Analysis of the different types of designs and their use in the research process. 2. Demonstrate skills to design and carry out at least one research project. 3. Demonstrate effective communication in the oral and written presentation of the justification, methodology, results and implications of a research work. 4. Capable of maintaining ethical and legal standards which promote professional responsibility and integrity in research.ATTENDANCE POLICYClass attendance is mandatory for all students. After two unexcused absences, the studentwill be dropped from the class, unless the professor recommends otherwise. When a studentmisses a class, he/she is responsible for the material presented in class.AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)Students that need special accommodations should request them directly to the professorduring the first week of class.
    • COURSE UNITSUNIT 1: FORMULATING QUESTIONS: THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESSUpon successful completion of this unit students will gain an overview of researchdesigns and an understanding of the importance of asking useful and manageablequestions.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Determine the basic criteria to be considered in determining whether a research question is useful and manageable. 2. Formulate research questions. 3. Explain the sources of research ideas giving examples. 4. Explore literature retrieval system such as Psychological Abstract, a nd the Science Citation Index. 5. Explain the three criteria that determine choice of a particular research design. 6. Distinguish between internal validity and external validity. 7. Summarize the main characteristics of each major type ofresearch design. 8. Compare and contrast the five basic research designs on the dimensions of internal validity and external validity. 9. Define confounded variable: triangulation of methods:hybrid methods.ASSIGNED READINGS:Kerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H. 13. (2002)  Chapter 2- Problems and Hypothesis (Problemas e hipótesis)Kazdin, A.E. (2001)  Chapter4 – Selection of the problem and design (Selección del problema de investigación y del diseño)
    • UNIT 2:THE NATURE OF MEASUREMENTUpon successful completion of this unit students will be aware that observation andmeasurement are fundamental to the empirical sciences. Students will understand know howto develop clear measurement rules, concepts of reliability and validity, scales ofmeasurement, techniques of observation and measurement and the problem of reactivity.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Define observation and measurement. 2. Recognize an ambiguous measurement rule and how it could be made unambiguous. 1. Discuss the concepts of reliability and validity to measure error. 2. Relate the concepts of reliability and validity to measurement error. 3. Summarize two methods of assessing reliability and two methods of validating a measure. 4. Know the steps to follow to maximize the reliability of measurement. 5. Compare and contrast nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales. 6. Discuss examples of the following techniques of observation and measurement: qualitative recording, response counting, time measures, intensity measures, ratings, and self-observation and self research. 7. Define observational reactivity and discuss why it is considered a problem in psychological research. 8. Summarize the methods of minimizing observational reactivity. ASSIGNED READINGS: Kerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H. B. (2002)  Chapter3 – Constructs, variables and definitions  Chapter 26 – Fundamentals of measurement  Chapter 27 – Reliability  Chapter 28 - Validity
    • UNIT 3: VALIDITYUpon successful completion of this unit students will an understand confounding and theinternal validity problem, common threats to internal validity, controlling confounding and thesocial psychology of psychology experiments.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Define internal validity and confounding, and describe the relationship between the concepts. 2. Know what sources of confounding are more prevalent in single- measurement situations and in repeated measurement studies. 3. Give examples of the types of confounding: subject selection bias, testing effects, statistical regression, history, subject maturation and subject mortality. 4. Understand how statistical regression might account for the end-of-season success often shown by successful dark-horse sports teams. 5. Explain the logic behind randomization and why it is the preferred approach to the control of confounding. 6. Compare and contrast within-subjects and between-subjects research designs and the advantages and disadvantages of each. 7. Discuss why counterbalancing is ineffective in controlling for carry-over effects. 8. Describe a means of minimizing each of the following sources of data contamination: instrumentation changes, regression effects, history, subject maturation and subject mortality. 9. Discuss the experimenter-expectancy effect and the four techniques that may be used to minimize it.ASSIGNED READINGS:Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D.T. (1979)  Chapter 2 - ValidityKazdin, A.E. (2001)
    •  Chapter 1 - Introduction  Chapter 2 – Formulating valid inferences I: Internal and external validity  Chapter 3 – Formulating valid inferences II: Construct validity and by statistical conclusionUNIT 4: GENERALIZATION OF THE RESEARCH FINDINGSUpon successful completion of this unit students will understand the problems of generalizingthe results of psychological research, the process of establishing the range and limits of astudys external validity, spatial and temporal generalization and the problem of demandcharacteristics.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Distinguish among the concepts of sample, target population. 2. Discuss the four main dimensions of generalization and in what sense are three of these dimensions "spatial" and the other one "temporal". 3. Summarize the evidence suggesting that physical setting, researcher attributes, and researcher expectancies may interact with the independent variable to restrict validity. 4. Discuss some of the characteristics of laboratory experiments that are thought to make generalizing strategies to deal with these problems. 5. Define and contrast probability sampling with convenience sampling, indicating the difficulties associated with probability sampling. 6. Describe the typical subject, and the typical volunteer subject, in psychology experiments. 7. Describe obtrusiveness of measurement, pretesting effects, multi-treatment carry over effects, demand characteristics, and subject attrition. 8. Discuss the rationale underlying conceptual replication findings. 9. Discuss the procedure used to reveal assess the effects of demand characteristics. 1. Summarize the logic of statistical significance testing. 2. Discuss reasons for testing the null hypothesis rather that alternativehypothesis. 1. Distinguish between types I and type II decision errors stating how statistical probability of each type of error might be reduced.
    • 2. Discuss and critique the statistical logic behind the practice of replication. 3. Summarize considerations in determining the quality of a replication study.ASSIGNED READINGS:Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (2003)  Chapter: 6 – SamplingUNIT 5: THE SAMPLE SURVEYUpon successful completion of this unit students will understand the scientific samplingprocedures and immediate generalization from "sample" to "population".LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Discuss the concepts of parameter, parameter estimation, target population, sampled population, sample unit and sampling frame. 2. Create examples of research problems in which parameter sampling. 3. Distinguish between probability sampling and nonprobability sampling. 4. Discuss the circumstances in which simple random sampling, cluster sampling and multi-stage area sampling should be used. 5. Define and evaluate these sampling techniques: convenience sampling, haphazard sampling, representative sampling and quota sampling. 6. Summarize the three principal techniques used to gather survey data, and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
    • 7. Discuss ways to minimize biased items, confusing items, reluctant respondents, and absent respondents in survey research. 8. Discuss the value of significance in constructing a questionnaire. 9. Give examples of possible survey items in the open-ended format. 10. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of open ended vs. fixed alternative survey items. 11. Define: the sampling distribution of the proportion, standard error of proportions, error of estimation, confidence interval, and confidence level. 12. Discuss the general relationship between sample size and the size of the standard error of the proportion. 13. Discuss the general relationship, the sample size and the width of the confidence interval. 14. Describe why random sampling is necessary for the successful construction of a confidence interval.ASSIGNED READINGS:Weathers, P.L., Furlons, M.J. & Solorzano, D. (1993)Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40(2), 238-244.Kerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H. B. (2002).  Chapter 23 – Non experimental research (Investigación no experimental)  Chapter 25 - Survey research (Investigación por encuestas)UNIT 6: SINGLE-CASE RESEARCHUpon successful completion of this unit students will understand the case study and thesingle-case experiment, and will describe uses of each method.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    • 1. Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 2. Discuss the similarities and differences between the case study and the single-case experiment. 3. Determine the ethical and practical considerations that might encourage a scientist- practitioner to use single-case methods of research instead of conventional group designs. 4. Discuss some of the typical arguments for and against single-case methods. 5. Describe the general uses of the case study discussing why they are more valid or Iegitimate than others. 6. Discuss each of the following considerations when conducting a case study: deciding on purpose, variables and behaviors, selecting a target population, deciding on sources and types of data, recording data, and using the method of internal consistency. 7. Summarize the major criticisms of the case study as a method of research giving particular attention to the criteria of internal validity and external validity. 8. State the general rationale behind single-case experiments. 9. Give an example of the A-B-AB reversal, multiple-baseline and random time- series. 10. Discuss the concept of "baseline" and its function in single-case experimentation. 11. Discuss some shortcomings and. pitfalls of single-case experiments.ASSIGNED READINGS:Kazdin, A.E. (2001).  Chapter 9 – One case studies and research with unique casesUNIT 7:MID-TERM EXAMINATIONUNIT 8: EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS
    • Upon successful completion of this unit students will know the basic elements ofexperimentation and experimental research designs. They will also learn to test the resultsfor statistical significance in an experiment using the analysis of variance.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Discuss the basic rationale underlying the experimental method. 2. Describe three ways in which an independent variable may be manipulated. 3. Determine what important functions are served by a pilot study. 4. Distinguish between pseudo-experiments and true experiments. 5. Evaluate the following designs giving special attention to their vulnerability to confounding: single-group post-test design, single-group pre-test post-test design, and static-group comparison design. 6. Discuss the specific steps to plan and set-up a randomized control-group design. 7. Discuss the specific steps to plan and set-up a randomized-blocks experiment. 8. Describe the concepts of: between-subjects, manipulation, block randomization, independent group designs, correlated-group designs, and power of an experiment on non-parametric statistics. 9. Summarize the advantages and drawbacks of repeated-measures designs determining under what circumstances these designs should not be used. 10. Compare the theory behind analysis of variance with the rationale of the experimental method.ASSIGNED READINGS:Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (2003)
    •  Chapter: 13 – Experimental ResearchKerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H. B. (2002)  Chapter 18 – Research design: Purpose and principles (Diseños de investigación: Propósito y principio)  Chapter 19 – Inadequate designs and design criteria (Diseños inadecuados y criterios para el diseño  Chapter 20 – General designs for research (Diseños generales de investigación)Kazdin, A.E. (2001).  Chapter 5 – Experimental research: Group designs (Investigación experimental: Diseños de grupos  Chapter 6 – Control and Comparison groups (Grupos control y de comparación)  Chapter 7 – Evaluation of the impact of experimental manipulation (Evaluación del impacto de la manipulación experimental)UNIT 9: CONTINUE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNSLEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Discuss the basic rationale underlying the experimental method. 2. Describe three ways in which an independent variable may be manipulated. 3. Determine what important functions are served by a pilot study. 4. Distinguish between pseudo-experiments and true experiments.
    • 5. Evaluate the following designs giving special attention to their vulnerability to confounding: single-group post-test design, single-group pre-test post-test design, and static-group comparison design. 6. Discuss the specific steps to plan and set-up a randomized control-group design. 7. Discuss the specific steps to plan and set-up a randomized-blocks experiment. 8. Describe the concepts of: between-subjects, manipulation, block randomization, independent group designs, correlated-group designs, and power of an experiment on non-parametric statistics. 9. Summarize the advantages and drawbacks of repeated-measures designs determining under what circumstances these designs should not be used. 10. Compare the theory behind analysis of variance with the rationale of the experimental method.ASSIGNED READINGS:No new readingsUNIT 10: MULTIFACTORIAL INTRAGROUP DESIGNSUpon successful completion of this unit students will know the basic elements of IntragroupDesigns. They will also be able to test the results for statistical significance in these designsusing the covariance correlation, F and t test 1.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Define and after an example of an intragroup design. 2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Intragroup Designs. 3. Describe and after one example of each kind of intragroup design.
    • 4. Compare the advantages and disadvantages between intragroup and intergroup designs. 5. Discuss how to control "progressive error" in a repeated-measure design.ASSIGNED READINGS:Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D.T. (1979)  Chapter 5 – Quasi-Experiments: Interrupted Time Series DesignsFraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (2003)  Chapter: 13 – Experimental ResearchKerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H. B. (2002)  Chapter 22 – Quasi-Experimental designs and with n = 1 (Diseños cuasi experimentales y con n = 1)UNIT 11: MULTIGROUP AND FACTORIAL DESIGNSUpon successful completion of this unit students will understand complicated experimentalmodels in which two or more independent variables are considered. Students will becomefamiliar with the set up to accommodate different classes of variables and will learn how toperform tests of statistical significance on data from factorial experiments.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Define and offer an example of a randomized factorial experiment.
    • 2. Discuss the advantages of factorial experiments relative to single-variable experiments. 3. Define the concepts of: main effect, interaction, Solomon Four Group design, statistical main effect, and pairwise comparisons. 4. Describe and make up one example of each kind of "mixed factorials". 5. Discuss how to control "progressive error" in a repeated-measures factorial. 6. Create line graphs representing different outcomes in experiments. 7. Discuss the component parts in a factorial ANOVA. 8. Discuss in what sense the ANOVA performed on the data from a single-variable correlated-groups experiment is the same as a factorial ANOVA. 9. Discuss why it is necessary to conduct pairwise comparisons subsequent to obtaining a significant F ratio.ASSIGNED READINGS:Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (2003)  Chapter: 13 – Experimental ResearchUNIT 12: CONTINUE UNIT 11LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Define and offer an example of a randomized factorial experiment. 2. Discuss the advantages of factorial experiments relative to single-variable experiments. 3. Define the concepts of: main effect, interaction, Solomon Four Group design, statistical main effect, and pairwise comparisons.
    • 4. Describe and make up one example of each kind of "mixed factorials". 5. Discuss how to control "progressive error" in a repeated-measures factorial. 6. Create line graphs representing different outcomes in experiments. 7. Discuss the component parts in a factorial ANOVA. 8. Discuss in what sense the ANOVA performed on the data from a single-variable correlated-groups experiment is the same as a factorial ANOVA. 9. Discuss why it is necessary to conduct pairwise comparisons subsequent to obtaining a significant F ratio.ASSIGNED READINGS:No new readings.UNIT 13:ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCHUpon successful completion of this unit students will understand the various ethicalissues and dilemmas that arise in psychological research projects.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Discuss the universal contract that emerges when people enter into interpersonal relationships. 2. Describe the value conflicts that give rise to ethical dilemmas in psychological research. 3. Appreciate the ethical responsibilities of investigators. 4. Discuss the principle of harm avoidance.
    • 5. Explain the concepts of "debriefing sessions", "dehoaxing", and "desensitizing" the subjects. 6. Describe the concepts of informed consent, consent forms, and consent competence. 7. Explain the rationale for using deception in psychological research and the alternatives to deception. 7. 8. Describe the principles of curtailment of personal freedom and confidentiality.ASSIGNED READINGS:Kazdin, A.E. (2001).  Chapter 16 – Ethical problems and guidelines for research (Problemas éticos y guías para la investigación)UNIT 14: FINAL EXAMINATION
    • REFERENCESAndrews-Necnn, F. (2000).El efecto del método de aprendizaje cooperativo con computadora(MACC) en la adquisición de destrezas de español, auto percepción y comportamiento social para estudiantes del tercer grado. Disertación doctoral no publicada, Universidad Carlos Albizu, San Juan, Puerto Rico.Asociación Americana de Psicología. (2002). Manual de estilo de publicaciones. (Chavez, M., Padilla, G. & Inzunza, M. Trads.) México: Editorial El Manual Moderno. (Trabajo original publicado en 2001).Ardila, R. (1986). Significado y necesidad de la psicología comparada. Revista latinoamericana de psicología, 18, 157-169.Campbell, D.T. & Stanley, J.C. (1966). Experimental and quasi-experimental design, for research.Chicago: McNally College Publishing Co.Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Cook, D.T. & Campbell, D. (1976). The design and conduct of quasi-experiments and true experiments in field setting in M.D. Dinnette (Ed.), Handbook of indutrial and organizational psychology.(p. 223-326). Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Co.Crabtree, B. & Miller, W. (1992) Doing qualitative research. California: Sage Publications.Creswell, J.W. (2002). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. California: Sage Publications.Cuevas, S.M. (1996). Diseno e implantación de un modelo e intervención psicológica:
    • programa de técnicas de relajación y patrones de frecuencias de sonidos musicales para el manejo de la ansiedad. Disertación doctoral no publicada, Universidad Carlos Albizu, San Juan, Puerto Rico.Edwards, A.L. (1972). Experimental design in psychological research.New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, inc.Edwards, A.L. (I985). Multiple regression and the analysis of variance and covariance.New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.Ferran, M. (2001). SPSS para windows: análisis estadístico. México: McGraw Hill.García, J.A. (1999). Effects of group therapy with individuals diagnosed with schizotypal personality functioning. Disertación doctoral no publicada, Universidad Carlos Albizu, San Juan, Puerto Rico.Heiman, G. W. (1999). Research methods in psychology.New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.Henry, G.T. (1990). Practical sampling.California: Sage Publications.Hernández, R., Fernández, C. & Baptista, P. (2002). Metodología de la investigación. México: McGraw-Hill.Isaac, S. & Michael.W.B. (1995).Handbook in research and evaluation.California: Edits Publishers.Kazdin, A.E. (2001). Métodos de investigación en psicología clínica. (Gutiérrez, M.G. Trads.) México: Pearson Educación. (Trabajo original publicado en 1998).
    • Kappel, C. (1991). Design and analysis: A researchers handbook (3rd Edition) New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.Kcrlinger, F.N. & Lee, H. B. (2002). Investigación del comportamiento: Métodos de investigación en ciencias sociales. (Pineda, L.E.,Mora, I., Diez, C.B. & Vadillo, G. Trads.) México: McGraw Hill. (Trabajo original publicado en 1986).Leedy, P.D. (1989). Practical research: Planning and design. New York: McMillan Publishing Company.León, O.G. & Montero, I. (1993). Diseño de investigaciones. Esparza: McGraw-Hill.Matheson. D.W., Bruce, R.L. & Beauchamp, K.L. (1978). Experimental psychology: Research designs and analysis (3rded.) New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Miles, M. & Michael-Huberman, A. (1994).Qualitative data analysis.California: Sage Publications.Morgan, D.L. (1993). Successful focus groups.California: Sage Publications.Mullen, B..(1989). Advanced basic meta-analysis.New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Patton, M.Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods.California: Sage Publications.Pérez, V.P. (1997). Diseño e implantación de un adiestramiento a maestros/as para identificar y prevenir el abuso sexual en niños/as. Disertación doctoral no publicada, Universidad Carlos Albizu, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
    • Rodríguez-Irlanda, D. (2001). Medición "assessment "y evaluación. Puerto Rico: Publicaciones Puertorriqueñas Editores.Runyon, R. P., Coleman, K.A. & Pittenger, D.J. (2000). Fundamentals of behavior statistics.New York: McGraw Hill.Shaughnessy, J.J., Zechmeister, E.B. & Zechmeister, J.S. (2000).Research methods in psychology.New York McGraw Hill.Santiago, E.F. (2001). Desarrollo e implantación de un modelo de intervención psico-músico- Terapéutico para pacientes con problemas de hipertensión en una clínica de cardiología. Disertación doctoral no publicada, Universidad Carlos Albizu, San Juan, Puerto Rico.Schmidt, N.B. & Woolaway-Bickel, K. (2000). The effects of treatment compliance on outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder: Quality versus quantity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, (68), 1, 13-18.Stewart, D.W. & Shamdasani, P. (1990).Focus groups: Theory and practice. California: Sage Publications.Viera, S. (1998). Fundamentos del Razonamiento Estadístico. Puerto Rico: Universidad Carlos Albizu.Weathers, P.L., Furlons, M.J. & Solorzano, D. (1993). Mail Survey Research in Counseling Psychology: Current Practice and Suggested Guidelines. Journal of counseling Psychology, 40 (2), 238-244.Yin, R. K. (1994).Case study research: Design and Methods. California: Sage Publications.Revised by: Juan A. Nogueras, Ph.D. (August, 2008)
    • MASTER SYLLABUS RMIC- 822: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCECREDITS: 3 CONTACT HOURS: 45COURSE DESCRIPTIONThis course explores the principles and applications of Analysis of Variance for thetreatment of research data in psychology. One, two and three factors Analysis ofVariance; Multiple Comparisons (planned versus post hoc comparisons); Analysis ofCovariance; Random, Mixed and Fixed Models Analysis of Variance; Analysis ofVariance for proportional and non proportional samples, and Analysis of Variance forordinal scaled variables are among the topics included.PREREQUISITESPSYF-568Inferential StatisticsCOURSE OBJECTIVESThe course pretends to empower the student with relevant statistical methods ofanalysis of variance as it applies to behavioral research; It also will enable the studentto differentiate among the statistical procedures for analysis of variance suitable fordifferent research situations, to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of analysisof variance, to properly apply analysis of variances procedures to actual research data,and to read and properly interpret analysis of variances results.
    • REQUIRED TEXT BOOKSGravetter, F.J., & Wallnau, L.B. (2009).Statistics for the behavioral sciences (8thed.) Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning (ISBN-13: 978-0-495-60220-0).Shavelson, R. (1996). Statistical reasoning for the behavioral sciences. (3rded). Mass.: Allyn and Bacon (ISBN 0-205-18460-X). ITINERARY OF CLASS UNITS Unit 1: Introduction Unit 2: Analysis of Variance: One factor-fixed effect model. Unit 3: Analysis of Variance: One factor-randomized effect model. Unit 4: Multiple comparisons: Tukey and HSD. Unit 5: Multiple comparisons: Scheffé Unit 6: MID TERM EXAM. Unit 7: Analysis of Variance: Repeated measures design (One factor). Unit 8: Analysis of Variance: (Two factors-fixed model). Unit 9: Analysis of Variance: (Two factors-fixed model). Unit 10: Fixed model, randomized model and mixed effect model. Unit 11: Multiple comparisons (Turkey, and HSD) Unit 12: Multiple comparisons (Scheffé) Unit 13: Analysis of Covariance Unit 14: FINAL EXAM
    • COURSE CONTACT HOURSProfessors who teach the course must divide the contact hours the following way:1. Face-to-face time in the classroom must not be less than 40.0 hours (16 classes, 2.5 hours each class).2. For the remaining hours (≥ 5 hours), students will conduct statistics written assignments or homework outside the classroom. These assignments or homework will include, but are not limited to: statistics homework assignments, some using statistical software. METHODOLOGYWeekly conferences by the professor, discussion of assigned readings, small groupdiscussions, as well as practical assignments and applications of statistical procedures,are among the methodologies to be considered during the course. EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUESThe specific educational techniques will be selected by the professor who offers thecourse. These techniques should include, but not limited to: debates, practicaldemonstrations, films/videos, simulations, slide shows and forums. EVALUATIONThe specific methodology will be selected by the professor who offers the course.These methodologies could include, but are not limited to: class participation, literaturereviews, exams, class presentations and practical applications of statistical procedures.RESEARCH COMPETENCIES:
    • 1. Develop an overview and understanding of the statistical procedures for analysis of variance and the critical thinking necessary to analyze research data. 2. Develop knowledge in ANOVA statistical techniques used in answering research questions within the field of clinical psychology. 3. Develop competence on how ANOVA simple and complex research designs are important for addressing decision-oriented problems in applied research. 4. Develop competence in applying analysis of variance/covariance models that focuses on acquiring new knowledge. 5. Develop competence in identifying which procedures of analysis of variance and post hoc procedures are the most relevant to the substantive area in which a student intend to conduct research. 6. Develop knowledge of the principles and statistical assumptions underpinning ANOVA factorial designs to analyze complex data sets. 7. Develops a general understanding using SPSS software package for testing hypotheses in ANOVA & ANCOVA research designs.ATTENDANCE POLICYClass attendance is mandatory for all students. After two unexcused absences, thestudent will be dropped from the class, unless the professor recommends otherwise.When a student misses a class, he/she is responsible for the material presented inclass.AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)Students that need special accommodations should request them directly to theprofessor during the first week of class.
    • COURSE UNITSUNIT 1: INTRODUCTIONUpon successful completion of this unit, students should gain understanding of therelationship of the analysis of variance and statistical tests, as well as of the logic behind thisparticular methodology.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Discuss the role of analysis of variance in inferential statistical. 2. Discuss the fundamental concepts of analysis of variance. 3. Identify the limitations of analysis of variance in behavioral research. 4. Discuss the logic behind the analysis of variance. 5. Analyze the consequences of violating the assumptions underlying the analysis of variance. ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 1- 3Introduction to Analysis of Variance Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 13- One-way Analysis of variance
    • UNIT 2: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: ONE FACTOR-FIXED EFFECT MODELUpon successful completion of this unit, students should gain understanding of thestatistical procedures for one factor analysis of variance (fixed effect model), and itsrelation to the Student test.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Identify the relationship between the F test and the t test (one factor-fixed model-two levels). 2. Identify the differences between the fixed effect model and the randomized effect model. 3. Discuss the concepts of variability between groups and within groups. 4. Explain how variability between groups and within groups represents the variance of the population, when the null hypothesis is true. 5. Explain the concept of variability within groups as a measurement of error. 6. Explain the process of variability between groups as a measurement of error. 7. Discuss the concept of the Proportion of F as the result of the division between the variability between groups with the variability within groups. 8. Explain the concept of total variance as the result of the sum of variability within and variability between groups.ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 13- Introduction to Analysis of Variance Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 13-One-way Analysis of variance
    • UNIT 3: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: ONE FACTOR-RANDOMIZED EFFECT MODELUpon successful completion of this unit, students should gain understanding ofthe statistical procedures for one factor analysis of variance-randomized effect model,and of the logical theory behind this particular model.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Discuss the logic and theory behind one factor analysis of variance- randomized effect model. 2. Identify the differences between the fixed effect model and the randomized effect model. 3. Explain the computational procedures for calculating an analysis of variance with randomized effect model and fixed effect model with one factor. 4. Analyze the defining formulas for the sum of squares total in one factor- analysis of variance: randomized effect model and fixed effect model. 5. Recognize the formulas for calculating sum of squares between groups and sum of squares within groups for one factor analysis, randomized effect model and fixed effect model. ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 13–Introduction to Analysis of Variance Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 13-One-way Analysis of variance
    • UNIT 4: MULTIPLE COMPARISONS: TUKEY AND HSDUpon successful completion of this unit, students should again an understanding of thestatistical procedures behind the analysis of variance, and how to perform and interpretresults obtained from multiple comparisons procedures.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Discuss the concepts of degrees of freedom for Sum of Squares Total, Sum of Squares Between Groups, and Sum of Squares Within Groups. 2. Discuss the concepts of mean squares. Total, between groups and within groups. 3. Compute the F ratio. 4. Use an F table to determine the critical value of the F statistic. 5. Present results from an analysis of variance in a Summative Table. 6. Explain when it is necessary to compute multiple comparisons. 7. Mention the uses and limitations of Tukey and HSD. 8. Perform multiple comparisons: Tukey and HSD. 9. Use the studentized table to obtain the critical value. 10. Interpret results from multiple comparison analysis. ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 13- Introduction to Analysis of Variance Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 13-One-way Analysis of variance
    • UNIT 5: MULTIPLE COMPARISONS: SCHEFFÉUpon successful completion of this unit, students should gain an understanding of the statisticalprocedures for multiple comparison: Scheffé.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Compare the different procedures for multiple comparisons (Scheffé and Tukey), including their advantages and limitations. 2. Perform multiple comparisons using the Scheffé method. 3. Identify the procedure to determine the critical value for the Scheffé test. 4. Perform complex comparisons using Scheffé: comparing two means with three means. 5. Interpret results from multiple comparison analysis. ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 13- Introduction to Analysis of Variance Shavelson, R (1996)  Chapter 13- One-way Analysis of varianceUNIT 6: MID TERM EXAMUNIT 7: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCES: REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN (ONE FACTOR)Upon successful completion of this unit students should gain understanding
    • of the statistical procedures for analysis of variance: repeated measures design.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Identify the differences between repeated measures designs and independent sample designs. 2. Analyze the basic steps to calculate the Sum of Squares Total, Sum of Squares Between Subjects, Factor and Residual. 3. Analyze the basic steps to calculate the Mean Squares Total, Between Subjects, Factor and Residual. 4. Perform an analysis of variance for a repeated measures design. 5. Perform multiple comparisons, using Tukey, HSD or Scheffé with a repeated measures design. ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 14- Repeated-Measures ANOVA Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 15- Randomized-Blocks Analysis of Variance UNIT 8: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (TWO FACTORS-FIXED MODEL)Upon successful completion of this unit students should gain understanding of the statisticalprocedures for two factors analysis of variance, the F ratio for Factor A, B and the interactioneffect (AB).LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    • Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Discuss the advantages of the two factors analysis of variance. 2. Discuss the assumptions underlying the two factors analysis of variance. 3. Discuss the concept of interaction and its implication for theory. 4. Discuss the concepts of factors, levels of the factors, main effects and interaction effects. 5. Analyze examples of interaction and lack of interaction. 6. Construct and interpret graphs for interaction effects. 7. Analyze and interpret examples of interactions between two variables. ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 15-Two-Factor ANOVA Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 14-Factorial Analysis of VarianceUNIT 9: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (TWO FACTORS-FIXED MODEL)Upon successful completion of this unit, students will gain understanding of thestatistical procedures for two factors analysis of variance, the F ratio for Factor A, B andthe interaction effect.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Analyze the basic steps to reach the Sum of Squares for Factor A, Factor B and for interaction (AB), and for within groups. 2. Determine and calculate the degrees of freedom for each factor (A and B) and for within groups.
    • 3. Analyze the basic steps to determine the Mean Squares for Factor A, Factor B, and within groups. 4. Perform an analysis of variance (two factors). 5. Analyze and interpret examples of interactions between two variables.ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 15-Two-Factor ANOVA Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 14-Factorial Analysis of VarianceUNIT 10: FIXED MODEL, RANDOMIZED MODEL AND MIXED EFFECT MODELUpon a successful completion for this unit, students should gain understanding of thestatistical procedures for two factors analysis of variance when both are random factors,as well as when one factor is fixed and the other is random. Besides, the studentsshould gain an understanding of the underlying theory.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit student should be able to: 1. Discuss the theory underlying the two factors analysis of variance when both are random factors and, when one is fixed and the other random. 2. Identify the proper statistical procedures for estimating mean squares for two factors analysis of variance, when both are random factors and when one is fixed and the other random. 3. Discuss the conclusions that can be derived from the two factors analysis of variance when both are random factors and, when one is fixed and the other random.
    • 4. Familiarize with reading and interpreting, results from two factors analysis of variance when both are random factors and, when one is fixed and the other is random.ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 15-Two-Factor ANOVA Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 14-Factorial Analysis of VarianceUNIT 11: MULTIPLE COMPARISONS (TUKEY, AND HSD)Upon successful completion of this unit, students will gain an understanding of thestatistical procedures for multiple comparisons; Tukey and HSD, for two factors analysisof variance.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Perform multiple comparisons using Tukey and HSD to determine significance of treatments or main effects. 2. Analyze and interpret examples of interactions between two variables. ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 15-Two-Factor ANOVA
    • Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 14-Factorial Analysis of VarianceUNIT 12: MULTIPLE COMPARISONS (SHEFFÉ)Upon successful completion of this units, students will gain an understanding of thestatistical procedures for multiple comparisons; Scheffé, for two factors analysis ofvariance.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Perform multiple comparisons using Scheffé to determine significance of treatments of main effects. 2. Analyze and interpret examples of interactions between two variables. 3. Use multiple comparisons methods to identify differences within cells. ASSIGNED READINGS: Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009)  Chapter 15-Two-Factor ANOVA Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 14-Factorial Analysis of VarianceUNIT 13: ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE
    • Upon successful completion of this unit, students should gain an understanding ofthe statistical procedures for the analysis of Covariance, as well as of the purpose andunderlying logic.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Discuss the purpose and underlying logic of the analysis of Covariance. 2. Interpret readings and results from the analysis of Covariance.ASSIGNED READINGS: Shavelson, R. (1996)  Chapter 17-Analysis of CovarianceUNIT 14: FINAL EXAM
    • REFERENCESAshcraft, A.S. (1998, April). Ways to evaluate the assumption of multivariate normality. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, New Orleans.(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED 418 095).Bryman, A., & Cramer, D. (2008). Quantitative data analysis with SPSS 14, 15 & 16: A guide for social scientists. New York, NY : RoutledgeBuser, K.P. (1995, April).Dangers in using ANCOVA to evaluate special education program effects. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED 384 654).Capraro, M. M. (2005). An introduction to confidence intervals for both statistical estimates and effect sizes. Research in the Schools, 12(2), 22–32.Chambers, J., Cleveland, W. , Kleiner, B. , & Tukey, P. (1983). Graphical methods for data analysis.Monterey, CA: Wadsworth.Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer.Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159.Cohen, J. (1994). The earth is round (p< .05). American Psychologist, 49, 997– 1003.Coladarci, T., Cobb, C. D., Minium, E. W., & Clarke, R. C. (2004).Fundamentals of statistical reasoning in education. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Cole, D.A., Maxwell, S.E., Arvey, R. & Salas, E. (1994). How the power of MANOVA can
    • both increase and decrease as a function of the intercorrelations among the dependent variables. Psychological Bulletin, 115(3), 465-474.Cortina, J. M. & Nouri, H. (2000).Effect size for ANOVA designs. Series: Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 129. Sage Publications, Inc.Cronbach, L. J. & Shavelson, R. J. (2004). My current thoughts on coefficient alpha and successor. Procedures in Educational and Psychological Measurement. 64(3), 391-418.González, R. (2008).Data analysis for experimental design.Guilford Press.Glass, G. V. & Hophins, K. D. (1996). Statistical methods for education and psychology (3rded). Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2009).Statistics for the behavioral sciences (8thed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing,Green, S.B., & Salkind, N.J. (2005).Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and understanding data(4th ed.). NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.Greenhouse, S.W. (1976). Within-subjects designs: To use or not to use. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 314-320.Haase, T., & Thompson, B. (1992, January).The homogeneity of variance assumption in ANOVA: What it is and what it is required. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association.Hinkle, D. E., Wiersma, W. & Jurs, S.G. (1988).Applied statistics for the behavioral
    • sciences (2nd ed.) Boston: Houghton Miffing.Howell, D. C. (2007).Fundamental statistics for the behavioral sciences (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson.Huck, S. (2004).Reading statistics and research (4thed.). Boston: Pearson.Hurlburt, R. T., & Spiegel, D. K. (1976). Dependence of F ratios sharing a common denominator mean square. American Statistician, 20, 74– 78.Huynh, H. (1970). Conditions under which mean square ratios in repeated measurements designs have exact F-distributions. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 65, 1582-1589.Huynh, H. (1979). Validity conditions in repeated measures designs. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 964-973.Johnson, E.S. (1978). An introduction to experimental design in psychology: A case approach (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.Kachigan, S. K. (1991). Multivariate Statistical Analysis: A Conceptual Introduction (2nd ed.). Radius Press: New York.Keppel, G. & Wickens, T. D. (2004).Design and analysis: A researcher’s handbook. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice HallKeselman, H.J. (1977). The Tukey multiple-comparison test: 1953-1976. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 1050-1056.
    • Keselman, H. J., Huberty, C. J., Lix, L. M. , Olejnik, S., Cribbie, R., Donahue, B., Kowalchuk, R. K., Lowman, L. L., Petoskey, M. D., Keselman, J. C., & Levin, J. R. (1998). Statistical practices of educational researchers: An analysis of their ANOVA, MANOVA, and ANCOVA analyses. Review of Educational Research, 68, 350– 386.Kleinbaum, D.G., & Kupper, L.L. (2008).Applied regression analysis and multivariable methods (4th Ed.).Florence, KY: Brooks/Cole.Maxwell, S. (1975). A note on analysis of variance.Psychological Bulletin, 82, 187-190.McCall, R.B. (1973). Bias in the analysis of repeated measures designs: Some alternative approaches. Child Development, 44, 401-415.Mertler, C. A., & Vannatta, R.A. (2005).Advanced and Multivariate Statistical Methods: Practical Application and Interpretation (3rded.).Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing.Murphy, K. R., Myors, B..& Wolach, A. (2008).Statistical power analysis.New York, NY: Routledge.Myers, J.L. (1977). Fundamentals of experimental designs (2nded.). New Jersey: Allyn & Bacon.Namboodiri, N.K. (1972). Experimental design in which each subject is used repeatedly. Psychological Bulletin, 77, 54-64.OBrien, R.G. (1981). A simple test for variance effects in experimental designs. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 570-574.
    • Ott, R.L., & Longnecker, M.T. (2009).An introduction to statistical methods and data analysis (6th Ed.).Florence, KY: Brooks/Cole.Pagano, R. R. (2003). Understanding statistics in the behavioral sciences.Pacific Grove, CA: Brooke/Cole Publishing Co.Rogan, J.C. & Keselman, J. (1977). Is the ANOVA F-test robust to variance heterogeneity when sample sizes are equal?: An investigation via a coefficient of variation. American Educational Research Journal, 14(4), 493-498.Sánchez-Viera, J. (2004). Fundamentos del razonamiento estadístico(3ra ed.). San Juan, Puerto Rico: Carlos Albizu University.Shavelson, R. (1996). Statistical reasoning for the behavioral sciences (3ed).Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.Scheffé, R.C. (1985). Experimental methods in psychology.New York: Holt.Thompson, B. (1994). Planned versus unplanned and orthogonal versus nonorthogonal contrasts: The neoclassical perspective. In B. Thompson (Ed.), Advances in Social Science Methodology, (vol. 3, 3-27). Greenwhich, CT: JAI Press.Thompson, B. (2006). Foundations of behavioral statistics: An insight-based approach. New York: Guilford.Thompson, B. (2007). Effect sizes, confidence intervals, and confidence intervals for effect sizes. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 423–432.Wildt, A. R., & Ahtola, O. (1978).Analysis of covariance.Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage
    • Publications.Winer, B.J. (1971).Statistical principles in experimental designs(2nded.).New York: McGraw-Hill.Revised by: José V. Martínez, Ph.D. (August, 2008)
    • CARLOS ALBIZU UNI VERSI TY S AN JU AN C AMPUS MASTER SYLLABUS PSYF-588: THEORY OF TESTS AND TEST CONSTRUCTIONCREDITS: 3 CONTACT HOURS: 45COURSE DESCRIPTIONThe goal of this course is to present the major principles of test construction in psychologicalmeasurement. Methods for determining validity and reliability will be examined by performingclass exercises. The content also includes the study of scaling methods such as Guttman,Thurstone, and Likert scales. Moreover, students will apply knowledge from the course toconstruct their own assessment instruments.PRE-REQUISITESPSYF-568 Applied Inferential StatisticsCOURSE OBJECTIVESThis course provides graduate students in psychology basic knowledge in measurement andtest development. Students will be able to make responsible and professional decisions inselecting or developing instruments.
    • REQUIRED TEXT BOOKSDeVellis, R.F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and application (2nded.). London: Sage Publications. ISBN-10: 0761926054; ISBN-13: 978-0761926054Kline, T. (2005).Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN-10: 1412905443; ISBN-13: 978-1412905442Kline, P. (2000). Handbook of psychological testing (2nded.). New York: Routledge. ISBN-10: 0415211581; ISBN-13: 978-0415211581Tornimbeni, S., Pérez, E., Olaz, F., & Fernández, A. (2004).Introducción a los test psicológicos (3era ed. rev.). Argentina: Editorial Brujas. ISBN-10: 9871142242ITINERARY OF CLASS UNITSUNIT 1: Basic concepts, historical background, and measurement modelsUNIT 2: General steps of the test construction processUNIT 3: Item construction: Sensitivity to cultural and individual variablesUNIT 4: ValidityUNIT 5: Item analysisUNIT 6: ReliabilityUNIT 7: Development of the test manual and the test administration processUNIT 8: Review of statistical conceptsUNIT 9: Norms and standard scoresUNIT 10: Discriminatory power of the testUNIT 11: Ethical principles and their role in the test construction processCOURSE CONTACT HOURS
    • Professors who teach the course must divide the contact hours the following way:3. Face-to-face time in the classroom must not be less than 40.0 hours (16 classes, 2.5 hours each class).4. For the remaining hours (≥ 5.0 hours), students will conduct research projects or homework outside the classroom. These projects or homework will include, but are not limited to, literature review, field work (i.e. experts evaluation of item content validity, instrument administration), statistical analysis with SPSS, and writing the test manual.METHODOLOGYThe specific methodology will be selected by the professor who offers the course. Thesemethodologies could include, but would not be limited to, conferences by the professor, groupdiscussions of assigned readings, class research projects, student presentations, individualmeetings with students and sub-groups in the classroom.EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUESThe specific educational techniques will be selected by the professor who offers the course.These techniques could include, but are not limited to,group or individual projects, debates,practical demonstrations, films/videos, simulations, slide shows and forums.EVALUATIONThe specific evaluation criteria will be selected by the professor who offers the course. Thesemethodologies could include, but would not be limited to, term papers, projects, literaturereviews, exams and class presentations. Three partial exams are recommended to examinethe material discussed.The development of a scale or test in an area of interest for the student is highly recommended.The student should identify a psychological construct of his/her interest, develop items tomeasure it, administer these items to a sample, and analyze its psychometric properties (itemdiscrimination index, validity, reliability, norms).
    • RESEARCH COMPETENCIES1. Compare/contrast the principles of several theories pertaining to test use2. Evaluate and select research instruments that are appropriate for a particular research project3. Design, develop, and validate research instruments4. Select statistical tests that are appropriate for data analysis5. Interpret the results of statistical data analysis, including descriptive and inferential statistics6. Perform a literature research of the formulate research problem7. Evaluate and analyze critically quantitative research that is presented in the literatureATTENDANCE POLICYClass attendance is mandatory for all students. After two unexcused absences, the student willbe dropped from the class, unless the professor recommends otherwise. When a studentmisses a class, he/she is responsible for the material presented in class.AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)Students that need special accommodations should request them directly to the professorduring the first week of class.
    • COURSE UNITSUNIT 1: BASIC CONCEPTS, HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, AND MEASUREMENT MODELSUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand basic conceptscommonly used in test theory, test historical background, and models of measurement.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:1. Define the concept of test, measurement, and assessment2. Identify different types of tests3. Identify the purposes of tests4. Review the historic development of test theory and test development5. Identify cultural sensitive problems most commonly encountered in test development in Puerto Rico6. Identify the differences between classic test theory and modern test theory7. Discuss the concept of individual differences and its impact in assessmentASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kline (2005) Chapter 1 – The Assessment of Individuals: The Critical Role and Fundamentals of Measurement Chapter 5 – Classic Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations, and Item Analyses Chapter 6 – Modern Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations, and Item Analyses2. DeVellis (2003) Chapter 7 – An Overview of Item Response Theory3. Tornimbeni et al. (2004) Chapter 1 – Fundamentos de la Medición Psicológica
    • Chapter 2 – Evolución Histórica de los Tests Chapter 3 – Paradigmas de la Psicometría4. Cirino, G., Herrans, L.L. & Rodríguez, J.M. (1988). El futuro de la medición psicológica en Puerto Rico: Predicciones y recomendaciones. En Memorias Primer Simposio de Medición Psicológica en Puerto Rico. Asociación de Psicología de Puerto Rico.UNIT 2: GENERAL STEPS OF THE TEST CONSTRUCTION PROCESSUpon successful completion of this unit, students will learn how to construct a test.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:1. List the steps in test construction2. Explain the procedures for preparing test specifications3. Discuss the importance of test specifications4. Examine the process followed in the preliminary item tryouts5. Discuss the importance of the test sensitivity reviewASSIGNED READINGS:1. DeVellis (2003) Chapter 5 – Guidelines in Scale Development2. Tornimbeni et al. (2004) Chapter 8 – Construcción de Pruebas Chapter 9 – Adaptación de Tests a Diversas Culturas3. Cirino, G. (1992). Introducción al desarrollo de pruebas escritas. Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Bohío. Chapter 3 – Planificación de una Prueba Educativa
    • Chapter 4 – Planificación de una Prueba de Selección de Personal4. Murphy, K.R. & Davidshofer, C.O. (2001). Psychological testing: Principles and applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Chapter 11 – The Process of Test DevelopmentUNIT 3: ITEM CONSTRUCTION: SENSITIVITY TO CULTURAL AND INDIVIDUAL VARIABLESUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand how to construct a listof items.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:1. Explain the procedures followed in the construction of test items: a. essay test items b. two-option alternate-response test items (true or false) c. multiple choice test items d. matching test items e. completion or fill-in items f. interest and personality inventories items g. attitude scales items h. projective techniques items2. Discuss the important aspects of item reviewsASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kline (2005) Chapter 2 – Designing and Writing Items
    • Chapter 3 – Designing and Scoring Responses2. Kline (2000) Chapter 5 – Rasch Scaling and Other Scales Chapter 6 – Computerized and Tailored Testing Chapter 11 – Other Methods of Test Construction3. DeVellis (2003) Chapter 5 – Guidelines in the Scale Development4. Cirino, G. (1992). Introducción al desarrollo de pruebas escritas. Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Bohío. Chapter 5 – Formulación de Preguntas de Múltiples AlternativasUNIT 4: VALIDITYUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the concept of validity.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:1. Define the concept of validity2. Define the three major approaches to test validation3. Explain the steps to be followed in content validation4. Explain the steps to be followed in criterion related validation5. Explain the construct validation process6. Apply the formulas for computing each type of validity7. Explain the results obtained from a validation process8. Describe and analyze the practical consideration in each type of validation process9. Establish the relationship between validity and reliability
    • ASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kline (2005) Chapter 9 – Assessing Validity Using Content and Criterion Methods Chapter 10 – Assessing Validity via Item Internal Structure2. Kline (2000) Chapter 2 – The Validity of Psychological Tests3. DeVellis (2003) Chapter 4 – Validity4. Tornimbeni et al. (2004) Chapter 6 – Validez5. Lawshe, C.H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity.Personnel Psychology, 28, 563-575.6. Rungtunsanatham, M. (1998, July). Let‘s not overlook content validity. Decision Line, 10-13.UNIT 5: ITEM ANALYSISUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the item analysisprocess. In addition, students will be able to understand the role of SPSS in the itemanalysis process.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:
    • 1. Define item analysis2. Discuss the concepts of item difficulty (i.e. P and Delta) and item discrimination (i.e. D and rbis)3. Describe the steps followed in item analysis4. Apply the formulae for computing item difficulty and discrimination5. Interpret the results obtained from an item analysis6. Use SPSS to perform item analysisASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kline (2005) Chapter 5 – Classic Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations, and Item Analyses2. Kline (2000) Chapter 10 – Test Construction – Factor Analytic and Item Analytic Methods3. DeVellis (2003) Chapter 7 – An Overview of Item Response Theory4. Tornimbeni et al. (2004) Chapter 8 – Construcción de Pruebas5. Cirino, G. (1992). Introducción al desarrollo de pruebas escritas. Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Bohío. Chapter 9 – Análisis de Ítems6. Sayers, S., & Vélez, M. (2006, noviembre). Using SPSS for the final project of the PSYF- 588 course.Unpublished manuscript, CarlosAlbizuUniversity, San Juan Campus, PR. nd7. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows (2 ed.). London: SAGE Publications. Chapter 2 – The SPSS Environment Chapter 15.7 – Reliability Analysis
    • UNIT 6: RELIABILITYUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the concept of reliability anddevelop skills in the statistical procedures for its estimation.In addition, students will be able tounderstand the role of SPSS in the reliability analysis processLEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:1. Define the concept of reliability2. Explain the procedures for estimating reliability: test-retest, equivalent forms, internal consistency (i.e. split half, Cronbachs alpha), and scorer reliability3. Apply the formulas for computing the different types of reliability4. Explain the results of a reliability coefficient5. Identify the sources of unreliability6. Use SPSS to perform reliability analysisASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kline (2005) Chapter 7 – Reliability of Test Scores and Test Items Chapter 8 – Reliability of Raters2. Kline (2000) Chapter 1 – Reliability of Tests: Practical Tests3. DeVellis (2003) Chapter 3 – Reliability4. Tornimbeni et al. (2004) Chapter 5 – Confiabilidad
    • nd5. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows (2 ed.). London: SAGE Publications. Chapter 15.7 – Reliability AnalysisUNIT 7: DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEST MANUAL AND THE TEST ADMINISTRATION PROCESSUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand how a test manual isprepared. Also, they will understand the process involved in developing the testadministration process.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:1. Identify the information that should be part of a test manual2. Discuss the importance of standardization of procedures in test administration3. Define the concept of test anxiety4. Explain how motivation affects test performance5. Discuss the importance of preparation of the examiner and supervision in test administrationASSIGNED READINGS:1. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Chapter 3 – Test Development and Revision Chapter 5 – Test Administration, Scoring, and Reporting Chapter 7 – Fairness in Testing and Test Use Chapter 8 – The Rights and Responsibilities of Test Takers Chapter 9 – Testing Individuals of Diverse Linguistic Backgrounds Chapter 10 – Testing Individuals with Disabilities
    • UNIT 8: REVIEW OF STATISTICAL CONCEPTSUpon successful completion of this unit, students will know the statistical concepts mostcommonly used in measurement.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:1. Recapitulate previously learned statistical concepts: scales of measurement, sampling, frequency distribution, measures of central tendency, variability, and correlation2. Differentiate among methods of sampling3. Apply the formula for obtaining a sample from a known population and interpret the results4. Apply the formula for stratified sampling and interpret the results5. Apply the guessing correction formula and interpret the resultsASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kline (2005) Chapter 1 – The Assessment of Individuals: The Critical Role and Fundamentals of Measurement Chapter 4 – Collecting Data: Sampling and Screening2. Murphy, K.R. & Davidshofer, C.O. (2001). Psychological testing: Principles and applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Chapter 4 – Basic Concepts in Measurement and Statistics3. Daniel, W.W. (2006). Bioestadística: Base para el análisis de las ciencias de la salud (4ta ed.). México: Limusa Wiley. Chapter 1 – Introducción a la Bioestadística Chapter 2 – Estadística Descriptiva Chapter 9 – Regresión y Correlación Lineal Simple
    • UNIT 9: DEVELOPMENT OF NORMS AND STANDARDIZED SCORESUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand how to develop test norms. Inaddition, students will learn the importance of using standardized scores. Finally, students willbe able to explain how the standard error measurement is used to establish confidence levelsfor standard scores.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:1. Discuss the basic steps in the development of test norms2. Assess the importance of describing the norms development process in the test manual3. Describe common standard scores: z score, T score, stanines, percentiles, and percentile rank4. Apply the formulae for the different standard scores and interpret the results5. Define the concept of standard error of measurement6. Apply the formula for computing the standard error of measurement7. Explain the results of the standard error of measurement8. Use SPSS to calculate standardized scores and the standard error of measurementASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kline (2000) Chapter 3 – The Classical Model of Test Error Chapter 4 – Standardizing the Test2. Tornimbeni et al. (2004) Chapter 5 – Interpretación de las Puntuaciones: Tests Referidos a Normas y Criterios3. Murphy, K.R. & Davidshofer, C.O. (2001). Psychological testing: Principles and applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
    • Chapter 5 – Scales, Transformations, and Norms4. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing.Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Chapter 4 – Scales, Norms, and Score ComparabilityUNIT 10: DISCRIMINATORY POWER OF THE TESTUpon successful completion of this unit, students will learn how to compute thediscriminatory power of a test and interpret its results.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to: 1. Apply Fergusons Delta formula and interpret the results 2. Understand the difference between the discriminatory power of a test and the discrimination index of an itemASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kline (2000) Chapter 2 – The Validity of Psychological Tests
    • UNIT 11: ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND CONSIDERATIONSUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical principlesinvolved in test development.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:1. Identify the ethical and professional principles involved in test development.2. Examine the impact of the violation of these principles.ASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kline (2005) Chapter 11 – Ethics and Professional Issues in Testing2. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing.Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Chapter 11 – The Responsibilities of the Test Users Chapter 12 – Psychological Testing and Assessment Chapter 13 – Educational Testing and Assessment Chapter 14 – Testing in Employment and Credentialing
    • REFERENCESÁlvaro Page, M. (1993). Elementos de psicometría. Madrid: EUDEMA Universidad.American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611.Anastasi, A. (1982). Psychological testing.New York: MacMillan.Anstey, E. (1976). Los tests psicológicos. Madrid: Morova.Burisch, M. (1984).Approaches to personality inventory construction. American Psychologist, 39, 214-227.Camilli, G. y Shepard, L.S. (1994). Methods for identifying biased test items. California: SAGE Publications.Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6, 284-290.Cirino, G. (1992). Introducción al desarrollo de pruebas escritas. Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Bohío.
    • Cirino, G., Herrans, L.L. & Rodríguez, J.M. (1988). El futuro de la medición psicológica en Puerto Rico: Predicciones y recomendaciones. En Memorias Primer Simposio de Medición Psicológica en Puerto Rico. Asociación de Psicólogos de Puerto Rico.Clark, L.A. y Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7, 309-319.Cortada de Kohan, N. (1999). Teorías psicométricas y construcción de tests. Argentina: Lugar Editorial.Cortada de Kohan, N. (2004). Teoría y métodos para la construcción de escalas de actitudes. Argentina: Lugar.Cronbach, L.J. (1990). Essentials of psychological testing (5thed.). New York: Harper and Row.Daniel, W.W. (2006). Bioestadística: Base para el análisis de las ciencias de la salud (4ta ed.). México: Limusa Wiley.Dahlstrom, W.G. (1993). Tests: Small samples, large consequences. American Psychologist, 48, 393-399.Denova, C.C. (1979). Test construction for training evaluation.New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.DeVellis, R.F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and application (2nded.). London: Sage Publications.Endler, N.S. y Parker, J.D.A. (1994). Assessment of multidimensional coping: Task, emotion, and avoidance strategies. Psychological Assessment, 6, 50-60.
    • Fan, C.T. (1952). Item analysis table. New Jersey: Educational Testing Service.Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows (2nded.). London: SAGE Publications.Frederiksen, N. (1984). The real test bias.American Psychologist, 39, 193-202.Geisinger, K.F. (1994). Cross-cultural normative assessment: Translation and adaptation issues influencing the normative interpretation of assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 6, 304-312.Haladyna, T. (1999).Developing and validating multiple-choice test items. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Hambleton, R.K., Swaminathan, H. & Rogers, H.J. (1991).Fundamentals of item response theory.London: SAGE.Haynes, S.N., Richard, D.C.S. y Kubany, E.S. (1995). Content validity in psychological assessment: A functional approach to concepts and methods. Psychological Assessment, 7, 238-247.Herrans, L.L. (2000). Psicología y medición. México: McGraw Hill.Huebner, E.S. (1994). Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children. Psychological Assessment, 6, 149-158.Junta Examinadora de Psicólogos de Puerto Rico (1988). Código de ética. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 5, 71-82.Kaplan, R.M. y Saccuzzo, D.P. (1993). Psychological testing. California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
    • Kehoe, J.F. y Tenopyr, M.L. (1994). Adjustment in assessment scores and their usage: A taxonomy and evaluation of methods. Psychological Assessment, 6, 291-303.Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing (2nded.). New York: Routledge.Kline, T. (2005).Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Lara-Cantu, M.A., Verduzco, M.A., Acevedo, M.C. y Cortes, J. (1993). Validez y confiabilidad del Inventario de Autoestima de Coopersmith para adultos, en población mexicana. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 25, 247-255.Lawshe, C.H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity.Personnel Psychology, 28, 563-575.Likert, R. (1967). The method of constructing an attitude scale. In M. Fishbein (Ed.), Readings in attitude theory and measurement. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.López, N.J. y Domínguez, R.(1993). Medición de la autoestima en la mujer universitaria. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 25, 257-273.Matarazzo, J.D. (1992). Psychological testing and assessment in the 21st century.American Psychologist, 47, 1007-1018.McIntire, A. y Miller, L. (2000). Foundations of psychological testing.New York: McGraw Hill.Meliá, J.L., Oliver, A. y Tomás, J.M. (1993). El poder en las organizaciones y su medición. El cuestionario de Poder Formal e Informal. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 24, 139-155.
    • Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from persons response and performance as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-749.Murphy, K.R. & Davidshofer, C.O. (2001). Psychological testing: Principles and applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric theory.New York: McGraw Hill.Ramos-Lira, L. y Andrade-Palos, P. (1991). La victimización: miedo, riesgo percibido y gravedad percibida. Construcción y validación de escalas de medición. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 23, 229-246.Rodríguez-Irlanda, D. (1998). Medición, “assessment” y evaluación. San Juan, PR: Publicaciones Puertorriqueñas.Rungtunsanatham, M. (1998, July). Let‘s not overlook content validity. Decision Line, 10-13Sánchez-Viera, J.A. (2004). Fundamentos del razonamiento estadístico (3era ed. revisada). San Juan, PR: Universidad Carlos Albizu.Sayers, S., & Vélez, M. (2006, noviembre). Utilizando SPSS para el trabajo final de PSYF-588. Manuscrito inédito, Universidad Carlos Albizu, Recinto de San Juan, PR.Silva, F. (1993).Psychometric foundations and behavioral assessment.California: SAGE Publications.Thorndike, R.L. (1982). Applied psychometrics.Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
    • Thurstone, L.L. (1967). Attitudes can be measured. En Fishbein, M. Readings in attitude theory and measurement.New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Tornimbeni, S., Pérez, E., Olaz, F., & Fernández, A. (2004).Introducción a los test psicológicos (3era ed. rev.). Argentina: Editorial Brujas.Westgaard, O. (1999). Tests that work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Zeidner, M. y Most, R. (1992). Psychological testing: An inside view. California: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.Rev. /2004Revised by: Sean K. Sayers Montalvo, Ph.D. (August, 2008; December 2009).
    • Carlos Albizu University San Juan, Puerto Rico Master Syllabus RMIC-725 (Thursday, 5:00-7:30 p.m.) Dr. Lymaries Padilla Cotto (787) 725-6500 Ext. 1123 lpadilla@sunmail.albizu.eduOffice: Research Training Program (Third floor), CAU Fall, 2009
    • CARLOSALBI ZUUNI VERSI TY S AN JU AN C AMPUS MASTER SYLLABUS RMIC-725: INTRODUCTION TO SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHCREDITS: 3 CONTACT HOURS: 45COURSE DESCRIPTIONThe course offers an introduction to scientific research pertinent to the field of psychology withinthe quantitative and qualitative perspectives and traditions. The main methodologicalapproaches to experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational and descriptive/exploratoryresearch are presented. The course requires the formulation of appropriate research problemsrelevant to the psychologist‘s work in his/her social context, and the integration of suchproblems and hypotheses, when applicable, with an adequate research design. Basic concepts,such as the formulation of research questions, problems and hypotheses, variables, operationaldefinitions, types of research and research designs are covered. Topics such as hypothesistesting, research design, sampling, analyzing and interpreting quantitative and qualitative dataand statistical power analysis are included.PRE-REQUISITESPSYF-568 Inferential StatisticsCOURSE OBJECTIVESUpon completion of the course students are expected to compare/contrast the epistemologiesunderlying the quantitative and qualitative research traditions in the social sciences. Theyshould master the basic research concepts and research designs, including both mixedmethods and action research designs. Students will be able to develop a research plan,
    • considering issues such as the research problem, variables and operational definitions,formulation and testing of hypotheses, research design, sampling of subjects, threats to internaland external validity and statistical analysis.Upon completion of the course, the student is expected to:1. Compare and contrast the epistemological bases underlying research as they apply to the quantitative and qualitative perspectives.2. Demonstrate comprehension of the scientific method and of research methods most common in the social sciences.3. Master basic concepts such as research problem, hypothesis, dependent and independent variables, operational definitions, research design, internal and external validity, sampling, and statistical power, among others.4. Present the steps in a research plan, as they apply to problems in the field ofpsychology.5. Formulate a research problem, review the relevant literature and design an adequate research plan for its study.6. Critically analyze research reports presented in professional journals.7. Write a research proposal that includes a review of current literature, as well as a research plan appropriate to the problem and approach used.REQUIRED TEXT BOOKSCreswell J.W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed MethodsApproaches (3rded.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.ISBN 978-1-4129-6556-9ISBN 978-1-4129-6557-6Hernández Sampieri, R., Fernández Collado, C., & Baptista Lucio, P. (2006). Metodología de lainvestigación (4ta ed.). México: McGraw-Hill.ISBN-13: 978-970-10-5753-7ISBN-10: 970-10-5753-8Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H. B. (2002).Investigación del comportamiento: Métodos de investigación enCiencias Sociales. (4ª ed.). México: McGraw-Hill.
    • ISBN-13: 978-970-103070-7ISBN-10: 970-103070-2(ISBN 968-422-463-X-Tercera Edición)McBurney, D. H., & White, T. L. (2007). Research Methods (7th ed.). Belmont, CA:Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.ISBN: 0495092088ISBN-13: 9780495092087, 978-0495092087ITINERARY OF CLASS UNITSUnit 1: Introduction to scientific research and research methodsUnit 2: Stages in a scientific research plan: Identifying a research problem, reviewing the literature and specifying a research problem or hypothesisUnit 3: Stages in a scientific research plan: Collecting, analyzing, interpreting, reporting and evaluating research dataUnit 4: Non-experimental, pre-experimental, quasi- and experimentalapproaches to researchUnit 5: Research designs - Experimental and correlational researchUnit 6: Research designs – Single case study, observational, quasi- experimental and survey researchUnit 7: Midterm ExamUnit 8: SamplingUnit 9: Validity and reliabilityUnit 10: Data collectionUnit 11: Statistical analysisUnit 12: Writing a research proposal / report
    • Unit 13: Ethical standards and issues in researchUnit 14: Final ExamCOURSE CONTACT HOURSProfessors who teach the course must divide the contact hours the following way:5. Face-to-face time in the classroom must not be less than 40.0 hours (16 classes, 2.5 hours each class).6. For the remaining hours (≥ 5 hours), students will conduct research projects or homework outside the classroom. These projects or homework will include, but are not limited to: review of empirical articles from professional journals (e.g. Psychological Bulletin, Clinical Psychology Review or Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice) and written critiques of research reports published in scholarly journals.METHODOLOGYTeaching methodology for this course can include, among others: conferences by theprofessor, group discussions, class research projects, student presentations and assignedproblems and exercises involving real or hypothetical research situations.EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUESThe techniques could include: PowerPoint presentations and discussionEVALUATION 1. Class attendance and punctuality are required to approved the course 2. Submitting of required tasks and research proposal (4 group paper of 25 points each) 3. Two tests of 100 percent (mid-term) must be approved 4. Active participation in class 5. The professor could required quizzes for reading checkRESEARCH COMPETENCIES
    • 1. Compare/contrast the quantitative/qualitative perspectives in terms of their assumptions, research approaches and methodology used.2. Develop skills to understand the main stages in a research plan3. Develop skills to understand scientific literature and evaluate how the findings contribute to the existing knowledge base.4. Formulate a research problem and a general research plan with well formulated ethical procedures within the two research traditions.5. Develop hypothesis that can be evaluated by research studies6. Compare/contrast experimental and non-experimental designs in research7. Describe different sampling procedures and how they are applied in quantitative research8. Describe data collection methods in the quantitative and qualitative approaches.9. Develop a research proposal within one of the research traditions: quantitative or qualitative.10. Develop skills to judge the overall significance of a study and how it contributes to the existing knowledge base.ATTENDANCE POLICYClass attendance is mandatory for all students. After two unexcused absences, the student willbe dropped from the class, unless the professor recommends otherwise. When a studentmisses a class, he/she is responsible for the material presented in class.AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)Students that need special accommodations should request them directly to the professorduring the first week of class. COURSE UNITSUNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSEUpon completion of this unit, students should understand the importance of research for theorydevelopment and how both research traditions --quantitative and qualitative—contribute toknowledge construction. They should understand the role and importance of the scientificmethod in relation to psychological research, as well as comprehend basic concepts in both thequantitative and qualitative research perspectives and traditions.
    • LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Identify, compare and contrast the epistemological bases of the quantitative and qualitative approaches to research. 2. Describe the general characteristics of science and the scientific method 3. Describe the functions/roles of theory for scientific explanation and prediction 4. Define ―scientific research‖ within the main research perspectives 5. Understand the scientific approach and apply it to issues in their area of study 6. Understand the language of experimentation 7. Describe basic and applied research 8. Define concepts such as: epistemological perspectives, paradigm, research problem, hypothesis, variable, operational and conceptual definitionsASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006) Chapter 1 – Research process and the qualitative-quantitative methodology: Toward an integrative model Chapter 2 – The idea in research: A new research project is born 2. Kerlinger, F.& Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 1 – Science and the scientific approach Chapter 2 – Problems and hypothesis Chapter 3 – Constructs, variables and definitionsUNIT 2: STAGES IN A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH – IDENTIFYING A RESEARCH PROBLEM,REVIEWING THE LITERATURE AND SPECIFYING RESEARCH PROBLEM ORHYPOTHESISUpon completion of this unit, students should understand the stages involved in thedevelopment of a research plan, and be able to apply this knowledge to a research problem inan area of interest within the field of psychology using either the qualitative or the quantitativeapproach.
    • LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Develop a research topic 2. Formulate research problems applied to quantitative/qualitative research 3. Translate a research problem into research hypotheses for each research perspective, when applicable 4. Understand the importance of research problems and hypotheses 5. Understand the role of the literature review in research, and be able to complete such a review 6. Formulate operational definitions of concepts and constructs 7. Understand the role of variables in research and be able to define the variables in a study 8. Describe different types of variables 9. Understand the proper use of psychological instruments in researchASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006) Chapter 2 – The idea in research: A new research project is born Chapter 3 – Planning process: Formulation of selected problem, scope, objectives, major research questions and significance of the study Chapter 5 – General typology of research designs: exploratory, descriptive, correlational and casual-comparative. 2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 2 – Problems and hypothesis Chapter 3 – Constructs, variables and definitions 3. Creswell, J.W. (2008) Chapter 1 – Selection of a research design Chapter 2 – Review of the literature Chapter 3 – The Use of theory
    • 4. McBurney, D.H, & White, T.L. (2004) Chapter 2 – Developing a research question Chapter 5 –VariablesUNIT 3:STAGES IN A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH -COLLECTING,ANALYZING,INTERPRETING, REPORTING AND EVALUATING RESEARCHDATAUpon completion of this unit, students should understand the steps involved in the developmentof a research plan, and be able to apply this knowledge to a research problem in an area ofinterest within the field of psychology.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Explain and apply the procedures involved in the development of a research plan for either the quantitative or the qualitative approach. 2. Understand the steps involved in the process of sampling and data collection. 3. Understand the role of statistical analysis in its relation to the research design. 4. Prepare the presentation of research results in a research plan / report 5. Describe the conclusions as part of the preparation of a research reportASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 18 – Research design: purpose and principles Chapter 19 – Inadequate designs and design criteria 2. Creswell, J.W. (2008) Chapter 5 – The introduction Chapter 6 – The purpose statement Chapter 7 – Research questions and hypotheses
    • UNIT 4: NON-EXPERIMENTAL, PRE_EXPERIMENTAL, QUASIEXPERIMENTAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHESTO RESEARCHUpon completion of this unit, students should understand different approaches to research,including non-experimental, pre-experimental, quasi- and experimental approaches. Theyshould understand the differences between such approaches, as well as the applications,advantages, and limitations of these designs.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Describe the characteristics of non-experimental, pre-experimental, quasi- and experimental research and their applications 2. Discuss the differences between non-experimental, pre-experimental, quasi- and experimental approaches to research. 3. Explain the rationale and process of hypothesis-testing in the context of each approach.ASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006) Chapter 4 – The conceptual framework: Literature review and the construction of a theoretical perspective Chapter 6 – Formulation and Statement of a Research Hypothesis 2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 20 – Conceptual foundation of research design
    • UNIT 5: RESEARCH DESIGNS – EXPERIMENTAL AND CORRELATIONAL RESEARCHUpon completion of this unit, students should demonstrate knowledge of specific researchdesigns within the different approaches to research, includingexperimental and correlationalresearch designs. They should understand the applications of the basic designs within eachapproach, as well as their effectiveness in relation to threats to internal validity. They should beable to apply the specific designs to problems in their area of study.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Understand experimental and correlational research and be able to apply some of the most important designs of this type 2. Understand advantages and limitations of specific experimental and correlational designsASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006) Chapter 7 – Research designs 2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 21 – Research design applications: Randomized groups and correlated groups 3. McBurney, D.H.& White, T.L. (2004) Chapter 12 –True experiments, Part 2: Factorial designs 4. Campbell, D. & Stanley, J. (1973) Chapter 12 – The separate-sample pretest-posttest design Chapter 13 – The separate-sample pretest-posttest control group design Chapter 14 – The multiple time-series design
    • 5. Creswell, J.W. (2008) Chapter 8 – Quantitative methodsUNIT 6: RESEARCH DESIGNS – SINGLE CASE STUDY, OBSERVATIONAL, QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL AND SURVEY RESEARCHUpon completion of this unit, students should demonstrate knowledge of specific researchdesigns within the different approaches to research, including non-experimental, pre-experimental and quasiexperimental research designs. They should understand theapplications of the basic designs within each approach, as well as their effectiveness in relationto threats to internal validity. They should be able to apply the specific designs to problems intheir area of study.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Understand cuasi-experimental research and be able to apply some of the most important designs of this type 2. Understand advantages and limitations of specific cuasi-experimental designsASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006) Chapter 7 – Research designs 2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 22 – Quasi-experimental and N=1 designs of research Chapter 23 – Non-experimental research 3. Cook, T.D.& Campbell, D.T. (1979)
    • Chapter 3 – Quasi-experiment: Nonequivalent control group designs 4. McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004) Chapter 10 – Non experimental research, Part 2: Survey research Chapter 13 – Single-participant experiments Chapter 14 – Quasi experiments 5. Creswell, J.W. (2008) Chapter 10 – Mixed methods procedures 6. Campbell, D. & Stanley, J. (1973) Chapter 10 – The nonequivalent control group designUNIT 7: MID TERM EXAMUNIT 8: SAMPLINGUpon completion of this unit, students should gain an understanding of the different types ofsamples used in research, as well as different procedures used for sampling and theirapplications.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Describe the different types of samples used in research 2. Describe specific sampling procedures 3. Describe the use of informants in qualitative research and how it differs from sampling 4. Comprehend the importance of the relation between sampling and statistical power 5. Comprehend the relation between sampling and external validity in research. 6. Understand the concept of randomization and its application to psychological research 7. Describe the functions accomplished by random assignment
    • 8. Describe power analysis 9. Be able to identify the size of the effect and the meaning of this concept 10. Use power tablesASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006) Chapter 8 – Sample selection 2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 8 – Sampling and randomnessUNIT 9: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITYUpon completion of this unit, students should understand the concepts of internal validity,external validity and reliability. They should demonstrate knowledge of threats to internalvalidity and methods for their control. They should be able to apply this knowledge to the criticalanalysis of published research, as well as the design of their own research plan.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Explain the concept of internal validity and discuss threats to internal validity and techniques for their control. 2. Explain different types of validity. 3. Describe the problem of ―validity‖ in qualitative research 4. Explain the concept of external validity and understand its relation to sampling 5. Identify different threats to validity, and explain and apply different techniques to control them. 6. Identify extraneous variables. 7. Understand control techniques and their application in the development of a research plan 8. Discuss the importance of the minimization of error variance 9. Explain the concepts of reliability and replicability in terms of scientific research
    • ASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 26 – Foundations of measurement Chapter 27 – Reliability Chapter 28 – Validity 2. McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004) Chapter 7 – Validity Chapter 8 – Control 3. Rogelberg, S.G. (2002) Chapter 3 – Validity and reliability Chapter 4 – The relative validity and usefulness of various empirical research designs 4. Roberts, M.C. & Ilardi, S.S. (2005) Chapter 2 – Addressing validity concerns in clinical psychology researchUNIT 10:DATA COLLECTIONUpon completion of this unit, students should become familiar with the steps and conceptsinvolved in data collection procedures in a research plan. They should understand the uses andapplications of various measures for the observation of variables. They should describe thestrengths and limitations of different measures, and be able to apply them to research problemsin their particular area of interest.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:
    • 1. Describe and apply several measures of behavior, including interviews, behavior rating scales, questionnaires and checklists, objective tests and scales, among others 2. Discuss and apply several measures of behavior for the study of specific research problems 3. Identify problems in the observation and measurement of behavior 4. Describe the role of the researcher in qualitative research 5. Understand the applications of tests, questionnaires, electronic methods and checklists 6. Understand the applications of interviews and self-report measures 7. Describe the combine use of quantitative and qualitative data in researchASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006) Chapter 9 – Data collection 2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 29 – Interview and interview schedules Chapter 30 – Objective tests and scales 3. Rogelberg, S.G. (2002) Chapter 8 – Qualitative data collection and analysis 4. Creswell, J.W. (2008) Chapter 9 – Qualitative proceduresUNIT 11: STATISTICAL ANALYSISUpon completion of this unit, students should comprehend the different methods for statisticalanalysis and their relation to research design and the testing of different types of hypotheses.They should become familiar with several statistical tests as they apply to research designs.They should understand the concepts related to making inferences, including Type I and IIError, statistical power and significance level.
    • LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Describe different methods available for statistical analysis, and their relation to research design 2. Select statistical analysis procedures appropriate for a specific research design and problem 3. Understand the two types of error in probabilistic decision-making, and the relation between the two 4. Explain and apply the concept of statistical power, and describe the process and purposes of statistical power analysisASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006) Chapter 10 – Data analysis 2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 9 – Principles of analysis and interpretation Chapter 10 – The analysis of frequencies Chapter 11 – Statistics: Purpose, approach and method Chapter 12 – Testing hypothesis and the standard error 3. McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004) Chapter 6 – Tabular and graphical description of data Appendix A – Review of statisticsUNIT 12: WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL/REPORT
    • Upon completion of this unit, students should demonstrate the skills necessary for thepreparation of a research proposal or report in accordance with the style presented in thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Describe the sections that comprise a research plan and apply this knowledge to the preparation of a research proposal on a topic of their choice 2. Prepare a research proposal on a topic of their choice that includes the following sections: abstract, introduction (including background and justification), methods (subjects, instruments and procedure), results, discussion and reference list 3. Describe the process and style of qualitative report writingASSIGNED READINGS: 1. Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, L. (2006) Chapter 11 – Writing the research report 2. McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004) Chapter 4 – The written report 3. Rogelberg, S.G. (2002) Chapter 22 – Writing research articles: Update on the Article Review Checklist 4. Roberts, M.C. & Ilardi, S.S. (2005) Chapter 3 – The scientific process and publishing research 5. Creswell, J.W. (2008) Chapter 4 – Writing strategies and ethical considerationsUNIT 13: ETHICAL STANDARDS AND ISSUES IN RESEARCH
    • Upon completion of this unit, students should demonstrate knowledge of the ethical standards,principles and issues that pertain to the conduct of scientific research. They should be able toapply this knowledge to real and simulated research situations.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Explain and apply ethical principles included in the principal ethical standards and codes of conduct relevant to the conduct of psychological research 2. Evidence knowledge of concepts pertaining to the rights and protection of human subjects in research, including informed consent, confidentiality, and other issuesASSIGNED READINGS: 1. American Psychological Association (2002). Ethical principles ofpsychologists and code of conduct. 2. Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H.B. (2002) Chapter 17 – Ethical considerations in conducting behavioral science research 3. McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004) Chapter 3 – Ethics in research 4. Kimmel, A. J. (2007) Chapter 1 – Introduction to research ethics Chapter 5 –Ethical issues in the conduct of field research Chapter 8 – Recruitment and selection of research subjects Chapter 10 – Ethical review and the communications of results
    • 5. Roberts, M.C. & Ilardi, S.S. (2005) Chapter 4 – Ethical considerations in clinical psychology researchUNIT 14: FINAL EXAM
    • REFERENCESAmerican Psychological Association (1999).Standards for educational and psychological testing.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.American Psychological Association (2001).Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5thed.). WashingtonDC: American Psychological Association.American Psychological Association (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57(12), 1060-1073.Anderson, C. A., Lindsay, J. J., & Bushman, B. J. (1999). Research in the psychological laboratory: Truth or triviality? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 3-9.Auerbach, C.F. & Silverstein, L.B. (2003). Qualitative data: An introduction to coding and analysis. New York: New YorkUniversity Press.Bordens, K.S. & Abbott, B.B. (1991). Research design and methods: A process approach (2nd ed.). California: Mayfield Publishing Company.Campbell, D. & Stanley, J. (1973). Diseños experimentales y cuasi-experimentales en la investigación social.Buenos Aires: Amorrortu Editores.Chambers, R. L., & Skinner, C. J. (2003).Analysis of survey data.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    • Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer.Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159.Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D.T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings.Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Creswell, J.W. (1999). Mixed-method research: introduction and application. In Cizek G.J., (eds.). Handbook of Educational Policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, California: Academic Press.Creswell J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill- Pearson Education.Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nded.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Creswell, J. W. & Clark, V.L. (2007).Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Creswell, J.W., Plano-Clark, V.L., Guttman, M., & Hanson, W. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori, & C. Teddlie (eds.) Handbook on mixed methods in the behavioral and social sciences (pp. 209-240). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
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    • Gorsuch, R. L. (1997). Exploratory factor analysis: Its role in item analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 532-560.Hamilton, J. C. (1999, December 3). The ethics of conducting social-science research on the internet. Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. B6-B7.Hanson, W. E., Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Petska, K. P., & Creswell, J. D. (2005). Mixed methods research designs in counseling psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(2), 224-235.Harkness, J. A., Van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Mohler, P. P. (2002).Cross-cultural survey methods. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Heiman, G. W. (2002). Research methods in psychology (3rd. Ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Hernández-Sampieri, R., Fernández-Collado, C., & Baptista L.P. (2006). Metodología de la investigación (4ta ed.). México: McGraw-Hill.Isaac, S. & Michael, W.B. (1995).Handbook in research and evaluation (3rded.). San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Services.Kazdin, A. E. (2003). Research design in clinical psychology, (4th. ed.). New York: Allyn &Bacon.Keith-Spiegel, P. & Koocher, G.P. (1985). Ethics in psychology: Professional standards and cases.New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    • Kerlinger, F. & Lee, H. B. (2002).Investigación del comportamiento: Métodos de investigaciónen ciencias sociales. (4ª ed.). México: McGraw-Hill.Kimmel, A. J. (2007). Ethical issues in behavioral research: Basic and applied perspectives (2nd ed.).Malden, Ma.: Wiley-Blackwell.Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: Standards and cases (3rded.). New York: OxfordUniversity Press.Krueger, R. A. (1998a). Analyzing and reporting focus group results (Vol. 6). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Krueger, R. A. (1998b). Developing questions for focus groups (Vol. 3).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Krueger, R. A. (1998c). Moderating focus groups (Vol. 4).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Krueger, R. A., & Casey, M. A. (2000).Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, Inc.Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2006).Designing qualitative research (4th ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Martella, R. C., Nelson, R., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (1999).Research methods: Learning to become a critical research consumer.Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Mauthner, M., Birch, M., Jessop, J. & Miller, T. (2002). Ethics in qualitative research.London: Sage Publication.McBurney, D.H, & White T.L. (2004). Research methods (6th ed.). Mexico: Thomson Wadsworth.McCallum, D. M. (2001). "Of men..." (Or how to obtain approval from the human subjects review board). APS Observer, 14, 28-29, 35. Retrieved July 10, 2003 fromhttp://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/0501/notebook.html
    • Miller, W. L. & Crabtree, B. J. (2000).Clinical research. In N. K. Denzin and Y. S Linkoln (eds.). Handbook of qualitative research, pp. 607-631.Patten, M. L. (2001). Questionnaire research: A practical guide (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing.Penner, L. A. (2002). IRB and U: What institutional review boards are supposed to do. Dialogue, 17, 28-29.Pyrczak, F. & Bruce, R. (2007). Writing empirical research reports (6th ed.). Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing.Rea, L. M., & Parker, R. A. (2005).Designing and conducting survey research: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Roberts, M.C. & Ilardi, S.S. (Eds.) (2005).Handbook of research methods in clinical psychology.Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Rogelberg, S.G. (Ed.) (2002). Handbook of research methods in industrial Organizational psychology.Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Rojas-Tejada, A.J., Fernández-Prados, J.S. & Pérez-Meléndez, C. (Eds.) (1997). Investigar mediante encuestas: Fundamentos teóricos y aspectos prácticos. Madrid: Editorial Síntesis.Rosenthal, R. & Rosnow, R.L. (1991).Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data analysis (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    • Rosnow, R. L. & Rosenthal, R. (1999).Beginning behavioral research (5th. ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Schaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B. & Zechmeister, J. S. (2002). Research methods in psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.Schwarz, N. (1999). Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers.American Psychologist, 54, 93-105.Smith, D. (2003, January). Five principles for research ethics.Monitor on Psychology, 34, 56-60. Retrieved July 10, 2003 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan03/principles.htmlTashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (1998).Mixed methodology: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches.Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (eds.) (2003).Handbook on mixed methods in the behavioral and social sciences.Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003). Issues and dilemmas in teaching research methods courses in social and behavioral sciences: A U.S. perspective. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 6 (1), 61 - 77.Thomas, S. J. (2004). Using web and paper questionnaires for data-based decision making. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Todd, Z., Clarke, D.D., McKeown, S., & Nerlich, B. (2004).Mixing methods in psychology.London: Routledge.
    • Whitley, Jr., B. E. (2002). Principles of research in behavioral science (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill
    • CARLOS ALBIZU UNI VERSI TY S AN JU AN C AMPUS MASTER SYLLABUS RMIC-824: TECHNIQUES OF CORRELATION AND MULTIPLE REGRESSIONCREDITS: 3 CONTACT HOURS: 45COURSE DESCRIPTIONThe main objective of this course is to familiarize the student with the correlation and regressiontechniques available for the treatment of research data. Topics included are: use and misuse ofcorrelational analysis, correlation for nominal, ordinal and interval scales, multiple and partialcorrelation, statistical inference for correlation coefficients, simple and multiple regressionanalysis, stepwise regression, explained and residual variance and standard error ofmeasurement.PRE-REQUISITESPSYF-568 – Inferential StatisticsCOURSE OBJECTIVESEnable the student to master the logic and interpretation of correlation coefficients inbehavioral research, to master the logic and interpretation of regression analysis, to evaluatethe advantages and disadvantages of correlation and regression analysis, to apply correlationand regressions procedures to research data, to apply inferential statistical procedures tocorrelation and regression coefficients, as well as to interpret results from such tests.REQUIRED TEXT BOOKSGravetter, F.J., & Wallnau, L.B. (2008).Statistics for the behavioral sciences (8thed.).Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. ISBN-10: 0495602205; ISBN-13: 978-0495602200
    • GIass, G. V. & Hopkins, K. D. (2008).Statistical methods in education and psychology (3rded.). Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN-10: 0205673538; ISBN-13: 978-0205673537Sánchez-Viera, J. (2004). Fundamentos del razonamiento estadístico (3rd ed.)RepúblicaDominicana: Universidad Carlos Albizu. ISBN-10: 1881724581ITINERARY OF CLASS UNITSUnit 1: IntroductionUnit 2: Behavioral research, correlation and regressionUnit 3: Measures of correlation for nominally scaled variables and their significanceUnit 4: Measures of correlation for ordinally scaled variables and their significanceUnit 5: Measures of correlation for interval/ratio scaled variables and their significance. Unit 6:Analysis of non-linear correlation.Unit 7: Special cases for the correlation coefficient and their significanceUnit 8: Simple regression analysisUnit 9: Regression analysis: Two predictors.Unit 10: Regression analysis: Two predictors (continue)Unit 11: Regression analysis: More than two predictorsUnit 12: Correlation and Covariance analysisCOURSE CONTACT HOURSProfessors who teach the course must divide the contact hours the following way:7. Face-to-face time in the classroom must not be less than 40.0 hours (14 units, 2.5 hours per unit, 16 sessions).8. For the remaining hours (≥ 10.0 hours), students will conduct research projects or homework outside the classroom. These projects or homework will include, but are not limited to application of different statistical formulas and interpretation of results.METHODOLOGY
    • The professor who offers the course will select the specific methodology. Thesemethodologies could include, but would no be limited to: conferences by the professor, groupdiscussions of assigned readings, class research projects, student presentations, individualmeetings with students and sub-groups in the classroom.EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUESThe professor who offers the course will select the specific educational techniques. Thesetechniques could include, but would not limit to: debates, practical demonstrations,films/videos, simulations, slide shows and forums.EVALUATIONThe professor who offers the course will select the specific evaluation criteria. Thesemethodologies could include, but are not limited to: terms papers, projects, literaturereviews, exams, class presentations.RESEARCH COMPETENCIES 1. Application of different statistical formulas 2. Interpretation of results. 3. Testing hypothesisATTENDANCE POLICYClass attendance is mandatory for all students. After two unexcused absences, the student willbe dropped from the class, unless the professor recommends otherwise. When a studentmisses a class, he/she is responsible for the material presented in class.AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)
    • Students that need special accommodations should request them directly to the professorduring the first week of class. COURSE UNITSUNIT I: INTRODUCTIONUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the relationship among theconcepts commonly used in correlation and regression analysis, as well as the advantages anddisadvantage of correlational studies in behavioral research.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Discuss the fundamental concepts of correlation and regression analysis. 2. Identify the limitations of correlation and regression analysis. 3. Discuss the logic behind correlation and regression analysis. 4. Discuss the consequences of violating the assumptions underlying the correlation and regression analysis.ASSIGNED READINGS:Sanchez, J. A. (2004)  Chapter 9 - Correlation and Simple lineal regression (Correlación y regression simple lineal).UNIT 2: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: ONE FACTOR-FIXED EFFECT MODELUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the relative importance ofcorrelation and regression techniques in behavioral research.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Discuss the role of correlational and regressional analysis in behavioral research. 2. Identify the differences between correlational and experimental studies.
    • 3. Discuss the difference between correlation and causation. 4. Offer research examples of correlation and regression analysis.ASSIGNED READINGS:Sánchez, J.A. (2004)  Chapter 9 - Correlation and Simple lineal regression (Correlación y regression simple lineal).Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2008) Chapter 16: Correlation and RegressionUNIT 3: MEASURES OF CORRELATION FOR NOMINAL SCALED VARIABLES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCEUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the commonly usedCoefficientsof correlation for normally scaled variables, as well as of the statisticalprocedures for testingtheir significance.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Identify the most frequently employed coefficients of correlation for nominally scaled variables. 2. Discuss the assumptions underlying nominally scaled variables coefficients of correlation. 3. Calculate coefficients of correlation for nominal data (Tables 2x2). 4. Calculate coefficients of correlation for nominal data (Tables greater than 2x2). 5. Know how to interpret coefficients of correlation for nominally scaled variables. 6. Identify and apply tests of significance for nominally scaled variables correlation coefficients. 7. Know how to interpret results of tests significance.ASSIGNED READINGS:Sánchez, J.A. (2004)  Chapter 9-Correlation and Simple lineal regression (Correlación y regression
    • simple lineal).  Chapter 16-Hypothesis testing for Correlation coefficients (Pruebas de hipótesis para coeficientes de correlaciónGravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2008) Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis testingUNIT 4: MEASURES OF CORRELATION FOR ORDINALLY SCALED VARIABLESUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the commonly usedcoefficients of correlation for ordinally scaled variables, as well as the statistical procedures fortesting their significance.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to: 1. Identify the most frequently used coefficients of correlation for ordinally scaled variables. 2. Discuss the assumptions underlying ordinally scaled variables coefficients of correlation. 3. Calculate coefficients of correlation for ordinally scaled variables. 4. Know how to interpret coefficients of correlation for ordinally scaled variables 5. Know how to interpret results of tests of significance for ordinally scaled variables. 6. Know how to interpret results from tests of significance.ASSIGNED READINGS:Sánchez, J.A. (2004)  Chapter 9-Correlation and Simple lineal regression (Correlación y regression simple lineal).Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2008) Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis testing Chapter 16: Correlation and Regression
    • UNIT 5: MEASURES OF CORRELATION FOR INTERVAL/RATIO SCALEDVARIABLESUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the Pearsons product momentcorrelation coefficient, as well as of the statistical procedures for testing its significance.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Discuss the assumption underlying the Pearsons product-moment coefficient of correlation. 2. Calculate the Pearsons product-moment coefficient of correlation. 3. Know how to interpret Pearsons product-moment coefficient of correlation. 4. Identify and apply tests of significance to Pearsons product-moment coefficient of correlation. 5. Know how to interpretresults from tests of significance. Assigned Readings:ASSIGNED READINGS:Sánchez, J.A. (2004)  Chapter 11-The Normal curve: Theory and applications (La curva normal: Teoría y aplicaciones).Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. (2008) Chapter 16: Correlation and RegressionUNIT 6: ANALYSIS OF NON-LINEAR CORRELATIONUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understandthe correlation coefficient Eta as well as the statistical procedures for testing its significance.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:
    • 1. Discuss the assumptions underlying the coefficient Eta. 2. Calculate Eta for given sets of data. 3. Calculate the F test for the significance of Eta. 4. Know how to interpret Eta coefficients and F ratiosASSIGNED READINGS:Glass, G.V. and Hopkins, K. D. (2008). Chapter 8: Linear and Multiple Regression: Inferences among correlation coefficients.UNIT 7: SPECIAL CASES FOR THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT AND THEIRSIGNIFICANCEUpon successful completion of this unit students will understandspecial cases of the correlationcoefficient, as well as the statistical procedures for testing their significance.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Identify special cases of the correlation coefficient as apply to behavioral research. 2. Discuss the assumptions underlying special cases of the coefficient of correlation. 3. Calculate special cases to the coefficient of correlation. 4. Identify and apply tests of significance for special cases of the coefficient of correlation. 5. Familiarize with reading and interpreting results from special cases of the coefficient of correlation and from tests of significance.ASSIGNED READINGS:Glass, G.V. and Hopkins, K. D. (2008) Chapter 8: Linear and Multiple Regression: Inferences among correlation coefficients.
    • UNIT 8: SIMPLE REGRESSION ANALYSISUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the logic and underlyingassumptions behind one predictor regression analysis, as well as the statistical proceduresfor estimating Y from X.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Discuss the purpose, logic and underlying assumptions of one predictor regression analysis. 2. Identify the computational formulas for one predictor regression analysis. 3. Conduct one predictor regression analysis for given data. 4. Know how to interpret results from one predictor regression analysis (regression coefficients; regression line; error of estimate; etcetera).ASSIGNED READINGS:Sánchez, J.A. (2004)  Chapter 9-Correlation and Simple lineal regression (Correlación y regression simple lineal).UNIT 9 &10: REGRESSION ANALYSIS: TWO PREDICTORSUpon a successful completion of this unit, students will understand the logic and underlyingassumptions behind two predictors regression analysis, as well as of the statistical proceduresinvolved.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: 1. Discuss the purpose, logic and underlying assumptions behind two predictors regression analysis. 2. Identify the computational formulas for two predictor regression analysis. 3. Conduct two predictors regression analysis for given data. 4. Know how to interpret results from two predictors of regression analysis (b, B
    • coefficients, partial and multiple correlation: etcetera).ASSIGNED READINGS:Glass, G.V. and Hopkins, K. D. (2008) Chapter 8: Linear and Multiple Regression: Inferences among correlation coefficients.UNIT 11: CORRELATION ANALYSIS: MORE THAN TWO PREDICTORSUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the multiple regressionanalysis with three or more predictors; logic and underlying assumptions of stepwise regressionanalysis; statistical procedures for tests of significance for regression coefficients; etc.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students will be able to: I. Discuss the purpose, logic and underlying assumptions behind multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors. 2. Discuss the stepwise regression procedure for multiple regression analysis. 3. Conduct multiple regression analysis with three predictors. 4. Conduct tests of significance for regression coefficients. 5. Know how to interpret results from three or more predictors regression analysis (b, B, error of estimate, partial and multiple correlation, explained variance; etcetera)ASSIGNED READINGS:Glass, G.V. and Hopkins, K. D. (2008) Chapter 8: Linear and Multiple Regression: Inferences among correlation coefficients.
    • UNIT 12: CORRELATION AND COVARIANCE ANALYSISUpon successful completion of this unit, students will understand correlation andcovariance analysis in behavioral research; purpose, logic and underlyingassumptions.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to: 1. Discuss the purpose, logic and underlying assumptions of covariance analysis. 2. Identify the computational formulas for covariance analysis. 3. Conduct covariance analysis for give data. 4. Know how to interpret results from covariance analysis. Assigned Readings:ASSIGNED READINGS:Glass, G.V. and Hopkins, K. D. (2008) Chapter 20: An Introduction to the Analysis of Covariance
    • REFERENCESChampion, D. J. (1981).Basic statistics for social research (2nded.) New York: McMillan.Edwards, L.A. (1984). An introduction to liner regression and correlation (2nded.).New York: Freeman.Fraenkel, J.R. & WalIen, N.E. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education (5thed.). New York: McGraw Hill.GIass, G. V. & Hopkins, K. D. (2008).Statistical methods in education and psychology (3rded.). Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Gravetter, F.J., & Wallnau, L.B. (2008).Statistics for the behavioral sciences (8thed.).Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.Hernández-Sampieri, R., Fernández-Collado, C. & Baptista-Lucio, P. (2006). Metodología de la investigación (4th Ed.). México: McGraw Hill.Kerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H. B. (2002). Investigación del comportamiento: Métodos de investigación en ciencias sociales. (Pineda, L.E., Mora, I., Diez, C.B. & Vadillo, G. Trads.) México: McGraw Hill. (Trabajo original publicado en 1986).Mertens, D.M. (1998). Research methods in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative & qualitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Sánchez-Viera, J. (2004). Fundamentos del razonamiento estadístico (3rd ed.)RepúblicaDominicana: Universidad Carlos Albizu.Revised by: Juan A. Nogueras, Ph.D. (August, 2008) Sean K. Sayers Montalvo, Ph.D. (March, 2010)
    • UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS ALBIZU RECINTO DE SAN JUAN PRONTUARIOCURSO: RPIC-875, Practicum de Investigación IICRÉDITOS: 45 horas contactoPROFESOR: María C. Vélez Pastrana, Ph.D.SESIÓN: Primavera 2012DÍAS Y HORAS: Sección 1 – Miércoles, 5:00 – 7:30 PM Sección 2 – Lunes, 5:00 – 7:30 PMOFICINA: 301- HTELÉFONO: 787 725-6500 ext. 1135E-MAIL: mvelez@sju.albizu.eduDESCRIPCIÓN DEL CURSO:Este segundo módulo de práctica es uno de los requisitos del segundo semestre de Práctica deInvestigación. Dominar las destrezas que se cubren en el mismo constituye uno de los criteriospara la aprobación de la práctica. El módulo pretende continuar el desarrollo de las destrezasde uso y manejo del programa estadístico SPSS. En el mismo se discute la aplicación deprocedimientos más avanzados del programa. Debido a la limitación de tiempo, no se cubrirántodas las opciones, sino aquellas mínimamente necesarias para que el participante puedafamiliarizarse con los procedimientos y continuar refinando sus destrezas en el manejo deestos. Se utilizará la versión más reciente de SPSS para Windows.PRE-REQUISITOS:
    • Conocimiento del sistema operativo Windows, versión mas reciente; conocimiento de técnicasestadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales; conocimientos básicos de metodología deinvestigación. Haber aprobado los cursos RPIC 874, RMIC 822 y RMIC 823.OBJETIVOS:Al finalizar el semestre, se espera que el estudiante pueda utilizar de forma independiente losprocedimientos estadísticos apropiados, aplicados a conjuntos de datos de varios tipos. Seespera que el estudiante pueda realizar análisis estadísticos utilizando SPSS de modo quelogre obtener, entender, interpretar y explicar resultados en forma apropiada para cadaproblema o situación presentada.TEXTOS DE REFERENCIA:Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.ISBN 978-1-84787-907-3 **TEXTO REQUERIDO**Kachigan, S. K. (1991). Multivariate Statistical Analysis: A conceptual Introduction (2nd ed.). New York: Radius Press.ISBN 0-942154-00-2SPSS, I. (1999). SPSS Base 10.0 Applications Guide. Chicago: Author.METODOLOGÍA Y MATERIALES:Los métodos de enseñanza utilizados incluirán: conferencias dictadas por la profesora,demostración de los ejercicios correspondientes a cada conferencia y ejecución de losejercicios por parte del estudiante en el salón de clase. Se espera que el estudiante dedique unmínimo de 2.5 horas al repaso del material y la práctica de los ejercicios cubiertos en cadasesión de clase. Además, se pondrá material en Blackboard para que los estudiantes realicenejercicios de práctica fuera del salón de clases.Cada estudiante deberá traer un ―memory stick‖ o un disco a todas las sesiones de clase paraguardar su trabajo a lo largo del semestre. Cada estudiante deberá tener su cuenta de
    • ―Blackboard‖ activada y disponible en todo momento para acceder a material del curso de laprofesora.REQUISITOS DEL CURSO: 1. Asistencia y participación en clase. 2. Lectura de temas asignados, comprobable mediante pruebas cortas (sin previo aviso). 3. Realización de ejercicios prácticos. 4. El curso requiere completar 36 horas de clase en salón. Adicionalmente, los/as estudiantes completarán 9 horas realizando ejercicios de práctica en SPSS con bases de datos, de acuerdo al tema y destreza que se esté cubriendo.MÉTODOS DE EVALUACIÓN:Habrá dos criterios de evaluación: 1) Examen parcial I (50%) 2) Examen final (50%)NOTAS: La nota global de pase para el curso será de 80%; una nota de ―No pase‖ (NP) en este curso conllevará un ―No Pase‖ en el módulo de investigación. La asistencia a clase es requerida. A aquel estudiante que se ausente por más de 2 ocasiones sin justificación médica se le dará de baja administrativamente. Los exámenes se ofrecerán a la hora y el día en que se ofrece el curso. Por política institucional se prohíbe el uso de teléfonos celulares y localizadores (beepers) dentro del salón de clase.
    • La literatura, textos, ejercicios o trabajos para este curso podrán ser requeridos en inglés. Esto es así, ya que todos los estudiantes admitidos llenan el requisito de ser bilingües según dicta la política institucional de Admisión. En conformidad con la Ley ADA, cualquier estudiante que necesite acomodo razonable deberá informarlo y presentar evidencia al profesor la primera semana de clases para poder hacer los arreglos correspondientes a dicho acomodo. El cometer un acto de plagio en este o cualquier otro curso equivale a una falta ética. El estudiante obtendrá automáticamente una nota de ―F‖ en el curso y será referido a un comité de ética. BOSQUEJO DEL CONTENIDO DEL CURSOUNIDAD 1:Introducción al curso:Análisis multivariados Lecturas requeridas: Kachigan (1991) cap. 1 : Fundamental Concepts Actividades: Repaso: Repasar creación y manipulaciones base de datos, análisis cubiertos en RPIC 874 Archivos de datos libro de Field: www.sagepub.co.uk/field3eUNIDAD 2: Correlación bivariada y multivariada Lecturas requeridas: Kachigan (1991) cap. 3: Correlation Analysis
    • Field (2009) chap. 6 Correlation Actividades: Practicar análisis de datos – correlación Archivos de datos libro de Field: www.sagepub.co.uk/field3e http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspxUNIDAD 3: Regresión simple y regresión múltiple Lecturas requeridas: Field (2009) cap. 7Regression Kachigan (1991) cap. 4 Regression Analysis Actividades: Practicar análisis de datos – regresión simple Archivos de datos libro de Field: www.sagepub.co.uk/field3e http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspx Practicar análisis de datos – regresión múltiple Archivos de datos libro de Field: www.sagepub.co.uk/field3e http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspxUNIDAD 4: Análisis de Regresión logística Lecturas requeridas:
    • Field (2009) chap. 8 Logistic Regression Actividades: Practicar análisis de datos – regresión logística http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspx; archivos de datos Field www.sagepub.co.uk/field3eUNIDAD 5: Análisis discriminante Lecturas requeridas: Kachigan (1991) cap. 6 Discriminanr Analysis Field (2009) cap.16 Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) – sección sobre ―discriminant analysis‖ SPSS, Inc. (1999) cap. 14 Discriminat Analysis Actividades: Practicar análisis de datos – análisis discriminante http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspx; archivos de datos Field www.sagepub.co.uk/field3eUNIDAD 5: Análisis discriminante (continuación)y repaso examen I Lecturas requeridas: Kachigan (1991) cap. 6 Discriminanr Analysis
    • Field (2009) cap.16 Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) – sección sobre ―discriminant analysis‖ SPSS, Inc. (1999) cap. 14 Discriminanr Analysis Actividades: Practicar análisis de datos – análisis discriminante http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspx; archivos de datos Field www.sagepub.co.uk/field3eUNIDAD 6: EXAMEN PARCIAL (cubre unidades 1 a la 5)UNIDAD 7:Diseños factoriales (ANOVA de 2 ó 3 factores) Lecturas requeridas: Kachigan (1991) cap.5 Analysis of Variance Field (2009) cap.12 Factorial ANOVA (GLM 3) Actividades: Practicar análisis de datos – ANOVA http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspx; archivos de datos Field www.sagepub.co.uk/field3eUNIDAD 8: Diseños de Medidas Repetidas Lecturas requeridas:
    • Kachigan (1991) cap.5 Analysis of Variance Field (2009) cap.13 Repeated-measures designs: (GLM 4) Actividades: Practicar análisis de datos – ANOVA medidas repetidas http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspx; archivos de datos Fieldwww.sagepub.co.uk/field3eUNIDAD 9: Análisis de covarianza (ANCOVA) Lecturas requeridas: Kachigan (1991) cap.5 Analysis of Variance Field (2009) cap.11 Analysis of covariance, ANCOVA (GLM 2) Actividades: Practicar análisis de datos - ANCOVA http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspx; archivos de datos Fieldwww.sagepub.co.uk/field3eUNIDAD 10 Análisis de varianza múltiple (MANOVA) Lecturas requeridas: Kachigan (1991) cap.5 Analysis of Variance Field (2009) cap.16 Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)
    • Actividades: Practicar análisis de datos - MANOVA http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspx; archivos de datos Fieldwww.sagepub.co.uk/field3eUNIDAD 11 Repaso examen finalUNIDAD 12EXAMEN FINAL (UNIDADES 1 A LA 11) REFERENCIAS Y RECURSOS ADICIONALESBases de datos públicas y del libro de texto Field:http://opl.apa.org/Instructors/DownloadData.aspxhttp://www.socialpsychology.org/methods.htm
    • RPIC-875 ITINERARIO DE FECHAS APROXIMADAS – LUNES FECHAS UNIDADES 2012 9 enero *FERIADO* Se sustituye el 31 enero (martes) 16 enero *FERIADO* Se sustituye el 8 febrero (miércoles) 20 febrero *FERIADO* Se sustituye el 24 febrero (viernes) 16 abril *FERIADO* NO se sustituye1 23 enero UNIDAD 1 Introducción al curso: análisis multivariados2 30 enero UNIDAD 2 Correlación bivariada y multivariada3 *31 enero* UNIDAD 3 Regresión simple y Regresión múltiple4 6 febrero UNIDAD 4 Análisis de regresión logística5 *8 febrero* UNIDAD 5 Análisis discriminante6 13 febrero UNIDAD 5 Análisis discriminante (cont.) y repaso examen I7 *24 febrero* UNIDAD 6 EXAMEN PARCIAL8 27 febrero UNIDAD 7 Diseños factoriales9 5 marzo UNIDAD 8 Diseños de medidas repetidas10 12 marzo UNIDAD 8 Diseños de medidas repetidas
    • 11 19 marzo UNIDAD 9 Análisis de covarianza (ANCOVA)12 26 marzo UNIDAD 9 Análisis de covarianza (ANCOVA) 2 abril RECESO ACADÉMICO SEMANA SANTA – NO CLASES13 9 abril UNIDAD 10 Análisis de varianza múltiple (MANOVA)14 23 abril UNIDAD 10 Análisis de varianza múltiple (MANOVA)15 30 abril UNIDAD 12 EXAMEN FINAL (UNIDADES 1 A LA 11)
    • MASTER SYLLABUS RPIC-874: RESEARCH PRACTICUM MODULE VCURSO: RPIC-874, Practicum de Investigación Módulo 5CRÉDITOS: 45 horas contactoPROFESOR: María C. Vélez Pastrana, Ph.D.SESIÓN: Otoño 2011DÍAS Y HORAS: Sección 2 – Miércoles, 5:00 – 7:30 PMOFICINA: 301- HTELÉFONO: 787 725-6500 ext. 1135E-MAIL: mvelez@sju.albizu.eduCREDITS: 0 CONTACT HOURS: 128COURSE DESCRIPTIONThe goal of this practicum is to provide opportunities for Ph.D. students to work in researchprojects sponsored by the Research Training Program or other research initiated jointly betweenthe student and a faculty member. During this first part of the practicum, the student willdevelop skills in managing and manipulating data before making any type of statistical analysis.Students are expected to enroll in RPIC-874 for one session. The student has to complete aminimum of 128 hours during one session to approve the research practicum. The practicumincludes direct research experience as a research assistant under the supervision of a researchsupervisor and successful completion of a SPSS module. In the module, the statistical programto be utilized is the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows.PRE-REQUISITESResearch practicum students must comply with the following requisites prior toenrolling in thepracticum:
    • 1. Approval of the following seminars and workshops: a. SEMM 527 – Introduction to Computers b. SEMM 538 – Introduction to Word Processing c. SEMM 531 – APA Writing Style Seminar d. RMIC 741 – SPSS I e. RMIC 742– SPSS II2. Approval of the 56 credits that include the foundation and concentration courses contained in Areas I and II of the curricular sequence3. Approval of Modules I through IV of the clinical or industrial-organization and research practiceCOURSE OBJECTIVESThe practicum intents to provide Ph.D. students with the knowledge and skills in managing, andmanipulating data before making any type of statistical analysis. One of the main objectives isto permit students to apply theory and practice based on data obtained from real scientificresearch. Students will develop knowledge, skill, and attitudes about scientific research that willenable them to act ethically with human participants while conducting scientific research.Specific objectives are:1. To examine the philosophical foundations of scientific reasoning emphasizing the development of psychology as a science2. To distinguish problems or situations with heuristic value that arise from the theory or practice of clinical psychology3. To know and apply descriptive/correlation, experimental and quasi-experimental methods to respond to different types of social research problems and to problems pertinent to the discipline4. To value behavior that is consonant with the ethical standards adopted by professional associations and national and international organizations responsible for the protection of the rights of participants, whether humans or animals5. To demonstrate responsibility and commitment to direct research efforts and focus his or her clinical and research abilities on those problems affecting the community or society6. Develop a research proposal to be submitted to the Internal Review Board.REQUIRED TEXT BOOKS
    • Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows (3rded.). London: SAGE Publications. ISBN-10: 1847879071;ISBN-13: 978-1847879073Kinnear, P.R. & Gray, C.D. (2009).SPSS 16 made simple. New York: Psychology Press. ISBN-10: 184169729X; ISBN-13: 978-1841697291CLASS UNITS FOR SPSSUnit 1: Introduction: Data Processing in the Research ProcessUnit 2: SPSS for Windows: Working with a Data MatrixUnit 3: Techniques for the Processing of Data FilesUnit 4: Descriptive Analyses of DataUnit 5: Cross-Tabulation Analyses of DataUnit 6: Review of Material Included in the Partial ExamUnit 7: Non-Parametric TestsUnit 8: Inferential Analyses of Data: Student t TestsUnit 9: Inferential Analyses of Data: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)Unit 10: Factor AnalysisUnit 11: Review of Material Included in the Final ExamCOURSE CONTACT HOURSProfessors who mentor the research practice must divide the contact hours the following way:1. Supervised time in research projects must not be less than 128 hours during the academic session.
    • METHODOLOGYStudents will be assigned to a research project with a research supervisor. He or she will berequired to perform research assistance in the project for 5.5 weekly hours, includingsupervision. In addition, they will be required to attend advanced SPSS course once weekly for2.5 hours during the semester. The specific methodology of the course will be selected by theprofessor who offers the module. This methodology could include, but would not be limited to:conferences by the professor, group discussions of assigned readings, research projects,student presentations, individual meetings with students and sub-groups in the computerlaboratory.EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUESThe specific educational techniques will be selected by the professor who offers supervises theresearch practicum or the SPSS course. These techniques could include, but are not limited to:data entry, administration of research measures, scoring of measures, data analyses, practicaldemonstrations, films, videos, simulations, slide shows and forums.EVALUATIONThe specific evaluation criteria will be selected by the professor who offers or supervises theresearch practicum or the SPSS course. These methodologies could include, but would not belimited to: research proposals, projects, literature reviews, and practical exams (at least a partialand final exam for the SPSS course).Students will be evaluated according to the following criteria:1. Performance in the research project. The supervisor will complete an evaluation sheet.2. Presentation of a descriptive report of activities carried out.3. Satisfactory performance in the SPSS course. The supervisor will grant a PASS (P) or NO PASS (NP) according to the student’s performance in the course. This will be graded on: a. Midterm exam (50%) b. Final exam (50%)4. Summaries of the presentations attended.5. Compliance with administrative norms and procedures: a. record of hours dedicated to research
    • b. evidence of work conducted c. attendance to supervision meetings6. Ethical behavior according to the Code of Ethics of the Puerto Rico Psychology Association.RESEARCH COMPETENCIES1. Understand the role of social responsibility in the formulation of research problems and projects.2. Explain ethical dilemmas that arise while using different research methodologies.3. Perform advanced literature review;4. Perform advanced identification of research problems.5. Perform advanced formulation of research hypothesis.6. Demonstrate mastery of graphic design skills using SPSS.7. Design a research plan.8. Select research method appropriate for the research design.9. Apply experimental controls.10. Develop a research proposal according to IRB standards.11. Develop a research proposal within one of the research traditions: quantitative or qualitative.12. Write a research proposal according to APA writing style criteria.13. Responsibility for identifying the risks and benefits of a particular research design upon the participants.14. Sensitivity of how behavior is influenced by cultural patterns, religious convictions and life styles.15. Sensibility towards social and cultural dilemmas affecting the instruments selected.ATTENDANCE POLICYClass attendance is mandatory for all students. After two unexcused absences, the student willbe dropped from the class. When a student misses a class, he/she is responsible for thematerial presented in class.AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)Students that need special accommodations should request them directly to the professorduring the first week of class. COURSE UNITS FOR SPSS
    • UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION: DATA PROCESSING IN THE RESEARCH PROCESSUpon successful completion of this unit, students should gain an understanding of the role ofdata processing in the research process.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Identify the basic elements of research.2. Describe the importance of carrying out the correct procedures in the data gathering process.3. Data gathering, formatting and its processing with SPSS.ASSIGNED READINGS:1. Field (2009) Chapter 1 – Why is my evil lecturer forcing me to learn statistics? Chapter 2 – Everything you wanted to know about statistics2. Kinnear & Gray (2009) Chapter 1 – IntroductionUNIT 2: SPSS FOR WINDOWS: WORKING WITH A DATA MATRIXUpon successful completion of this unit, students should gain an understanding of the elementsof a data matrix, the procedures used to create a data matrix, and some problems that can be
    • run into while doing it. In addition, students should gain an understanding of the basic elementsof SPSS for Windows and the basic procedures to navigate within the program.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Understand how cases and variables join together to form a data matrix.2. Identify the stages from the data gathering phase to the creation of a data matrix.3. Describe the problems that can be encountered while creating a data matrix and how to prevent some of them.4. Create a data matrix using SPSS.5. Navigate in an SPSS for Windows session, its windows and menus.6. Recognize and work with the different windows in SPSS: the data window, output window, syntax window and charts window.ASSIGNED READINGS:1. Field (2009) Chapter 3 – The SPSS Environment2. Kinnear & Gray (2009) Chapter 2 – Getting started with SPSS 16UNIT 3: TECHNIQUES FOR THE PROCESSING OF DATA FILESUpon successful completion of this unit, students should gain an understanding of the mostcommon procedures used to access data in different file formats, selecting specific cases andtransforming variables.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    • Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Import into SPSS data from files in other formats such as Excel, etc.2. Select specific cases or groups of cases.3. Perform data sampling.4. Transform variables into the same or different variables.ASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kinnear & Gray (2009) Chapter 3 – Editing and manipulating filesUNIT 4: DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSES OF DATAUpon successful completion of this unit students should gain an understanding of some of thebasic types of descriptive analyses of data that can be performed with SPSS.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Perform frequency distribution analyses.2. Obtain descriptive statistics for a variable.3. Obtain descriptive statistics for different levels of a variable.4. Present descriptive data using graphsASSIGNED READINGS:1. Field (2005)
    • Chapter 3 – Exploring Data With Graphs2. Kinnear & Gray (2009) Chapter 4 – Exploring your data Chapter 5 – Graphs and chartsUNIT 5: CROSS-TABULATION ANALYSES OF DATAUpon successful completion of this unit students should gain an understanding of some of thebasic types of correlation analyses of data that can be performed with SPSS.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Perform crosstabs analyses with SPSS.2. Perform correlation analyses with SPSS.ASSIGNED READINGS:1. Kinnear & Gray (2009) Chapter 4 – Exploring your dataUNIT 6: REVIEW OF MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THE PARTIAL EXAMUpon successful completion of this unit, students should have cleared any doubts about thematerial covered in the first five units of the course.
    • LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Discuss all the topics and perform all the procedures covered in the first five units of the course.ASSIGNED READINGS: Readings assigned for the first five units of the courseUNIT 7: NON PARAMETRIC TESTSUpon successful completion of this unit students should gain an understanding of some of thebasic types of non parametric tests that can be performed with SPSS.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Perform non parametric tests (i.e. Chi square, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis) with SPSS.2. Understand the results of non parametric tests with SPSSASSIGNED READINGS:1. Field (2009) Chapter 15 – Non-Parametric Tests Chapter 18 – Categorical Data2. Kinnear & Gray (2009)
    • Chapter 6 – Comparing averages and frequencies: Two sample and one sample testsUNIT 8: INFERENTIAL ANALYSES OF DATA: STUDENTS T TESTSUpon successful completion of this unit students should gain an understanding of some of thebasic types of inferential analyses of data that can be performed with SPSS.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Perform one-sample, independent-samples and paired-samples t-tests with SPSS.ASSIGNED READINGS:1. Field (2009) Chapter 9 – Comparing Two Means2. Kinnear & Gray (2009) Chapter 6 – Comparing averages and frequencies: Two sample and one sample testsUNIT 9: INFERENTIAL ANALYSES OF DATA: ANOVAUpon successful completion of this unit, students should gain an understanding of ANOVA, itsmain elements, and how to execute it in SPSS.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
    • Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Perform analysis of variance statistics with SPSS using the One-Way ANOVA and General Linear Model (GLM) methods.2. Analyze the results of an ANOVA in SPSS.3. Understand the significance of an ANOVA in SPSS.ASSIGNED READINGS:1. Field (2009) Chapter 10 – Comparing Several Means: ANOVA (GLM 1)2. Kinnear & Gray (2009) Chapter 7 – The one-way ANOVAUNIT 10: FACTOR ANALYSISUpon successful completion of this unit, students should gain an understanding of the basicconcepts of factor analysis, its main elements and how to execute it in SPSS.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Perform a factor analysis in SPSS.2. Analyze the results of a factor analysis in SPSS.3. Understand the significance of a factor analysis in SPSS.ASSIGNED READINGS:1. Field (2009)
    • Chapter 17 – Exploratory Factor Analysis2. Kinnear & Gray (2009) Chapter 15 – Latent variables: Exploratory factor analysis & canonical correlationUNIT 11: REVIEW OF MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THE FINAL EXAMUpon successful completion of this unit students should have cleared any doubts they may havehad about the material covered in the last four units of the course.LEARNING OBJECTIVES:Upon successful completion of this unit, students should be able to:1. Discuss all the topics and perform all the procedures covered in the last three units of the course.ASSIGNED READINGS: Readings assigned for the last four units of the course REFERENCESAmerican Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6thed.). Washington, DC: Author.Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows (3rded.). London: SAGE Publications.Kachigan, S.K. (1991). Multivariate statistical analysis: A conceptual introduction (2nded.). New York: Radius Press.Kinnear, P.R. & Gray, C.D. (2009).SPSS 16 made simple. New York: Psychology Press.
    • Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing (2nded.). New York: Routledge.SPSS, Inc (2007). SPSS Base 16.0, User’s Guide and Applications Guide. Chicago, IL: Author.
    • ITINERARY OF CLASS UNITS AND APPROXIMATE DATES DATES UNITS FALL 20118/24 Unit 1: Introduction: data processing in the research process31/8 Unit 2: SPSS for windows: working with a data matrix9/7 Unit 3: Techniques for the processing of data files9/14 Unit 4: Descriptive analyses of data9/21 Unit 5: Cross-tabulation analyses of data9/28 Unit 6: Practice and review of material included in the partial exam10/5 Unit 7: Midterm exam10/12 Feriado, UCA cerrada10/19 Unit 8: Non-parametric tests10/26 Unit 9: Inferential analyses of data: student t tests
    • 11/2 Unit 10: Inferential analyses of data: analysis of variance (ANOVA)11/9 Unit 10: Inferential analyses of data: analysis of variance (ANOVA) (cont.)11/16 Unit 11: Factor analysis11/23 Unit 11: Factor analysis (cont.)11/30 Unit 12: Practice and review of material included in the final exam12/7 Unit 12: Final exam