2010 01 psyf 588 master syllabus

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2010 01 psyf 588 master syllabus

  1. 1. CARLOS ALBIZU UNIVERSITYSAN JUAN CAMPUS<br />MASTER SYLLABUS<br />PSYF-588: THEORY OF TESTS AND TEST CONSTRUCTION<br /> <br />CREDITS: 3CONTACT HOURS: 45<br />  <br />COURSE DESCRIPTION<br /> <br />The goal of this course is to present the major principles of test construction in psychological measurement. Methods for determining validity and reliability will be examined by performing class exercises. The content also includes the study of scaling methods such as Guttman, Thurstone, and Likert scales. Moreover, students will apply knowledge from the course to construct their own assessment instruments.<br /> <br />PRE-REQUISITES<br />PSYF-568 Applied Inferential Statistics<br />  <br />COURSE OBJECTIVES<br /> <br />This course provides graduate students in psychology basic knowledge in measurement and test development. Students will be able to make responsible and professional decisions in selecting or developing instruments. <br /> <br /> <br />REQUIRED TEXT BOOKS<br /> <br />DeVellis, R.F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and application (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications. ISBN-10: 0761926054; ISBN-13: 978-0761926054<br />Kline, T. (2005). Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN-10: 1412905443; ISBN-13: 978-1412905442<br />Kline, P. (2000). Handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN-10: 0415211581; ISBN-13: 978-0415211581<br />Tornimbeni, S., Pérez, E., Olaz, F., & Fernández, A. (2004). Introducción a los test psicológicos (3era ed. rev.). Argentina: Editorial Brujas. ISBN-10: 9871142242<br />ITINERARY OF CLASS UNITS<br />UNIT 1:Basic concepts, historical background, and measurement models<br />UNIT 2:General steps of the test construction process <br />UNIT 3:Item construction: Sensitivity to cultural and individual variables<br />UNIT 4:Validity<br />UNIT 5:Item analysis<br />UNIT 6:Reliability<br />UNIT 7:Development of the test manual and the test administration process<br />UNIT 8:Review of statistical concepts<br />UNIT 9:Norms and standard scores<br />UNIT 10:Discriminatory power of the test<br />UNIT 11:Ethical principles and their role in the test construction process<br />COURSE CONTACT HOURS <br />Professors who teach the course must divide the contact hours the following way:<br />Face-to-face time in the classroom must not be less than 40.0 hours (16 classes, 2.5 hours each class).<br />For the remaining hours (≥ 5.0 hours), students will conduct research projects or homework outside the classroom. These projects or homework will include, but are not limited to, literature review, field work (i.e. experts evaluation of item content validity, instrument administration), statistical analysis with SPSS, and writing the test manual.<br />METHODOLOGY<br /> <br />The specific methodology will be selected by the professor who offers the course. These methodologies could include, but would not be limited to, conferences by the professor, group discussions of assigned readings, class research projects, student presentations, individual meetings with students and sub-groups in the classroom.<br /> <br /> EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUES<br /> <br />The specific educational techniques will be selected by the professor who offers the course. These techniques could include, but are not limited to, group or individual projects, debates, practical demonstrations, films/videos, simulations, slide shows and forums.<br />EVALUATION<br /> <br />The specific evaluation criteria will be selected by the professor who offers the course. These methodologies could include, but would not be limited to, term papers, projects, literature reviews, exams and class presentations. Three partial exams are recommended to examine the material discussed.<br /> <br />The development of a scale or test in an area of interest for the student is highly recommended. The student should identify a psychological construct of his/her interest, develop items to measure it, administer these items to a sample, and analyze its psychometric properties (item discrimination index, validity, reliability, norms).<br />RESEARCH COMPETENCIES<br />Compare/contrast the principles of several theories pertaining to test use<br />Evaluate and select research instruments that are appropriate for a particular research project<br />Design, develop, and validate research instruments<br />Select statistical tests that are appropriate for data analysis<br />Interpret the results of statistical data analysis, including descriptive and inferential statistics<br />Perform a literature research of the formulate research problem<br />Evaluate and analyze critically quantitative research that is presented in the literature<br /> <br />ATTENDANCE POLICY<br />Class attendance is mandatory for all students. After two unexcused absences, the student will be dropped from the class, unless the professor recommends otherwise. When a student misses a class, he/she is responsible for the material presented in class. <br />AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)<br />Students that need special accommodations should request them directly to the professor during the first week of class.<br />COURSE UNITS<br />UNIT 1: BASIC CONCEPTS, HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, AND MEASUREMENT MODELS<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand basic concepts commonly used in test theory, test historical background, and models of measurement.<br /> <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />Define the concept of test, measurement, and assessment<br />Identify different types of tests<br />Identify the purposes of tests<br />Review the historic development of test theory and test development <br />Identify cultural sensitive problems most commonly encountered in test development in Puerto Rico<br />Identify the differences between classic test theory and modern test theory<br />Discuss the concept of individual differences and its impact in assessment<br /> <br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br /> <br />Kline (2005)<br />Chapter 1 – The Assessment of Individuals: The Critical Role and Fundamentals of Measurement<br />Chapter 5 – Classic Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations, and Item Analyses<br />Chapter 6 – Modern Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations, and Item Analyses<br />DeVellis (2003)<br />Chapter 7 – An Overview of Item Response Theory<br />3. Tornimbeni et al. (2004)<br />Chapter 1 – Fundamentos de la Medición Psicológica<br />Chapter 2 – Evolución Histórica de los Tests<br />Chapter 3 – Paradigmas de la Psicometría<br />Cirino, G., Herrans, L.L. & Rodríguez, J.M. (1988). El futuro de la medición psicológica en Puerto Rico: Predicciones y recomendaciones. En Memorias Primer Simposio de Medición Psicológica en Puerto Rico. Asociación de Psicología de Puerto Rico.<br />UNIT 2: GENERAL STEPS OF THE TEST CONSTRUCTION PROCESS<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will learn how to construct a test.<br /> <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />List the steps in test construction<br />Explain the procedures for preparing test specifications<br />Discuss the importance of test specifications<br />Examine the process followed in the preliminary item tryouts<br />Discuss the importance of the test sensitivity review<br /> <br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br /> <br />DeVellis (2003)<br />Chapter 5 – Guidelines in Scale Development<br />2. Tornimbeni et al. (2004)<br />Chapter 8 – Construcción de Pruebas<br />Chapter 9 – Adaptación de Tests a Diversas Culturas<br />3. Cirino, G. (1992). Introducción al desarrollo de pruebas escritas. Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Bohío.<br />Chapter 3 – Planificación de una Prueba Educativa<br />Chapter 4 – Planificación de una Prueba de Selección de Personal<br />4. Murphy, K.R. & Davidshofer, C.O. (2001). Psychological testing: Principles and applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.<br />Chapter 11 – The Process of Test Development <br />UNIT 3: ITEM CONSTRUCTION: SENSITIVITY TO CULTURAL AND INDIVIDUAL VARIABLES<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand how to construct a list of items.<br /> <br /> <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />1. Explain the procedures followed in the construction of test items:<br />essay test items<br />two-option alternate-response test items (true or false)<br />multiple choice test items<br />matching test items<br />completion or fill-in items<br />interest and personality inventories items<br />attitude scales items<br />projective techniques items<br />2. Discuss the important aspects of item reviews<br />  <br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Kline (2005)<br />Chapter 2 – Designing and Writing Items<br />Chapter 3 – Designing and Scoring Responses<br />2. Kline (2000) <br />Chapter 5 – Rasch Scaling and Other Scales<br />Chapter 6 – Computerized and Tailored Testing<br />Chapter 11 – Other Methods of Test Construction<br />3. DeVellis (2003)<br />Chapter 5 – Guidelines in the Scale Development <br />4. Cirino, G. (1992). Introducción al desarrollo de pruebas escritas. Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Bohío.<br />Chapter 5 – Formulación de Preguntas de Múltiples Alternativas<br />UNIT 4: VALIDITY<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the concept of validity. <br /> <br /> <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />Define the concept of validity<br />Define the three major approaches to test validation<br />Explain the steps to be followed in content validation<br />Explain the steps to be followed in criterion related validation<br />Explain the construct validation process<br />Apply the formulas for computing each type of validity<br />Explain the results obtained from a validation process<br />Describe and analyze the practical consideration in each type of validation process<br />Establish the relationship between validity and reliability<br /> <br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Kline (2005)<br />Chapter 9 – Assessing Validity Using Content and Criterion Methods<br />Chapter 10 – Assessing Validity via Item Internal Structure<br /> <br />2. Kline (2000)<br />Chapter 2 – The Validity of Psychological Tests<br />3. DeVellis (2003)<br />Chapter 4 – Validity<br />4. Tornimbeni et al. (2004)<br />Chapter 6 – Validez<br /> <br />5. Lawshe, C.H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563-575.<br />6. Rungtunsanatham, M. (1998, July). Let’s not overlook content validity. Decision Line, 10-13. <br />UNIT 5:ITEM ANALYSIS<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the item analysis process. In addition, students will be able to understand the role of SPSS in the item analysis process.<br /> <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />Define item analysis<br />Discuss the concepts of item difficulty (i.e. P and Delta) and item discrimination (i.e. D and rbis)<br />Describe the steps followed in item analysis<br />Apply the formulae for computing item difficulty and discrimination<br />Interpret the results obtained from an item analysis<br />Use SPSS to perform item analysis<br /> ASSIGNED READINGS:<br /> <br />1. Kline (2005)<br />Chapter 5 – Classic Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations, and Item Analyses<br />2. Kline (2000)<br />Chapter 10 – Test Construction – Factor Analytic and Item Analytic Methods<br />3. DeVellis (2003)<br />Chapter 7 – An Overview of Item Response Theory<br />4. Tornimbeni et al. (2004)<br />Chapter 8 – Construcción de Pruebas<br />5. Cirino, G. (1992). Introducción al desarrollo de pruebas escritas. Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Bohío.<br />Chapter 9 – Análisis de Ítems<br />6. Sayers, S., & Vélez, M. (2006, noviembre). Using SPSS for the final project of the PSYF-588 course. Unpublished manuscript, Carlos Albizu University, San Juan Campus, PR.<br />7. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows (2nd ed.). London: SAGE Publications. <br />Chapter 2 – The SPSS Environment<br />Chapter 15.7 – Reliability Analysis<br />UNIT 6:RELIABILITY<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the concept of reliability and develop skills in the statistical procedures for its estimation. In addition, students will be able to understand the role of SPSS in the reliability analysis process<br /> <br /> <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />Define the concept of reliability<br />Explain the procedures for estimating reliability: test-retest, equivalent forms, internal consistency (i.e. split half, Cronbach's alpha), and scorer reliability<br />Apply the formulas for computing the different types of reliability<br />Explain the results of a reliability coefficient<br />Identify the sources of unreliability<br />Use SPSS to perform reliability analysis<br /> ASSIGNED READINGS:<br /> <br />Kline (2005)<br />Chapter 7 – Reliability of Test Scores and Test Items <br />Chapter 8 – Reliability of Raters<br />Kline (2000)<br />Chapter 1 – Reliability of Tests: Practical Tests<br />DeVellis (2003)<br />Chapter 3 – Reliability<br />Tornimbeni et al. (2004)<br />Chapter 5 – Confiabilidad<br />5. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows (2nd ed.). London: SAGE Publications. <br />Chapter 15.7 – Reliability Analysis<br />UNIT 7:DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEST MANUAL AND THE TEST ADMINISTRATION PROCESS<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand how a test manual is prepared. Also, they will understand the process involved in developing the test administration process.<br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />Identify the information that should be part of a test manual<br />Discuss the importance of standardization of procedures in test administration<br />Define the concept of test anxiety<br />Explain how motivation affects test performance<br />Discuss the importance of preparation of the examiner and supervision in test administration<br /> <br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.<br />Chapter 3 – Test Development and Revision<br />Chapter 5 – Test Administration, Scoring, and Reporting<br />Chapter 7 – Fairness in Testing and Test Use<br />Chapter 8 – The Rights and Responsibilities of Test Takers<br />Chapter 9 – Testing Individuals of Diverse Linguistic Backgrounds<br />Chapter 10 – Testing Individuals with Disabilities <br />UNIT 8:REVIEW OF STATISTICAL CONCEPTS<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will know the statistical concepts most commonly used in measurement. <br /> <br /> <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />Recapitulate previously learned statistical concepts: scales of measurement, sampling, frequency distribution, measures of central tendency, variability, and correlation<br />Differentiate among methods of sampling<br />Apply the formula for obtaining a sample from a known population and interpret the results<br />Apply the formula for stratified sampling and interpret the results<br />Apply the guessing correction formula and interpret the results<br /> <br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br /> <br />Kline (2005)<br />Chapter 1 – The Assessment of Individuals: The Critical Role and Fundamentals of Measurement<br />Chapter 4 – Collecting Data: Sampling and Screening<br />2. Murphy, K.R. & Davidshofer, C.O. (2001). Psychological testing: Principles and applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.<br />Chapter 4 – Basic Concepts in Measurement and Statistics<br />3. Daniel, W.W. (2006). Bioestadística: Base para el análisis de las ciencias de la salud (4ta ed.). México: Limusa Wiley.<br />Chapter 1 – Introducción a la Bioestadística<br />Chapter 2 – Estadística Descriptiva<br />Chapter 9 – Regresión y Correlación Lineal Simple<br />UNIT 9:DEVELOPMENT OF NORMS AND STANDARDIZED SCORES<br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand how to develop test norms. In addition, students will learn the importance of using standardized scores. Finally, students will be able to explain how the standard error measurement is used to establish confidence levels for standard scores.<br /> <br /> <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />Discuss the basic steps in the development of test norms<br />Assess the importance of describing the norms development process in the test manual<br />Describe common standard scores: z score, T score, stanines, percentiles, and percentile rank<br />Apply the formulae for the different standard scores and interpret the results<br />Define the concept of standard error of measurement<br />Apply the formula for computing the standard error of measurement<br />Explain the results of the standard error of measurement<br />Use SPSS to calculate standardized scores and the standard error of measurement<br /> <br /> <br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br /> <br />1. Kline (2000)<br />Chapter 3 – The Classical Model of Test Error<br />Chapter 4 – Standardizing the Test<br />2. Tornimbeni et al. (2004)<br />Chapter 5 – Interpretación de las Puntuaciones: Tests Referidos a Normas y Criterios<br />3. Murphy, K.R. & Davidshofer, C.O. (2001). Psychological testing: Principles and applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.<br />Chapter 5 – Scales, Transformations, and Norms<br />4. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.<br />Chapter 4 – Scales, Norms, and Score Comparability<br />UNIT 10:DISCRIMINATORY POWER OF THE TEST<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will learn how to compute the discriminatory power of a test and interpret its results.<br /> <br /> <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />Apply Ferguson's Delta formula and interpret the results<br />Understand the difference between the discriminatory power of a test and the discrimination index of an item<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br /> <br />1. Kline (2000)<br />Chapter 2 – The Validity of Psychological Tests<br />UNIT 11:ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND CONSIDERATIONS<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will understand the ethical principles involved in test development.<br /> <br /> <br />LEARNING OBJECTIVES:<br /> <br />Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:<br /> <br />1. Identify the ethical and professional principles involved in test development.<br />2. Examine the impact of the violation of these principles.<br />ASSIGNED READINGS:<br />1. Kline (2005)<br />Chapter 11 – Ethics and Professional Issues in Testing <br />2. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.<br />Chapter 11 – The Responsibilities of the Test Users<br />Chapter 12 – Psychological Testing and Assessment<br />Chapter 13 – Educational Testing and Assessment<br />Chapter 14 – Testing in Employment and Credentialing<br />REFERENCES<br /> <br />Álvaro Page, M. (1993). Elementos de psicometría. Madrid: EUDEMA Universidad.<br />American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.<br />American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611.<br />Anastasi, A. (1982). Psychological testing. New York: MacMillan.<br />Anstey, E. (1976). Los tests psicológicos. Madrid: Morova.<br />Burisch, M. (1984). Approaches to personality inventory construction. American Psychologist, 39, 214-227.<br />Camilli, G. y Shepard, L.S. (1994). Methods for identifying biased test items. California: SAGE Publications.<br />Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6, 284-290.<br />Cirino, G. (1992). Introducción al desarrollo de pruebas escritas. Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Bohío.<br />Cirino, G., Herrans, L.L. & Rodríguez, J.M. (1988). El futuro de la medición psicológica en Puerto Rico: Predicciones y recomendaciones. En Memorias Primer Simposio de Medición Psicológica en Puerto Rico. Asociación de Psicólogos de Puerto Rico.<br />Clark, L.A. y Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7, 309-319.<br />Cortada de Kohan, N. (1999). Teorías psicométricas y construcción de tests. Argentina: Lugar Editorial.<br />Cortada de Kohan, N. (2004). 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Fishbein (Ed.), Readings in attitude theory and measurement. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.<br />López, N.J. y Domínguez, R. (1993). Medición de la autoestima en la mujer universitaria. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 25, 257-273.<br />Matarazzo, J.D. (1992). Psychological testing and assessment in the 21st century. American Psychologist, 47, 1007-1018.<br />McIntire, A. y Miller, L. (2000). Foundations of psychological testing. New York: McGraw Hill.<br />Meliá, J.L., Oliver, A. y Tomás, J.M. (1993). El poder en las organizaciones y su medición. El cuestionario de Poder Formal e Informal. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 24, 139-155.<br />Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from persons' response and performance as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-749.<br />Murphy, K.R. & Davidshofer, C.O. (2001). Psychological testing: Principles and applications. 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