EFFECT OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENT ON THE SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS AND SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM<br />K.  Ganapathy & Kok...
INTRODUCTION<br />•   Protect health and safety of human.<br />•   Protect export market & global acceptance.<br />•   Pro...
CONTROL & PREVENTION<br />Antibiotics<br />Non-absorbable chemicals<br />Acidifiers<br />Prebiotics<br />	Probiotics<br />...
PROBLEM STATEMENT<br />•   Numerous acidifiers brands for water  treatment<br />•  Comparative efficacy studies – no ‘stan...
OBJECTIVE<br /><ul><li>  To determine survival of SE and ST in the drinking water under Malaysian  indoor environment.
To determine survival of SE and ST in of 7 different products in water under Malaysian indoor environment.</li></li></ul><...
IN-WATER TREATMENT<br />
Items<br />Homogenized<br />1ml overnight culture<br />9ml<br />500ml<br />Autoclaved tap water<br />10ml mixture<br />2hr...
10-fold dilutions<br />900ul deionized distilled water<br />Vortex mixing<br />100ul<br />plating<br />20ul<br />24hours<b...
Results: SE survival in Sterile - Water<br />
NOTE<br />Out of 7 acidifiers and/or prebiotics tested at the dosage recommended by manufactures only two products worked ...
Acidifier-treated water<br />
Items<br />Homogenized<br />1ml overnight culture<br />9ml<br />500ml<br />Autoclaved tap water<br />10ml mixture<br />2hr...
10-fold dilutions<br />900ul deionized distilled water<br />Vortex mixing<br />100ul<br />plating<br />20ul<br />24hours<b...
Results:  SE survival in acidified-water<br />
In-water Treatment ST<br />
Results:  ST survival in water<br />
NOTE<br />Out of 7 acidifiers and/or prebiotics tested at the dosage recommended by manufactures only two products worked ...
Acidifier-treated water<br />
Results:  ST survival in acidified water<br />
Discussion<br /><ul><li> Current methodology
  High survival
  Drinking water
  Indoor environment
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5 Salmonella Water Malaysia

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5 Salmonella Water Malaysia

  1. 1. EFFECT OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENT ON THE SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS AND SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM<br />K. Ganapathy & Kok H. S.<br />Faculty of Veterinary Medicine<br />University Putra Malaysia<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />• Protect health and safety of human.<br />• Protect export market & global acceptance.<br />• Protect health, production and welfare of chickens.<br />• Salmonella spp infection in chickens<br />• Prevention/control and eradication of Salmonellae infection - important <br />
  3. 3. CONTROL & PREVENTION<br />Antibiotics<br />Non-absorbable chemicals<br />Acidifiers<br />Prebiotics<br /> Probiotics<br /> Phytogenicadditives<br /> Antibodies<br /> Other biological substances<br />
  4. 4. PROBLEM STATEMENT<br />• Numerous acidifiers brands for water treatment<br />• Comparative efficacy studies – no ‘standard’ method<br />• Efficacy of acidifiers under tropical climate is unknown<br />• Limitation of in-vivo studies (cost, facilities, repeatability and etc)<br />
  5. 5. OBJECTIVE<br /><ul><li> To determine survival of SE and ST in the drinking water under Malaysian indoor environment.
  6. 6. To determine survival of SE and ST in of 7 different products in water under Malaysian indoor environment.</li></li></ul><li>MATERIAL & METHODOLOGY <br /> Salmonella enteritidis (SE) (Salmonella entericaserovarenteritidis) <br /> Salmonella typhimurium (ST) (Salmonella entericaserovartyphimurium)<br />
  7. 7. IN-WATER TREATMENT<br />
  8. 8. Items<br />Homogenized<br />1ml overnight culture<br />9ml<br />500ml<br />Autoclaved tap water<br />10ml mixture<br />2hr<br />4hr<br />6hr<br />12hr<br />24hr<br />100ul<br />Experiment 1 : In-water Treatment<br />
  9. 9. 10-fold dilutions<br />900ul deionized distilled water<br />Vortex mixing<br />100ul<br />plating<br />20ul<br />24hours<br />incubation 37OC<br />counting<br />
  10. 10. Results: SE survival in Sterile - Water<br />
  11. 11. NOTE<br />Out of 7 acidifiers and/or prebiotics tested at the dosage recommended by manufactures only two products worked and had effect against the Salmonella enteritidis (SE). <br />The acidifiers were made from different mixtures of acids such as formic, lactic, propionic, acetic, citric,. The only acidifier that worked, the problem was that it reduced so much pH of water that birds will not drink it. <br />
  12. 12. Acidifier-treated water<br />
  13. 13. Items<br />Homogenized<br />1ml overnight culture<br />9ml<br />500ml<br />Autoclaved tap water<br />10ml mixture<br />2hr<br />4hr<br />6hr<br />12hr<br />24hr<br />100ul<br />Experiment 1 : In-water Treatment<br />
  14. 14. 10-fold dilutions<br />900ul deionized distilled water<br />Vortex mixing<br />100ul<br />plating<br />20ul<br />24hours<br />incubation 37OC<br />counting<br />
  15. 15. Results: SE survival in acidified-water<br />
  16. 16. In-water Treatment ST<br />
  17. 17. Results: ST survival in water<br />
  18. 18. NOTE<br />Out of 7 acidifiers and/or prebiotics tested at the dosage recommended by manufactures only two products worked and had effect against the Salmonella typhimurium (ST). <br />The acidifiers were made from different mixtures of acids such as formic, lactic, propionic, acetic, citric,. The only acidifier that worked, the problem was that it reduced so much pH of water that birds will not drink it. <br />
  19. 19. Acidifier-treated water<br />
  20. 20. Results: ST survival in acidified water<br />
  21. 21. Discussion<br /><ul><li> Current methodology
  22. 22. High survival
  23. 23. Drinking water
  24. 24. Indoor environment
  25. 25. Suitable for efficacy studies…
  26. 26. Digester Broiler showed remarkable</li></ul> reduction of SE and ST<br />
  27. 27. Conclusion<br />In-water - a workable in vitro <br /> methodology was found.<br /> - Digester Broiler Liquid <br /> Dosage 0.5ml / 1L water<br /> Reduced significantly SE & ST titers.<br />
  28. 28. Ultimate assessment…<br />In-water<br />….in vivo studies<br />under control (experimental) <br />and/or field condition<br />
  29. 29. Acknowledgement<br />Research students & assistants<br /> - Dr.Mahadevan<br /> - Mr. Phi Lip<br /> - Mr. Tan Chin Giap<br />Prof. Ho & Ms.Vicky (IBS)<br />Prof MadyaDr.Saleha, En.Kamar, En.Hajar<br /> Pharmaceutical companies including Rhonema (M) Sdn. Bhd.<br />Other directly or indirectly assisted…<br />
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