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Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
Salmonella Water. Malaysia
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Salmonella Water. Malaysia

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  • 1. Effect of indoor environment on the survival of S almonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium K. Ganapathy & Kok H. S. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University Putra Malaysia
  • 2. Introduction • Protect health and safety of human. • Protect export market & global acceptance. • Protect health, production and welfare of chickens.
  • 3. Introduction • Salmonella spp infection in chickens • Prevention/control and eradication of Salmonellae infection - important
  • 4. Control & Prevention <ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-absorbable chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidifiers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prebiotics </li></ul><ul><li>P robiotics </li></ul><ul><li>P hytogenic additives </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Other biological substances </li></ul>
  • 5. Problem Statement <ul><ul><li>• Numerous acidifiers brands for water treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Comparative efficacy studies – no ‘standard’ method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Efficacy of acidifiers under tropical climate is unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Limitation of in-vivo studies (cost, facilities, repeatability and etc) </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Objective  To determine survival of SE and ST in the drinking water under Malaysian indoor environment.  To determine survival of SE and ST in of 7 different products in water under Malaysian indoor environment.
  • 7. Material & Methodology  Salmonella enteritidis (SE) ( Salmonella enterica serovar e nteritidis )  Salmonella typhimurium (ST) ( Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium )
  • 8. In-water Treatment Control (sterile tap water and SE) SE Control
  • 9. Experiment 1 : In-water Treatment 500ml autoclaved tap water items homogenized 9ml 1ml overnight culture 10ml mixture 2hr 4hr 6hr 12hr 24hr 100 u l
  • 10. 10- fold dilutions 900 u l deionized distilled water 20 u l 24hours incubation 37 O C counting 100 u l Vortex mixing plating
  • 11. Results: SE survival in sterile-water
  • 12. Out of 7 acidifiers and/or prebiotics tested at the dosage recommended by manufactures only two products worked and had effect against the Salmonella enteritidis (SE) . The acidifiers were made from different mixtures of acids such as formic, lactic, propionic, acetic, citric,. The only acidifier that worked, the problem was that it reduced so much pH of water that birds will not drink it. NOTE
  • 13. Acidifier-treated water 3 ml / L 0.5 ml / L 7.5ml / L Control (sterile tap water and salmonella) House vinegar (acetic acid) Lactic, citric, fumaric, activated ascorbic acid (citrex) propionic, lactic acid & salts pH 7 pH 6 pH 5.9 pH 3.5 Vinegar SE Control Digestor Broiler Acidifier
  • 14. Experiment 1 : In-water Treatment 2hr 4hr 6hr 12hr 24hr 100 u l 500ml autoclaved tap water items homogenized 9ml 1ml overnight culture 10ml mixture
  • 15. 10- fold dilutions 900 u l deionized distilled water 20 u l 24hours incubation 37 O C counting 100 u l Vortex mixing plating
  • 16. Results: SE survival in acidified-water
  • 17. In-water Treatment ST Control (sterile tap water and ST) ST Control
  • 18. Results: ST survival in water
  • 19. Out of 7 acidifiers and/or prebiotics tested at the dosage recommended by manufactures only two products worked and had effect against the Salmonella typhimurium (ST) . The acidifiers were made from different mixtures of acids such as formic, lactic, propionic, acetic, citric,. The only acidifier that worked, the problem was that it reduced so much pH of water that birds will not drink it. NOTE
  • 20. Acidifier-treated water pH of solution in water DOSAGE INGREDIENTS PRODUCT 3 ml / L 0.5 ml / L 7.5ml / L Control (sterile tap water and salmonella) House vinegar (acetic acid) Lactic, citric, fumaric, activated ascorbic acid (citrex) propionic, lactic acid & salts pH 7 pH 6 pH 5.9 pH 3.5 Vinegar SE Control Digestor Broiler Acidifier
  • 21. Results: ST survival in acidified water
  • 22. Discussion <ul><li>Current methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High survival </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor environment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Suitable for efficacy studies… </li></ul><ul><li>Digester Broiler showed remarkable </li></ul><ul><li>reduction of SE and ST </li></ul>
  • 23. Conclusion In-water - a workable in vitro methodology was found. - Digester Broiler Liquid Dosage 0.5ml / 1L water Reduced significantly SE & ST titers.
  • 24. Ultimate assessment… In-water … .in vivo studies under control (experimental) and/or field condition
  • 25. Acknowledgement Research students & assistants - Dr.Mahadevan - Mr. Phi Lip - Mr. Tan Chin Giap Prof. Ho & Ms.Vicky (IBS) Prof Madya Dr.Saleha, En.Kamar, En.Hajar Pharmaceutical companies including Rhonema (M) Sdn. Bhd. Other directly or indirectly assisted…

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