Effect of indoor environment  on the survival of   S almonella enteritidis  and Salmonella typhimurium K.  Ganapathy & Kok...
Introduction •  Protect health and safety of  human. •  Protect export market & global  acceptance. •  Protect health, pro...
Introduction •  Salmonella  spp infection in  chickens •  Prevention/control and eradication of Salmonellae infection - im...
Control & Prevention <ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-absorbable chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Problem Statement <ul><ul><li>•  Numerous acidifiers brands for water  treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>•  Comparative...
Objective    To determine survival of SE and ST  in the drinking water under  Malaysian  indoor environment.    To deter...
Material & Methodology      Salmonella enteritidis  (SE) ( Salmonella enterica   serovar e nteritidis )      Salmonella ...
In-water Treatment Control  (sterile tap water and SE)  SE  Control
Experiment 1 :  In-water Treatment 500ml autoclaved  tap  water items homogenized 9ml 1ml overnight culture 10ml  mixture ...
10- fold  dilutions 900 u l deionized distilled water 20 u l 24hours incubation  37 O C counting 100 u l Vortex  mixing pl...
Results:  SE survival in sterile-water
Out of 7 acidifiers and/or prebiotics tested at the dosage recommended by manufactures only two products worked and had ef...
Acidifier-treated water 3 ml / L 0.5 ml / L 7.5ml / L Control (sterile tap water and salmonella)  House vinegar  (acetic a...
Experiment 1 : In-water Treatment 2hr 4hr 6hr 12hr 24hr 100 u l 500ml autoclaved  tap  water items homogenized 9ml 1ml ove...
10- fold  dilutions 900 u l deionized distilled water 20 u l 24hours incubation  37 O C counting 100 u l Vortex  mixing pl...
Results:  SE survival in acidified-water
In-water Treatment ST Control  (sterile tap water and ST)  ST Control
Results:  ST survival in water
Out of 7 acidifiers and/or prebiotics tested at the dosage recommended by manufactures only two products worked and had ef...
Acidifier-treated water pH of solution in water DOSAGE INGREDIENTS PRODUCT 3 ml / L 0.5 ml / L 7.5ml / L Control (sterile ...
Results:  ST survival in acidified water
Discussion <ul><li>Current methodology  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High survival </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Conclusion In-water - a workable  in vitro     methodology was found. - Digester Broiler Liquid    Dosage 0.5ml / 1L water...
Ultimate assessment… In-water … .in vivo  studies under control (experimental)  and/or field condition
Acknowledgement Research students & assistants - Dr.Mahadevan - Mr. Phi Lip - Mr. Tan Chin Giap Prof. Ho & Ms.Vicky (IBS) ...
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Salmonella Water. Malaysia

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Salmonella Water. Malaysia

  1. 1. Effect of indoor environment on the survival of S almonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium K. Ganapathy & Kok H. S. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University Putra Malaysia
  2. 2. Introduction • Protect health and safety of human. • Protect export market & global acceptance. • Protect health, production and welfare of chickens.
  3. 3. Introduction • Salmonella spp infection in chickens • Prevention/control and eradication of Salmonellae infection - important
  4. 4. Control & Prevention <ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-absorbable chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidifiers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prebiotics </li></ul><ul><li>P robiotics </li></ul><ul><li>P hytogenic additives </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Other biological substances </li></ul>
  5. 5. Problem Statement <ul><ul><li>• Numerous acidifiers brands for water treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Comparative efficacy studies – no ‘standard’ method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Efficacy of acidifiers under tropical climate is unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Limitation of in-vivo studies (cost, facilities, repeatability and etc) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Objective  To determine survival of SE and ST in the drinking water under Malaysian indoor environment.  To determine survival of SE and ST in of 7 different products in water under Malaysian indoor environment.
  7. 7. Material & Methodology  Salmonella enteritidis (SE) ( Salmonella enterica serovar e nteritidis )  Salmonella typhimurium (ST) ( Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium )
  8. 8. In-water Treatment Control (sterile tap water and SE) SE Control
  9. 9. Experiment 1 : In-water Treatment 500ml autoclaved tap water items homogenized 9ml 1ml overnight culture 10ml mixture 2hr 4hr 6hr 12hr 24hr 100 u l
  10. 10. 10- fold dilutions 900 u l deionized distilled water 20 u l 24hours incubation 37 O C counting 100 u l Vortex mixing plating
  11. 11. Results: SE survival in sterile-water
  12. 12. Out of 7 acidifiers and/or prebiotics tested at the dosage recommended by manufactures only two products worked and had effect against the Salmonella enteritidis (SE) . The acidifiers were made from different mixtures of acids such as formic, lactic, propionic, acetic, citric,. The only acidifier that worked, the problem was that it reduced so much pH of water that birds will not drink it. NOTE
  13. 13. Acidifier-treated water 3 ml / L 0.5 ml / L 7.5ml / L Control (sterile tap water and salmonella) House vinegar (acetic acid) Lactic, citric, fumaric, activated ascorbic acid (citrex) propionic, lactic acid & salts pH 7 pH 6 pH 5.9 pH 3.5 Vinegar SE Control Digestor Broiler Acidifier
  14. 14. Experiment 1 : In-water Treatment 2hr 4hr 6hr 12hr 24hr 100 u l 500ml autoclaved tap water items homogenized 9ml 1ml overnight culture 10ml mixture
  15. 15. 10- fold dilutions 900 u l deionized distilled water 20 u l 24hours incubation 37 O C counting 100 u l Vortex mixing plating
  16. 16. Results: SE survival in acidified-water
  17. 17. In-water Treatment ST Control (sterile tap water and ST) ST Control
  18. 18. Results: ST survival in water
  19. 19. Out of 7 acidifiers and/or prebiotics tested at the dosage recommended by manufactures only two products worked and had effect against the Salmonella typhimurium (ST) . The acidifiers were made from different mixtures of acids such as formic, lactic, propionic, acetic, citric,. The only acidifier that worked, the problem was that it reduced so much pH of water that birds will not drink it. NOTE
  20. 20. Acidifier-treated water pH of solution in water DOSAGE INGREDIENTS PRODUCT 3 ml / L 0.5 ml / L 7.5ml / L Control (sterile tap water and salmonella) House vinegar (acetic acid) Lactic, citric, fumaric, activated ascorbic acid (citrex) propionic, lactic acid & salts pH 7 pH 6 pH 5.9 pH 3.5 Vinegar SE Control Digestor Broiler Acidifier
  21. 21. Results: ST survival in acidified water
  22. 22. Discussion <ul><li>Current methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High survival </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor environment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Suitable for efficacy studies… </li></ul><ul><li>Digester Broiler showed remarkable </li></ul><ul><li>reduction of SE and ST </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusion In-water - a workable in vitro methodology was found. - Digester Broiler Liquid Dosage 0.5ml / 1L water Reduced significantly SE & ST titers.
  24. 24. Ultimate assessment… In-water … .in vivo studies under control (experimental) and/or field condition
  25. 25. Acknowledgement Research students & assistants - Dr.Mahadevan - Mr. Phi Lip - Mr. Tan Chin Giap Prof. Ho & Ms.Vicky (IBS) Prof Madya Dr.Saleha, En.Kamar, En.Hajar Pharmaceutical companies including Rhonema (M) Sdn. Bhd. Other directly or indirectly assisted…
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