Major cereal production in China, 2007-2009Crop Area Yield Production % Mha Kg/ha Mt WorldRice 29.5 6520 196 29Maize 30.2 5327 161 20Wheat 23.9 4703 112 17Data Source: FAO Statistics, 2011
Wheat/maize interplanting Wheat/maize rotation Wheat/rice rotation Chinese wheat production zones
Wheat consumption in China, 2009Classification %Food 77Industrial use 9Feed 9Seed and storage loss 5Total 100
Percentage of wheat foods in ChinaFood type %Steamed bread including flat bread 45Noodles and dumplings 40Cookies and biscuits 8Western bread 4Others 3Total 100
History of quality improvement Before 1984, focused on yield improvement and disease resistance, little efforts on quality, white and hard kernel means good quality 1985-2000, establishment of quality labs and screening of advanced lines and varieties, market demanding for better processing quality 2000-present, release of high quality variety, and development and application of markers, market demanding both for processing and nutritional qualities
Chinese wheat quality Broad variation for all major parameters, mixed population, north with hard type, south with soft type Acceptable protein content, weak gluten strength and poor extensibility Color needs improvement for traditional products Acceptable quality for manual processing, inferior quality for mechanized production
252015 中国 China10 加拿大 Canada 5 0 蛋白质 Protein 稳定时间 Stability 延伸性 Extensibility Comparison between Chinese and Canada wheats
10080 软质 Soft6040 硬质 Hard20 0 北方 North 南方 South Distribution of kernel hardness in China
Target Products: pan bread and white noodle for north China Traits: improvement of gluten strength and color rather than protein content Region: Yellow and Huai Valley, 75% of production Impact in milling industry and farmer field, new varieties with excellent quality and high yield Novelty in science, application of genomics and proteomics, and molecular markers
Approach Integration of breeding, cereal chemistry, new technology, and crop management National and international collaborations, CIMMYT, Australia, USA, France, Japan, and UK…. Training
Quality improvement Learn available technology for pan bread from other countries, develop noodle testing methodology High yielding Chinese wheat crosses with germplasm from CIMMYT, USA, and Australia, and then backcrosses with Chinese wheat to ensure high yield and broad adaptation SDS sedimentation value, mixograph, and HMW-GS are used as selection tool in early generations
馒头制作方法Noodle preparation and testingFormula: flour extract rate 60%, water addition 35%, and salt 1%
New scoring system for Chinese white noodlesCharacter Chinese JapaneseColor 15 20Appearance 10 15Firmness 20 10Viscoelasticity 30 25Smoothness 15 15Taste and flavor 10 15Total 100 100Zhang et al, 2005, Euphytica,141:113-120
Sensory scoring system for noodle quality Name Origin DateParameter Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor Very poor Unacceptable (10) (9) (8) (7) (6) (5) (4)Color(15) Appearance(10)Firmness(20)Viscoelasticity(30)Smoothness(15)Taste & Flavor(10)Comprehensiveevaluation
Three factors for noodle quality 80.0 L* value of flour water slurry Medium-strong gluten quality 79.5 79.0 High starch viscosity 78.5 Bright color 78.0 r=-0.95 77.5 77.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Flour colour grade He et al, 2005, Cereal Chemistry, 82: 345-350 Zhang et al, 2005, Cereal Chemistry, 82: 633-638
Approach Breeding oriented approach, translate advances of genomics into breeding programs, focus on functional marker development and validation Functional markers can discriminate alleles of a targeted gene, is an ideal marker for breeding program Optimize available markers from other institutes
Example 1-yellow pigment Bright white color is preferred for Chinese noodle and steamed bread, low yellow pigment is desirable Three QTLs at chr 7A, 7B, and 7D, are responsible for yellow pigment Clone Psy 1 gene on chr 7A, 7B, and 7D Develop functional markers based on the gene allelic variations Validate markers in Chinese wheat varieties
Allelic variants for the Psy-A1 gene on chr 7A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Psy-A1a 1 4177 1 2 3 4 5 6Unt i t l e d Psy-A1b 1 414 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 Psy-A1c Unt itl e d 1 323 5 He et al, 2008, TAG, 116: 213-221
PCR amplification with YP7A Varieties with high Varieties with low yellow pigment yellow pigment194 bp 231 bp 231 bp194 bp
Validation of YP7A in Chinese varietiesAllele Accession number Mean (mg/kg) RangePsy-A1a 130 1.80 a 0.62-3.42Psy-A1b 87 1.35 b 0.35-2.88Different letters indicate significant difference at P<0.05He et al, 2008, TAG, 116: 213-221
Markers for color traits Yellow pigment: Psy-A1, Psy-B1, Psy-D1, TaZds-A1, and TaZds-D1 Polyphenol oxidase activity: PPO-A1 and PPO-D1 Lipoxgenase activity: TaLox-B1 Excellent understanding on color traits at molecular level and powerful tool for breeders, genetic materials are needed to develop markers for other locus
Example 2-LMW-GS Molecular marker development and application CE and MALDI-TOF-MS
Utilization of LMW-GS in breeding HMW-GS is well characterized and have been widely used in breeding programs for more than 25 years LMW-GS are poorly characterized, and utilization in breeding is not common, largely due to the unavailability of simple and efficient method
Relationship between Glu-B3 protein alleles fromSDS-PAGE and gene haplotypesLine Allele GluB3 GluB3 GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- -11 -12 13 14 15 21 22 23Aroona-B3a a + +Aroona b + +Aroona-B3c cAroona-B3d dCheyenne e + +Aroona-B3f f + +Aroona-B3g g + +Aroona-B3h hAroona-B3i iLine Allele GluB3 GluB3 GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- GluB3- -31 -32 33 34 41 42 43 44 45Aroona-B3a a +Aroona b +Aroona-B3c c + +Aroona-B3d d + +Cheyenne e +Aroona-B3f f +Aroona-B3g g +Aroona-B3h h + +Aroona-B3i i + +
Establishment of gene marker system and separation ofLMW-GS genes in Xiaoyan 54 3730 DNA analyzerZhang et al, 2011, TAG, 123: 1293-1305, adapted from Zhang Xiaofei, CAS
LMW-GS genes in Chinese core collections, CAS 17 16 17 16Allelic variants of individual LMW-GS genes are conserved in sequences and polymorphic in length.
Markers for discrimination of Glu-B3 alleles a b c d e f g h i gluB3fg 812bp gluB3g 853bp gluB3h 1022bp gluB3i 621bp
Molecular markers for Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 Glu-A3: 7 markers for alleles a, b, c, d, e, f, and g Glu-B3: 9 markers for alleles a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, and i Glu-D3: no marker is available due to tiny difference in gene sequence, with minor effect on quality
Molecular marker validation More than 1000 varieties and advanced lines from China, CIMMYT, and other 20 countries were tested Results from markers at Glu-A3 and Glu-B3, are well consistent with SDS-PAGE Much simple to use
Multiplex PCR assay Screen 3-5 genes in one test Excellent accuracy Low cost Breeding orientedZhang et al, 2008, Plant Breeding, 127: 109-115
Application of markers Totally, 90 markers available in our lab Parental characterization and advanced lines confirmation Provision of very useful information for crossing program with low cost, impossible by conventional method MAS operation in four breeding programs
Four lines in regional trialsApplication of molecular markers in breeding
Glu-A3a 1 2 3 4 5 6 Glu-B3a Glu-D3a Chinese Spring 2 Glu-B3h 5 CB037HMW-GS 10 12 Glu-A3c CB037-1 Glu-B3h Glu-B3h Glu-A3aGlu-A3c Glu-A3c CB037-2Glu-B3d Glu-B3g Glu-B3a Glu-D3c Ari124-3 Glu-D3aGlu-D3c Glu-B3g Ari127-6 Rapid identification of LMW-GS alleles by capillary electrophoresis Li et al, J. Cereal Sci, 2012, slide from Yan Yueming, Capital Normal University
Identification of Glu-B3 alleles by MALDI-TOF-MS 6. Chinese Spring, 7. Renan, 8. Insignia
MALDI-TOF-MS for LMW-GS Joint developed by the Capital Normal University and Murdoch University A powerful and rapid method, 4-5 minutes per sample Little operational cost, breeding program can not afford the equipment, need centralized service
Varieties recommended as standards for LMW-GSLocus Subunit Standard cultivarGlu-A3 Glu-A3a Neixiang 188, Chinese Spring Glu-A3b Gabo, Pavon Glu-A3c Pitic, Seri 82 Glu-A3d Nidera Baguette 10, Cappelle-Desprez Glu-A3e Amadina, Marquis Glu-A3f Kitanokaori, Renan Glu-A3g Bluesky, GlenleaGlu-B3 Glu-B3a Chinese Spring Glu-B3b Renan, Gabo Glu-B3b* Nanbu-komugi Glu-B3c Insignia, Halberd Glu-B3d/i Pepital, Norin 61 Glu-B3g Splendor, Cappelle-Desprez Glu-B3g* Thesee, Aca 801 Glu-B3h Aca 303, Pavon Glu-B3i* Heilo, Opata Glu-B3j Grebee, Seri 82Glu-D3 Glu-D3a Chinese Spring, Neixiang 188 Glu-D3b Gabo, Avocet Glu-D3c Insignia, Cappelle-Desprez Glu-D3c* Amadina, Heilo Glu-D3f Ernest, Darius
Challenge 1- production Food security is China’s national policy, and improvement of average yield is the only option Climate change, shortage of water, and more diseases Maize area increased 30%, wheat is less competitive than maize in yield and price, can we maintain wheat area? Challenges are to combine high yield potential, disease resistance, input use efficient, and excellent quality into one variety
Challenge 2- quality Significant progress has been made in quality improvement, still can not meet the needs of milling industry Breeders give more efforts to yield improvement after 2005, due to the high price of average quality grain, should we still breed for quality? Around 15 million tons wheat used for feed in 2012 With small farmer’s size (0.5 ha), can we ensure quality consistency?
Challenge 3-health food Health food is a hot subject, stop use of bleaching in milling industry, genetic improvement of color becomes more important Toxicity of Fusarium head scab could be a significant threat, due to climate change and popularity of wheat/maize rotation How should we prioritize Fe/Zn and other nutritional elements? food diversity or genetic improvement?
Challenge 4- traditional products Significant progress has been made in improving white noodle quality, but more efforts are needed to understand other types of noodles, and dumplings More efforts to understand north style steamed bread quality and Chinese flat bread…. More efforts for soft wheat products
Opportunity 1-molecular marker Molecular markers will play an increasing and much more significant role in varietal development within next 5-10 years More and more functional markers will be available for important traits, as progress made in genomics and gene cloning Can we rapidly transfer the advances from sequencing into breeding program?
Opportunity 2-GMO wheat Large investment on GMO crops including wheat Great potential for wheat improvement Low transformation efficiency: <1% Shortage of interest genes Declines of consumer’s acceptance
Opportunity 3- integrated approach Great expectations from new science in understanding quality and provision of new tools Combination of conventional breeding, quality testing, molecular markers, GMO, and other approaches International and national network
Conclusions Significant progress has been made in noodle testing methodology and development of quality variety Comparative genomic was successfully used for gene cloning, molecular markers development and application, particularly for LMW-GS Integration of various disciplines, and combination of traditional approaches and new sciences will help us to meet the great challenges in the future
CollaboratorsLiu Jianjun, Shandong AASYan Yueming, Capital Normal UniversityD. W. Wang/A.M. Zhang, Chinese Academy of ScienceR. J. Pena, CIMMYTK. Quail/S. Huang, Former BRIT. Ikeda/Yoshida, NAROG. Branlard, INRAW. J. Ma/R. Appels, Murdoch UniversityC. Morris, USDA-ARS
Acknowledgement Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Science and Technology National Natural Science Foundation of China
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