Evaluation of Twelve Spring Wheat Genotypes for Water Use Efficiency Sakumona Mushekwa, Lungu M. Davies & Munyinda Kalaluka* SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, PLANT SCIENCE DEPT, UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA *Plant Science Department, School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zambia, Box 32379, Lusaka 10101,Zambia. ABSTRACT MATERIALS AND METHODS 7,000 DISCUSSION Routine evaluation of wheat genotypes and lines for WUE Wheat production in Zambia is done during dry season Field study involved twelve wheat Genotypes already on 6,000 has always been found linked to traits and variation in while the ability to provide water plays a key role in Grain Yield (Kg/ Ha) the market comprising of two rain-fed and ten irrigated genotypes [2,4,6,7]. This is in agreement with the results of production. The cost of water supply either by centre pivot 5,000. varieties; Nduna, Sahai I, Sekuru and Shine (supplied by . this study. The current study provides evidence that some or sprinklers severely limits production and yield. The SEED-CO),VW I & VW II (supplied by University of cultivated genotypes have high WUE and grain yield in low 4,000 present study was carried in 2011 dry season to evaluate Zambia), Coucal, Mampolyo & Nseba (supplied by ZARI) water regimes. Sahai I, Lorie II and Mampolyo gave the wheat genotypes for water use efficiency and identify and Choza, Loerie II & Pungwa (supplied by ZAMSEED). 3,000 highest WUE and grain yield in low water application rate. wheat morphological traits that can be used for low water Sahai I and Coucal were the rain-fed while the others were These results agree with findings of other researchers application breeding programme. Twelve spring wheat irrigated varieties. Water was supplied through irrigation in 2,000 [4,6,7]. Harvest index and thousand kernel weight were genotypes were grown in three different water regimes the growing season basing on crop requirement as 100%, identified as traits explaining most variation of WUE under basing on crop water requirements (100%, 75% and 75% and 50%. Water was applied using sprinkler attached 1,000 low water supply and therefore would deserve better 50%). Grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE), spike to flow meter (Fig 1). To prevent water drift in the attention in developing better genotypes for water stress length, above ground biomass, plant height, thousand neighbouring water basin, a 2m plastic sheet (Fig 2) was 0 environment as they are influenced by major effects of kernel weight, grains per spike, harvest index and spikelet raised to enclose each basin during irrigation. WUE was additive gene action . Due to the high genetic heritability per spike were assessed and analysed. The results calculated as ratio of the grain yield to total water applied in and advances [2,3] of these traits, they can be used in low revealed that there were highly significant differences mm . Data was analysed using GENSTAT 13th Edition SPRING WHEAT GENOTYPES water wheat breeding programmes. among the twelve genotypes for grain yield, and SPSS 16.0 morphological traits and WUE. Harvest index and Fig 3: Grain Yield of Genotypes in 50% water regime CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS thousand kernel weight were identified as the most important traits that explained variation in WUE and could 30 The results of this study have shown that Sahai I a rain-fed be used by wheat breeders to select for WUE under low genotype and Loerie II an irrigated genotype had the highest water supply. Genotypes such as Sahai I and Loerie II 25 yield stability and highest water utilisation efficiency than the which showed superior WUE could also be used as WUE (Kg/Ha/mm) others as their yield reduction under stress conditions were parental material. 20 very low. This suggests that deliberate selection using them as parental material while targeting thousand kernel weight Key words: Grain yield, Yield component, Genotypes, 15 and harvest index which explained most of the variations Water Regime, Water use efficiency 10 could lead to development of appropriate varieties which INTRODUCTION Fig 1: Water flow meter Fig 2: Plastic enclosure 5 k could give higher grain yields in reduced water application rates. Such varieties could contribute to higher wheat production if adopted by many farmers. - The major challenge of increasing wheat production in RESULTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Zambia is increasing land under wheat production among The results revealed statistical significant differences among farmers. High cost of irrigation attributes to low production SPRING WHEAT GENOTYPES The authors are indebted to the National Irrigation Research Station – Nanga genotypes (Fig 3). Sahai I and Loerie II gave the highest as yields depended on availability of water which management and staffs especially Mr. Mingochi D, Mr. Mwiinga A, and Mr. A. grain yield of 6,086 kg ha-1 and 5,351 kg ha-1 respectively and Simankanda for the provision of site, irrigation water and technical support during trial contribute 44% of total variable cost among the Zambian Fig 4: Water Use efficiency of Genotypes in 50% water regime management till its completion. We are also grateful to Kashano Beatrice for funding highest WUE of 24 kg /ha mm-1 and 21 kg/ha mm-1 commercial farmers . Previous studies have revealed the research. Thanks to the Greenbelt fertilisers, ZARI, SEED-CO, ZAMSEED and respectively while the Choza and Nduna had the lowest grain UNZA for their support of the study. high genetic variations for morphological traits in yield of below 3, 000 kg ha-1 and WUE of 12 kg/ha mm-1 in cultivated wheat genotypes in relation to their water use BIBLIOGRAPHY 50% water regimes (Fig 4). Across water regimes Mampolyo efficiency. The present study was to evaluate the Table 1 : Effect of water regime on grain yield, yield (5, 838 kg ha-1) and Sahai I (5,669 kg ha-1) produced highest response of wheat genotypes in different water regimes in components and water use efficiency across genotypes 1. Aquino, P., Carrion, F., and Kosina, P., 2009. Selected Wheat Statistics. grain yield while Choza (4, 049 kg ha-1) gave the lowest grain In: Dicon, J, Braun, H, Kosina. P, and Crouch, J: (Eds): Wheat order to identify genotypes which can boost wheat Facts and Future 2009. CIMMYT. Pages: 82 - 95. yield. WUE production, used as parental lines and identify Water Yield TKW SPS BM SL GS HI PHT 2. Eid, M, H., 2009. Estimation of heritability ang genetic advance of yield traits in morphological traits which can be used in breeding for (kg/ha wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought condition. Int. J. Genet. Mol. Water stress up to 50% crop water requirement reduced plant Regime (Kg/ha) (g) ( g) (cm) (%) (cm) /mm) Biol. Vol. 1 (7): 115 - 120. appropriate wheat varieties that can encourage 3. Memon, S., Qureshi, M., Ansari, B, A., and Sial ,M.,2007. Genetic height by 16%, grain yield and harvest index by 25% each, production in Zambia. heritability for grain yield and its related characters in above ground biomass by 12% and spike length by 8%. The spring wheat. Pak. J. Bot 39 (5) 1503 – 1590. highest grain yield and yield components were recorded in 4. Miranzadeh, M., Eman, Y., Pilesjo, P., and Seyyedi, H,. 2011. Water Use GENERAL OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 100% 5,601 47 13 60 7.3 23 28 81 11 Efficiency of Four Dryland Wheat Cultivars under Different Levels 100% crop water requirement apart from above ground of Nitrogen Fertilisation. J. Agric. Scie. Tech ( 2011) Vol.13 : 843 - biomass which recorded highest of 62 g in 75% water 75% 4,714 49 12 62 6.3 21 25 73 12 854. To evaluate wheat genotypes grown in Zambia for water 5. Muoleki, P., 1997. Wheat and Barley (Triticum aestivum.L and Hordeum requirement (Table 1). Decreased water supply from 100% to use efficiency. 50% 4,182 50 12 53 6.7 19 21 69 17 vulgare .L.sensulato) In: (Muliokela.S.W.(Eds):Zambia Seed Technology 50% also increased WUE from 11 kg/ha mm-1 to 17 kg/ha Hand Book. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. Pages mm-1 154 – 158 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY LSD 6. Shamsi, K., M. Petrosyan., G. Noo-Mohammadi and R. Haghparast. 2010. 433 NS NS 5 0.6 NS 1 3 2 The role of water deficit stress and water use efficiency on bread (5 %) wheat cultivars. J. Appl. Biosci. 35: 2325 – 2331. Stepwise multiple regression between WUE and (i) To identify wheat genotypes with high water use 7. Yong’an, L,.Quanew.Zhigou, C., and Deyong,Z., 2010. Effect of drought morphological traits identified harvest index and thousand efficiency. TKW: Thousand kernel weight, SPS: Number of on water use efficiency, agronomic traits and yield of spring kernel weight as traits that explained most variation wheat landrances and modern varieties in Northwest China. Afri. J. (ii) To identify wheat morphological traits which can be spikelet/spike, BM: Above ground biomass, SL: Spike Agric. Research. Vol.5.(13):1598 – 1608. (R² = 60.9%) in WUE among genotypes. used in breeding for low water application. length, GS: Number of grains/spike, HI: Harvest index, WUE: Water use efficiency and PHT: Plant height.