Cooking Quality of Chinese Fresh Noodle Yan Zhang, Zhonghu He Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
Outline Background Materials and Methods Results Evaluation parameters for cooking quality of Chinese fresh noodle Traits associated with cooking quality of Chinese fresh noodle Summary
Background Percentage of wheat foods in China Food type % Steamed bread including flat bread 45 Noodles and dumplings 40 Cookies and biscuits 8 Western bread 4 Others 3 Total 100 Approximately 40% of Chinese wheat production is used to produce various types of noodles. Noodle quality improvement has become an important objective for wheat breeding programs in China.
Percentage of various noodles consumed in ChinaType %Fresh noodle (home made) 33Dry noodle (machine made) 24Instant noodle (machine made) 21Fresh noodle (machine made available at store) 13Extended alkaline noodle (La Mian) 5Extended noodle (Helu) 2Frozen noodle and others 2Total 100
Sensory evaluation parameters and quality performance ofChinese fresh noodle Parameter Full score Criterion Color 15 Bright and creamy Appearance 10 flat and speckless surface Firmness 20 medium firmness Viscoelasticity 30 Elastic, cohesive, and no stick to teeth when chewed Smoothness 15 Smooth when eaten Taste 10 aromatic taste Total 100 Good Chinese fresh noodle quality is characterized with bright creamy color, flat and speckless surface, and good eating quality such as medium firmness, elastic and cohesive, smooth, and aromatic taste. The texture and eating quality together with color are important parameters for Chinese noodle quality.
Consumer demand Chinese noodles are typically served in hot soup in China. Most consumers prefer noodles that retain a degree of firmness and elasticity in the soup. It is common for poor quality noodles to become soft and “mushy” quickly when served in hot soup and overcooking. The time gap between cooking and consumption of the noodle obviously affects noodle eating quality. The requirement for resistance to softening of noodle in hot soup and retaining noodle firmness after overcooking is also high in China. Noodle cooking quality improvement is an important objective for improving the overall noodle quality in Chinese wheat cultivars.
Progress in noodle cooking quality Some foreign studies have focused on assessing the relationships between different technological and chemical variables and pasta cooking quality. Pasta cooking quality can be expressed in terms of stickiness, firmness, overcooking tolerance, water absorption, cooking loss, and TOM value. Chinese reports indicate that protein property and starch content are significantly correlated with evaluation parameters for noodle cooking quality such as TOM value, cooking loss, and water absorption. But it is still not clear which parameter is more suitable for evaluation noodle cooking quality in Chinese wheat breeding programs. The aim of this study were to understand the relationship between flour compositional characteristics and noodle cooking quality and to determine evaluation parameter for noodle cooking quality in Chinese wheat breeding programs.
Materials Origin Number Beijing 8 Hebei 4 Shandong 20 Henan 12 Shannxi 2 Total 46 46 Chinese winter cultivars and advanced lines were used in this study. Harvested grain samples were free of sprouting damage.
Noodle cooking quality TOM value Total organic matter (TOM), which is the amount of surface material released from cooked noodle after exhaustive rinsing, was determined by a chemical method according to D’Egidio et al (1982). Cooking loss Cooking loss that is the loss of solids during cooking was determined by collecting the cooking water following drainage of the noodle for the TOM value and drying the cooking water overnight. Cooking loss (%) = the loss of solids weight / uncooked noodle weight Water absorption test (Cooked noodle weight) Seven samples consisted of 10 g noodle were cooked in a big boiler containing 2L boiling water for 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 min. At given times samples were removed from the boiler, rapidly blotted, and accurately weighed. Low TOM value, cooking loss, and cooked noodle weight indicate high noodle cooking quality
Results 6 min cooking time 10 min cooking time 2.5 Cooked noodle weight for 10 min (g) 24 A 24Cooked noodle weight (g) r = 0.69, P <0.01 2.0 r = 0.46, P <0.01 r = 0.86, P <0.01 23 TOM value 22 1.5 22 20 1.0 21 18 0.5 20 r = 0.66, P <0.01 16 0.0 19 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 17 18 19 20 21 T OM value (%) Cooking losses (%) Cooked noodle weight for 6 min (g) Relationship among evaluation parameters of noodle cooking quality TOM value was significantly and positively correlated with cooking losses and cooked noodle weights for 6 min and 10 min, correlation coefficient between cooked noodle weight for 6 min and 10 min cooking time was 0.86. The procedure for testing cooked noodle weight was more easier than TOM value and cooking losses. The cooked noodle weight for 10 min was recommended to be an important parameter for evaluation of noodle cooking quality.
Cooked noodle weight of samples at different cooking time 25.0 cooked noodle weight （g） 23.0 Xinong 979 21.0 Zhoumai 23 19.0 Taikong 6 17.0 Linmai 4 15.0 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cooking time（min） Cooked noodle weight of four samples increased significantly as cooking time increased from 4 to 10 min, viz. noodle cooking quality of that decreased significantly. Large variations were observed in water sorption of noodle at different cooking time. Cooked noodle weight for 10 min were more suitable for assessing noodle cooking quality compared with 6 min.
Noodle cooking quality classification of tested samples Classification Mean (g)a Rangeb Number of samples Good 20.57c 19.76~20.95 19 (≤21.0) Fair 21.37b 21.02~21.94 17 poor 22.62a 22.06~23.46 10 a,b Samples were ranked on cooked noodle weight for 10 min 46 tested samples were classified to three groups which were good, fair, and poor noodle cooking quality based on cooked noodle weight for 10 min. For 10 g fresh noodle, the cooked noodle weight for 10 min should be no more than 21.0 g for good noodle cooking quality in Chinese wheat samples.
Relationship between protein content and gluten strength and parameters of noodle cooking quality 8.0 24.5 r = -0.63, P <0.01 Noodle weight (10 min,g) Cooking losses (%) 7.0 23.5 r = 0.69, P <0.01 6.0 22.5 5.0 21.5 4.0 20.5 3.0 19.5 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 0 50 100 150 200 Mixing tolerance index (BU) Protein content (%) Protein content was significantly and negatively associated with cooking losses (r = -0.63), and farinogram mixing tolerance index was significantly and positively correlated with cooked noodle weights (r = 0.69). Protein content and gluten strength positively contributed to noodle cooking quality.
Relationship between energy and maximum resistance and parameters of noodle cooking quality 21.0 Cooked noodle weight (6 min,g) 2.5 20.0 2.0 r = -0.63, P <0.01 r = -0.66, P<0.01TOM value 1.5 19.0 1.0 18.0 0.5 17.0 0.0 0 50 100 150 16.0 0 200 400 600 800 Energy（cm 2 ） Max.resistance (BU) Energy (r = -0.66) and maximum resistance (r = -0.63) were significantly and negatively associated with TOM value and cooked noodle weights, respectively. Flour protein property was the major factor in determining noodle cooking quality.
Relationship between starch pasting property and parameters of noodle cooking quality Noodle cooking quality was also affected slightly by starch pasting parameters.
Relationship between gluten strength and starch pasting property and total score of noodle sensory evaluation 95 95 90 90 85 85 DWCN score DWCN score 80 80 75 75 70 70 65 65 60 60 55 55 0 200 400 600 800 150 200 250 300 Max resistance (B.U.) Peak viscosity (RVU) The association between gluten strength and noodle total score fitted quadratic regression model. This suggests that over strong quality wheat will have negative effect on Chinese noodle quality. Starch peak viscosity contributed positively to Chinese noodle quality.
Summary-1 The cooked noodle weight for 10 min was recommended to be an important parameter for evaluation of noodle cooking quality. For 10 g fresh noodle, the cooked noodle weight for 10 min should be no more than 21.0 g for good noodle cooking quality in Chinese wheat samples. It is suggested that cooked noodle weight for 10 min should be measured as well as sensory evaluation Chinese noodle quality for wheat breeding program.
Summary-2 Flour protein property was the major factor in determining noodle cooking quality. Noodle cooking quality was also affected slightly by starch pasting parameters. Flour with medium protein content, medium to strong gluten strength, and starch high peak viscosity are desirable for Chinese noodle quality.
Acknowledgement Prof. Jun Yan , Dr. Yonggui Xiao, and Mr. Desen Wang , providing wheat samples Funding from the national natural science foundation of China (31171547) and an international collaboration project on wheat improvement from Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (2011-G3)