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Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR?
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Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR?



Presentation delivered by Dr. Wayne Powell (CGIAR Consortium) at Borlaug Summit on Wheat for Food Security. March 25 - 28, 2014, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico.

Presentation delivered by Dr. Wayne Powell (CGIAR Consortium) at Borlaug Summit on Wheat for Food Security. March 25 - 28, 2014, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico.



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    Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR? Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR? Presentation Transcript

    • Wheat: A founder Crop of the CGIAR- Where does it fit in the New CGIAR? Wayne Powell March 28, 2014
    • Challenge Led Inspired by Innovation
    • The expectations of Science & Research has changed dramatically •Explosion in our scientific understanding •Opportunity to connect scientific excellence with impact by focussing on the Grand Challenges
    • Founder Crop of Civilization
    • CIMMYT developed high yielding varieties for staple cereals that were the engine of the Green Revolution
    • Evolution of the CGIAR
    • Increased and Sustained Investment: Doubling of CGIAR funding in five years (2008-2013)
    • CGIAR’s research is carried out by 16 Research Programs (CRPs), working in close collaboration with hundreds of partners worldwide.
    • What WHEAT is aiming for • An added value of wheat produced equaling USD 1.3 billion by 2020. • An additional USD 8.1 billion in wheat produced by 2030. • Enough wheat to feed an additional 56 million consumers by 2020. • Wheat to feed an additional 397 million by 2030. • Breaking the wheat yield barrier by 50%. http://wheat.org Expected Impact
    • Comparison of maize & wheat yields -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Source: Defra & USDA t/ha
    • D-genome gap analysis Bread wheat A. tauschii CIMMYT synthetics • Ae tauschii falls into two clades, • bread wheat exploits narrow sector of diversity, • Complements CIMMYT synthetics. Clade A Clade B Huw Jones
    • Selection of Diverse Tetraploid Donors Accessions pre-selected based on genetic diversity at SSR loci, cpSSR loci, GPC gene and geographic data found to be representative of the diversity in the collection. DArT genotyping of 90 wheat accessions using AABB chip Plastotype 2 dic6 27996 14078 tios 17202 14235 dic15 IG138654 C3 IG138588 G1 PI351442 B1 cortez PH robegus shamrockPH Spark PI294573 C5 ALCHEMY Mercia Rialto EINSTEINHereward Charger Paragon PHXi19ASHBY pi192569 A1 IG138724 D3PI278395 C1 IG138652 E2 PI136567 B2 IG127887 3AIG92851 H2 IG127865 E1 dic13 dic18 dic199 4308 dic34dic22 18083 18210 18209 16608 dic12bdic12a dic7 dic147 dic42 dic100 dic84 dic79 dic82 dic49 dic96 dic65 dic53 dic97adic97 dic67 dic50dic98dic114 dic80 dic72 dic71dic70 dic117 dic125 dic28a dic45 dic31 dic54 dic51 dic111 dic90 dic57 dic56 dic108adic108 dic63 dic107 18535 dic94 dic93 dic145 dic141 dic121 dic87 dic129 dic132 dic120 0.1 hex hexaploid T. dicoccum T. dicoccum T. dicoccoides
    • y = 0.8655x + 0.4495 R² = 0.7951 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 LowN-Grainyieldtha-1(85%DM) HIgh N - Grain yield t ha-1 (85%DM) RL Check cultivars SHWs Watkins lines LSD (5%)
    • Orville Vogel, Wash State U. Norman Borlaug, CIMMYT Ed Wilhelm, NIAB/JIC: Determine Rht-A1, Rht-B1, and Rht-D1 genetic variation and linked genes Rht genes •1960s green revolution: • Reduced lodging • Yield increases •Rht-B1b (Rht1) and Rht-D1b (Rht2) characterized and mapped (Gale and Youssefian, 1985) •Rht genes cloned and identified as DELLA proteins (Peng et al., 1999)
    • Rht Allelic Diversity (all sequences) 0 bp 1870 bp-1750 bp 2400 bp Rht-A1 •16 indels (1-6 bp) •46 SNPs •1 indel (5 bp) •2 SNPs•8 SNPs (3 AA changes) Rht-B1 •6 indels (1-197 bp) •24 SNPs -356 160 bp ins. -591 197 bp ins. -694 16 bp del. •10 SNPs (5 AA changes). •1 bp insertion •2 indels (1-3 bp) •4 SNPs 1 bp indel Rht-D1 •7 indels (1-3 bp) •17 SNPs •2 indels (3 bp) •2 SNPs•8 SNPs (4 AA changes) (5’) (ORF) (3’) Wilhelm et al. (2013) Theor Appl Gen 126:1733
    • 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 A B D A B D A B D A B D Overall (~40 acc.) 2x, 4x wheat (2-4 acc.) Bread wheat (37 acc.) Bread wheat - UK (12 acc.) πx10-3 A01; 1 A02; 28 A03; 2 A04; 1 A05; 2 A06; 1 A07; 1 A08; 1 A09; 1 B01; 9 B02; 1 B03; 4 B04; 1 B05; 1 B06; 6B07; 2 B08; 1 B09; 5 B10; 4 B11; 2 B12; 1 B13; 1 D01; 15 D02; 5 D03; 11 D04; 4 D05; 1 D06; 1 D07; 1 Haplotype Dictionary
    • Norin 10 Ancestry Daruma Shiro-Daruma Glassy Fultz Fultz Daruma Turkey Red Norin 10 Brevor Norin 10/Brevor-14 x x x Historical Pedigree Marker results Rht-B1b + Rht-D1a Rht-B1a + Rht-D1b (minor occurrence of Rht-B1b) not available (Shou Fultz = Rht-B1a + Rht-D1b) Rht-B1a + Rht-D1a (Furtz Daruma = Rht-B1a + Rht-D1b) Rht-B1a + Rht-D1a Rht-B1b + Rht-D1b Rht-B1a + Rht-D1a Rht-B1b + Rht-D1b Red = cultivars historically thought to carry Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b Wilhelm et al. (2013) Plant Breeding 132:539
    • • Heterozygosity • Large genome sizes • Repetitive regions • Polyploidy (homoeologues) / paleopolyploidy Complex plant genomes Rice 0.4Gb Bread wheat 17Gb Human 3Gb Heterozygosity, repeats and homoeologues confound assembly tools Barley 5.1Gb
    • A B D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 144x 112x 30x 88x 91x 54x 68x 76x 109x 112x 28x 46x 59x 37x 54x 77x 120x 97x 147x 85x 113x 36x 116x 154x 241x 68x 48x 158x 126x 173x 137x 80x 63x 141x 121x 195x 55x 145x 107x 220x 94x Wheat CSS sequencing coverage
    • Breeding powered by genome technologies-0pportunity wheat CRP Products & Knowledge based on principles of sustainable intensification Platform for hypothesis testing.
    • MAGIC F2 derived F2 & self Elite MAGIC & self P (no recomb) 0.241 0.036 # tracts 2.6 4.7 # founders 2 3.5 The NIAB Elite MAGIC population
    • The NIAB Elite MAGIC population 28210315 complete pedigree @NIABTAG #bgri2014
    • CGIAR Research Programmes • Long term mission driven research – Ambitious programmes tackling problems beyond the reach of others. • Sustainable Agricultural Intensification – Intensification for Genetics, Agro-Ecology and Socioeconomics – Framework for delivery built around Products (Public Goods) and Knowledge. • Institutional Capacity and Capability (skills) to deliver with a strong partnership ethos. • Strong Leadership and management commitment • Beacon for innovation • Recognising that Ag Research for Development is data intensive providing opportunities for systems based approaches.
    • Global leadership for International Public Wheat Breeding. • Intellectual leadership for 21st Century breeding. • Informatics and statistical/population genetics to inform, support and re-design breeding programmes. • Role model for the exploitation of genetic resources in breeding. – Pro-active management of diversity in breeding programmes for Sustainable Agricultural Intensification. – Managing and monitoring key recombination events. – World class phenotyping hubs. • Partner of choice for wheat research and breeding for the developing world. • Forging creative new alliances with partners, funders and business where risks and benefits are shared equitably. • Collaboratively building capacity & capability with partners in the Developing world.
    • The Pursuit of Ignorance Sydney Brenner “Which type of science to fund is simple: all science is problem driven and should be judged by the importance of the problem and the quality of the solutions provided.”
    • MAGIC An innovative approach to dissecting the genetic control of complex traits in wheat Alison Bentley, P Howell, J Cockram, G Rose, T Barber, R Horsnell, N Gosman, P Bansept, M Scutari, A Greenland and I Mackay @NIABTAG BGRITechnicalWorkshopMarch2014#bgri2014