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The Challenges of Irrigated Wheat to enhance Food Security in Tunisia
 

The Challenges of Irrigated Wheat to enhance Food Security in Tunisia

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By Halim Ben Haj Salah* and Tarek Jarrahi

By Halim Ben Haj Salah* and Tarek Jarrahi
Corresponding author: ingc@planet.tn

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    The Challenges of Irrigated Wheat to enhance Food Security in Tunisia The Challenges of Irrigated Wheat to enhance Food Security in Tunisia Document Transcript

    • National Institute of Field Crops, Tunisia Institution of Agriculture Research and Higher Education Project “Enhancing Food Security in Arab Countries” International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas Halim Ben Haj Salah, Tarek Jarrahi Institut National des Grandes Cultures, B.P. 120, 8170 Bousalem, Tunisia.Introduction Irrigated Project Site ObjectivesFood security is a strategic national objective and is related to increase wheat production.  Development and promotion of improved varietiesCapita consumption of wheat (around 220 kg/year/person) is the highest in the world.  Increase farmer income by using appropriate wheat management practicesCurrent Cereal Production:  Make farmers experts of wheat production in their fields and promote farmer-to farmer trainingAverage production of 2005-2010 period: 1,7 Millions tons  Enhancing capacity of national research systems through training of young scientistsAverage wheat yield: 1.3 t/ha in rainfed area and 4.3 t/ha in irrigated area  Establishment of an effective partnership in wheat research that will provide a new generation of agriculturalDeficit of cereal balance: 51 % scientistsNational Strategic objectives:Reach self sufficiency in durum wheat production (1,6 Million tons) . Arid climate Average rainfall: 307 mm MethodologyEnsure a minimal production of 1,0 million tons during unfavorable years through cultivation of wheat in irrigated and Total cereal area: 14 000 ha The activities implemented are chosen in consultation with farmer groups, local extensionists, and scientists. Tofavorable areas. Irrigated cereal area: 4 500 ha achieve this, the project developed an innovative approach to accelerate dissemination and adoption of newIncrease irrigated wheat area to 130.000 ha and reach an average target yield of 6 t/ha. Number of irrigated area:19 technologies by developing the cluster dissemination approach based on establishing a leader and demonstrationThe ICARDA Project “Enhancing Food Security in Arab Countries” activities in Tunisia were implemented at the Number of farmers : 1000 satellite farmers to disseminate innovations.Governorate of Kairouan (county of Chebika). The aim of this project is to increase wheat yield for food security by Mean Cereal Yield: 4 t/ha Farmer-groupsdissemination technologies on-farm, with farmers, and for farmers.  Regular meetings in fields  Leaders farmers disseminate innovations  Discuss about the best crop management practices, then take agro-economical decisions  Dissemination recommended package at satellite fields  Particular focus was given to mobile phone use that facilitated communication between farmers and extension agents and to assist on farm field operations and irrigation scheduling. Model of technology transfer to private 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 irrigated areas Number of 12 132 220 Demonstration Fields Results of dissemination and applied research activities Dissemination activities Wheat variety adaptation to irrigated areas Irrigation scheduling through water balance The integrated Fertilization management for wheat Fig.1: Grain yield (T/ha) of wheat varieties at Leaders farmers N 8 Tensiometring map for warning W E Rouissette irrigation based on soil type and S 7 available water Pourtour Jouaouda Tension_Critique(cbar) Elevation Range 38 - 48 6 48 - 58 Aouamria 58 - 68 68 - 78 Yield (T/ha) Chebika ouest 78 - 88 5 88 - 98 98 - 108 108 - 118 Sidi ali ben salem Abida 4 El Haouareb Hammed 6.58 3 5.98 5.64 5.62 4.83 4 0 4 8 12 Kilometers 2 1 Fig. 5: Compared grain yield obtained using (IFM) and common farmers 0 fertiliser applications 8 Khiar Razzak Saragolla Maali Farmers 7 Technology transfer of improved technical package for high yielding 6 durum wheat varieties Yield (T/ha) 5 Fig. 2: Grain yield (T/ha) of wheat at Satellite farmers Promoting Permanent Bed Planting and Adapting Local Conventional Seeder 4 8 3 6,04 7 4,71 2 6 1 Yield (T/ha) 5 0 4 Yield IFM Yield Farmers 3 5.99 4.63 2 1 0 Maali Farmers Applied research activities Testing and evaluating new wheat lines for late sowing date Testing foliar fertilizer for improving wheat production and quality Testing water saving technologies by using making decision tools20 advanced lines (CIMMYT ) for High production area and “Karim” were assessed at 3 sowing date (15 November,15 Fig.6: Grain yield (T/ha) from foliar fertilizerDecember and 15 January) for high grain yield potential in irrigated areas in the central of Tunisia No foliar fertilizer foliar fertilizer water amount Precipitation grain yield WUE 8 Treatment (mm) (mm) t/ha (kg /m3) 7 Tensiometer 280 125 7.47 1.84Farmers and technician have participated in the assessment of this nursery through the selection participatory activity 6 Penman 240 125 6.15 1.68 Class A ev.Pan 240 125 5.18 1.42 Yield (T/ha) 5 Evaluation of drip irrigation for wheat 4 6,92 Effect of the applied treatments on grain water use efficiency 3 6,27 6,45 6,32 6,67 6,27 6,13 6,50 5,68 5,97 water amount Precipitation grain yield in WUE 2 Treatment (mm) (mm) t/ha (kg /m3) 1 Four new varieties were highly preferred by farmers for early maturing. These cultivars are often associated with greater 100 cm spacing 412 125 8.1 1.51 yield. However, late sowing appeared to be associated with greater yielding ability for irrigated trials. These two results 0 would imply that genotypes characterized by short vegetative growth cycle are sought and suited for irrigated areas. Early 50 cm spacing 238 125 7 1.97 Med Arbi Jarray Nacer Jhinaoui Youssef Rebeiai Med Jabbas Moy sowing in these areas could favor lodging and grain yield might be reduced by terminal heat. Capacity Building Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) Contact /Information Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFSED) ingc@planet.tn Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) www.ingc.com.tn OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)