Farmers’ roles in biodiversity conservation andcrop improvement: Insights from participatory breeding in SW               ...
OutlineI.   Challenges:     •   Flattening yield increases of maize,     •   farmers’ low adoption of high yielding       ...
ChallengeFlattening yield increases of maize in China• 1960-1970:double cross,89 kg/ha/year• 1971-1995:single cross,126kg/...
Yield of major crops during 1990-2010                             1990-2010主要作物单产 • Aim: Linking formal and farmers’ syste...
Gap and Potential for actual yield25                 increasing                                                           ...
Why? Input: fertilizer/hybrid seeds etc• We used 2.4 times of fertilizer than USA,  our yield is only 51%• Almost 100% hyb...
China’s fertilizer consumption and grain production(1980=100) – results suggest that we need a new approach   350         ...
Why: Policy Review          我国农业产业政策变化大• Rural reform in 1980:联产承包责任制• No agricultural Tax:取消农业税• Increased subsidies   增加...
Why? one of the main reasons is…Lower concern and effort in genetic exploration and pre-breeding by both public research a...
Missing linkage: Genetics exploration and Pre-breeding              中国玉米育种的技术缺环  • Quick jump and limited foundation in   ...
Number of hybrids V used in productionyet with few dominant 60% of the area and500         with narrow genetic base4003002...
Disappearance of landraces… Coverage of landraces of 3 major crops in SW china                    95%            95%      ...
Why? another reason….No right Vs for right location and right farmers…Limited understanding of the differentiation and cha...
–Shandong: Av farm/HH 0.6 ha,                                  vegetable and maize.100% hybrid                            ...
How we started our PPB?CIMMYT Impact Study in SW China 1998:    Separation of the two systems                             ...
Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) DefinitionPPB: close collaboration between researchers and farmers and other stakeholde...
Why participatory plant              breeding?          为什麽参与式育种• Marginal, stress prone regions farmers’  needs• Biodiver...
Major PPB steps/activities in two systems• Aim: Linking formal and farmers’ systems and enhancing  their complementary sup...
PPB action research in SW Chin (2000-2011) Phases     site     crop            Focuses 重点关注                   Institutes/v...
What have been done in recent years?      Genetic resource exploration and analysis (1)•     (1)170 landraces collected in...
In Genetic resource exploration (2)4)170+31 landraces for joint experiments  (evaluation and screening) 3 sites, two repea...
资源收集与分布Fig. Geographical distribution of the landraces collected from 3 provincesin southwest China. 总计:170个+31
Initial results of Lab result: of 170 landraces,Field and Lab analysis analysis enhancing recognition of  landraces, TK an...
PPB in farmers’ field• Landraces screenning, in population and fixed  line selection提纯复壮:对优良的地方资源,提  倡用提纯复壮的方法加以繁殖、留种。• fa...
Knowledge Exchange         Pre-breeding;                              -Landraces collection and                           ...
参与式育种培训/PPB training
Landraces from Guangxi   广西地方玉米品种
Yunan
Guizhou
Landraces in Comparison with a popular hybrid in Gunagxi
Landraces in Comparison with a popular hybrid in Guangxi
Community Based Seed Production
With climate changes farmers in remote areas more likeSpringFarmer improved landraces survived 2010, Big self-saved improv...
Conclusions –   A lot to do urgently   Short and longer term solutions                                                    ...
Some recommendationsLinking science research with farmers’ needs1.   More efforts in GR exploration and pre-breeding with ...
Thank You ! Q&A?
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S8.1. Farmers’ roles in biodiversity conservation and crop improvement: Insights from participatory breeding in SW China

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Presentacion de 11th Asian Maize Conference which took place in Beijing, China from November 7 – 11, 2011.

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S8.1. Farmers’ roles in biodiversity conservation and crop improvement: Insights from participatory breeding in SW China

  1. 1. Farmers’ roles in biodiversity conservation andcrop improvement: Insights from participatory breeding in SW China By Yiching Song, Jingsong Li, Shihuang Zhang, Weidong Chen, Kaijian Huang, Lanqiu Qing and etc Centre for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Chinese Academy of Science Institute of Crop Science (ICS, CAAS) Guangxi Maize Research Institute, (GMRI)
  2. 2. OutlineI. Challenges: • Flattening yield increases of maize, • farmers’ low adoption of high yielding technologiesII. PPB Initiative and action process in SW ChinaIII. Consideration and suggestions 2
  3. 3. ChallengeFlattening yield increases of maize in China• 1960-1970:double cross,89 kg/ha/year• 1971-1995:single cross,126kg/ha/year 6000• 1996-2010:~ 35kg/ha/year Maize yield since 1950 5000 4000 单交种 b=126 b=23 3000 OPVs 抗逆性 2000 b=14 1000 双交种 b=89 0 3 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
  4. 4. Yield of major crops during 1990-2010 1990-2010主要作物单产 • Aim: Linking formal and farmers’ systems and enhancing 1990-2010主要作物单产 their complementary roles 7000.0 7000.0 Formal breeders: 1) M collection, pre-breeding, knowing farmers’ 6000.0 6000.0单产(公斤、公顷) 单产(公斤、公顷) 小麦 5000.0 5000.0 needs, 水稻 小麦 4000.0 玉米 水稻 4000.0 3000.0 2) field experiment, lab analysis, 大豆 玉米 油菜 3000.0 2000.0 3) Strategic crossing 棉花 大豆 油菜 2000.0 1000.0 4, Ex-situ conservation 0.0 棉花 Farmers: a) participate in evaluation, selection and experiment 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1000.0 0.0 b) improvement of OPV supported by breeders 年份 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 c) direct adoption of appropriate impr OPVs & hybrids d) in-situ conservation 年份
  5. 5. Gap and Potential for actual yield25 increasing 19.52015 1110 8.85 7.6 7.9 6.1 5.2 4.9 5 3 0 1980 1995 2005 potential yield experiment yield actual yield 227/120/127 860/95/30 Dr. RF Hu
  6. 6. Why? Input: fertilizer/hybrid seeds etc• We used 2.4 times of fertilizer than USA, our yield is only 51%• Almost 100% hybrid coverage in Northern China and more than 70% in SW China• Are they right technologies for right people and in right place, time and right way? 6
  7. 7. China’s fertilizer consumption and grain production(1980=100) – results suggest that we need a new approach 350 309 300 Grain production Fertilizer consumption 240 250 204 200 159 139 144 150 100 100 100 50 0 1980 1990 2000 2008
  8. 8. Why: Policy Review 我国农业产业政策变化大• Rural reform in 1980:联产承包责任制• No agricultural Tax:取消农业税• Increased subsidies 增加农业补贴• Increased E&D investment 科技投入成 倍增加• …….? 8
  9. 9. Why? one of the main reasons is…Lower concern and effort in genetic exploration and pre-breeding by both public research and domestic seed companies, due to• Low interest and role conflicts of public breeding• low interest and capacity of private seed companies 9
  10. 10. Missing linkage: Genetics exploration and Pre-breeding 中国玉米育种的技术缺环 • Quick jump and limited foundation in breeding research (从原始OPV跨入双交种阶 段,又用了很短时间,跃入单交种时期) • Use USA and CIMMYT germplasms, and ignored local genetic resource exploration for local specific adaption breeding, and stressful locations (得益 于无偿获得国外先进技术和种质资源(忽略了地方种 质和资源)
  11. 11. Number of hybrids V used in productionyet with few dominant 60% of the area and500 with narrow genetic base400300200100 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 11 玉米 胡瑞法
  12. 12. Disappearance of landraces… Coverage of landraces of 3 major crops in SW china 95% 95% 93% soybean 69% rice maize 46% 37% 30% 25% 25% 1998 2003 2008Source: Survey in SW China, CCAP2009-2010
  13. 13. Why? another reason….No right Vs for right location and right farmers…Limited understanding of the differentiation and changes of the context, farmers’ farming system and their livelihood Socio-economic change and climate change - urbanization/migration, market and income driven, low interest in agriculture, extreme weather, more drought, Income structure change: less % of farming come labor change: farming labors are women and the old now farming system change:-more easy cash crop, less food crop, less labor input
  14. 14. –Shandong: Av farm/HH 0.6 ha, vegetable and maize.100% hybrid maize, part time farmers, mainly women and old Montain Areas in Southwest Plain China Areas 西南山区玉米•SW China karst mountain area dwelling by 33 ethnic groups, 0,4ha farm/HH size, maize, rice, potato, maize hybrid about 25-35%•Farming labors: more than 70% is women and 85% is older than50 years
  15. 15. How we started our PPB?CIMMYT Impact Study in SW China 1998: Separation of the two systems Formal System 正规系统 Farmers System Breeders 农民系统 Seed Company Farmers farmers Extension Farmers farmers Farmers farmers Farmers farmers farmers farmers farmerspoor and remote area better off green revolution areaOPVs and landraces, several high yielding hybridsseed selection and maintenance hybrid breeding,Farmer to farmer seed exchange top-down formal seed system 15 Technology transfer,
  16. 16. Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) DefinitionPPB: close collaboration between researchers and farmers and other stakeholders, covers the whole cycle of activities associated with plant genetic improvement. (Identify objectives, materials, fields, selection, evaluation, and improvement, small scale seed production, distribution etc)PVS: Participatory Varietal election (PVS)….is just involve farmers in part/s of the cycle…
  17. 17. Why participatory plant breeding? 为什麽参与式育种• Marginal, stress prone regions farmers’ needs• Biodiversity + productivity increase are twin goals for sustanable yield increase• Diversity maintenance + exploration is a base for both farmer and formal systems
  18. 18. Major PPB steps/activities in two systems• Aim: Linking formal and farmers’ systems and enhancing their complementary supporting rolesFormal breeders: 1) M collection, documentation, farmers’ needs 2) field experiment, lab analysis, 3) Strategic crossing 4, Ex-situ conservationFarmers: a) participate in evaluation, selection and experiment b) improvement of OPV supported by breeders c) direct adoption of appropriate impr OPVs & hybrids d) in-situ conservation e) small scale seed production and value adding
  19. 19. PPB action research in SW Chin (2000-2011) Phases site crop Focuses 重点关注 Institutes/villages2000-2003 GX maize PPB capacity building for formal -women and groups in 4 institutes and farmers v -Interested breeders from CAAS and GAAS,2004-2007 GX Maize PPB, Extension Reform, -8 villages and conservation agriculture State and Provincial cassava public breeding and Extension, MOA2008-2011 GX Maize, -PPB for pre-breeding and joint -Community, Orgs GZ rice, experiment, conservation 3+2 Prov public breeding YN bean, -- livelihood, value adding and CAAS and MOA maize cassava, farmer cooperatives program SC etc CQ
  20. 20. What have been done in recent years? Genetic resource exploration and analysis (1)• (1)170 landraces collected in field, documented in 3 provinces (Gunagxi, Yunan, Guizhou) in 2009-2010• (2) Lab analysis of landraces’ biodiversity, grouping of the 170 landraces in ICS, CAAS, 2010• (3) experiment for comparison of 34 landraces collected 20- 30 years ago with same lines in cultivation now (2009-2010) 品种名称 株高 穗位高 茎粗 穗长 秃尖长 穗粗 行粒数 锈病级别 出籽率 千粒重 粒长 20年前收集种质 219.2 99.3 1.4 12.3 1.2 3.6 24 8.2 84.07 183 0.8 20年后收集种质 240.6 109.3 1.6 13.7 1.4 4.0 27 7.3 83.45 215 0.9
  21. 21. In Genetic resource exploration (2)4)170+31 landraces for joint experiments (evaluation and screening) 3 sites, two repeats in 3 provinces in 2011,(5) Strategic grouping and crossing of their own landraces by the 5 breeding groups from the 3 provinces in different sites for specifically local adaption(6) Lab analysis of landraces’ biodiversity, grouping etc (201 landraces in 2011)
  22. 22. 资源收集与分布Fig. Geographical distribution of the landraces collected from 3 provincesin southwest China. 总计:170个+31
  23. 23. Initial results of Lab result: of 170 landraces,Field and Lab analysis analysis enhancing recognition of landraces, TK and farmers’ roles 2009-2010 The same germplasm (20-30 years ago and now) are different, in field ones are more diversity rich and adaptive to changes ….. Adaptation, evolution… process 170 landraces had been assigned into 2 groups clearly with remarkable diversity, two maize agro-ecosystems The genetic structure of the landraces was well compatible with geographical pattern. Gene flow occurred in the SW Characteristic diversification due to the bio-ecological environments, farmers’ selection based on their rich culture, TK and diversified livelihood needs
  24. 24. PPB in farmers’ field• Landraces screenning, in population and fixed line selection提纯复壮:对优良的地方资源,提 倡用提纯复壮的方法加以繁殖、留种。• farmer interest group in OPV improvement and varietal and top crosses根据试验的初步 结果尝试组配顶交种加以利• Small scale seed production of prefer Improved OPVs and hybrid and PPB
  25. 25. Knowledge Exchange Pre-breeding; -Landraces collection and screening -selected OPV/population improvement -in-bred line selection -crossing…•-Conservation, seed fair,seed bank, register,•-PPB and PVS, improvedlandraces and OPVs•-community based Seedproduction•Value adding to GRs and TK
  26. 26. 参与式育种培训/PPB training
  27. 27. Landraces from Guangxi 广西地方玉米品种
  28. 28. Yunan
  29. 29. Guizhou
  30. 30. Landraces in Comparison with a popular hybrid in Gunagxi
  31. 31. Landraces in Comparison with a popular hybrid in Guangxi
  32. 32. Community Based Seed Production
  33. 33. With climate changes farmers in remote areas more likeSpringFarmer improved landraces survived 2010, Big self-saved improved OPV varietiesDraught in SW China Farmer improved Landraces, Tolerant to drought and low nitrogen with little fertilizer and labor Hybrid Variety was not able to survive the big drought ,
  34. 34. Conclusions – A lot to do urgently Short and longer term solutions Increase density – exploit some existing science for sustainable intensification Soil testing and compound fertilizer Germination hastening and y = 85.8x + 436.9 bed-irrigating sowing 2 NPK fertilizers and trace Rainwater collection and R = 0.95** elements, increased input irrigation Increase density Reduced tillage Increase density Seed coating Straw return N fertilizer, irrigation N and P fertilizers Seedling transplanting Deep ploughing 7000 and pesticides Plastic mulch Water-saving irrigation Direct seeding Capital construction of Leaf age regulation Mechanical operations Late harvest farmland and Herbside for seeding and weed Mechanized sowing & 6000 Drought-resistant control Intensive management improvement of saline - harvest alkali soil cultivation 5000 Land leveling Intercropping andYield (kg ha-1 ) Soil improvement Increase density double/triple cropping 4000 Increase density Single- cross hybrids Irrigation Farmyard and green Stress resistant planting Single- cross hybrids (Close-planting, multi - 3000 manure (Disease-resistant, resistant and highly Single- cross hybrids compact, stay green, adaptable) 2000 (Disease-resistant, high-stalk and later compact, stay green, maturing) Single- cross hybrids 1000 (Breed high -yield, dwarf high-stalk and later Double- cross hybrids and early - maturing maturing) 0 Single- cross hybrids varieties and disease - resistance varieties) 1961 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 How about people, institutions, policy, lows?, …..If farmer not use it, it’s zero……we need to broaden our heart, view and working areas, need integrated approach and collaboration …..
  35. 35. Some recommendationsLinking science research with farmers’ needs1. More efforts in GR exploration and pre-breeding with more involvement of farmers, to ensure genetic gains keep pace with climate change and demand2. Experimenting with farmers, understand farmers’ needs and interests, match breeding priority with farmers’ needs3. Decentralized and regional specific technology development and extension strategies4. Extension and farmer training: public extension (farmer field school, in field advices etc), farmer cooperatives, enterprise contracting farming,5. linking different disciplines, stakeholders (inc farmers), sectors, levels via Integrated and collaborative approach
  36. 36. Thank You ! Q&A?

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