Sustainable Intensification of Maize Legume cropping systems for food security in Eastern and Southern Africa SIMLESA :Geographic focus Initial Experiences andEthiopia Lessons to AsiaKenyaMalawiMozambique Mulugetta Mekuria, Shiferaw B,South Africa Prasanna B.M, Rodriguez D andTanzania Dixon J
Problem settingWhy SIMLESA and Origins of Program idea• Persistent hunger & poverty in east and southern Africa * droughts and famine; food (price) crisis; global financial crisis (GFC)• History of Australian contributions to global food security since the middle of the last century: establishment of FAO; and ongoing support to establishment of CGIAR; and ongoing support• During 2008 additional budget allocations sought for specific food security programs in Asia and Africa (including one part focused on maize-legume systems )• consultations and scoping studies to initiate a food security initiative in ESA- Hence SIMLESA in March 2010
http://apsrunet.apsim.info/simlesa/Clusters of food insecuritySIMLESA Countries Why are we where we are? Low productivity of maize-legume cropping systems Lack of functioning input and output value chains Poor availability of improved seeds Scarce agricultural research capacity Potgieter, Davis and Rodriguez, 2010
Dual Challenge to SSATo double food production, and significantly increase incomes and livelihood opportunities, while• Ensuring resilience and sustainability of farming systems on essentially the same land area,• Adapting to climate change and the increases in costs of fertilizer, water, and labor. SIMLESA goes right to the heart of this challenge
Vision of Success• To increase maize and legume yields by 30% for benefitting farmers – through improved maize and legume varieties and associated management practices, – with adoption enabled and motivated through the development of markets and value chains, from input supplies to output markets.• To reduce downside yield risks by 30% To benefit 500,000 farm households within 10 years.
SIMLESA aims at increasing farm-household food security andproductivity, in the context of climate risk and change, throughthe development of more resilient, profitable and sustainable maize-legume farming systems Socio-economic More productive, Improved range of characterization resilient and maize and legume sustainable varieties available Input and output smallholder maize- for smallholders value chain legume practices, tactics and Whole farm strategies resource allocations Mainstreaming Gender, M&E , Spill overs, Scaling out and capacity building30% increase in maize and legume yields and 30% reduction in risk 500,000 households over the next 10 years
3 Is INTEGRATION (SYSTEMS) INNOVATION PLATFORMS IMPACT ORIENTATION
Baseline surveys, Farming systems and SE studies modelling Reported Farmers Sources of Income Researcher 100% 80% other craft petty trade managed trials beer brewing 60% self-employment 40% remittance hiring-out labour 20% livestock sales vegetable sales 0% crop sales Arumeru Karatu Hanang Farmer- managed trials On-farm trials Farmers Researcher and Community experimenting extension awareness training meetings Farmer-to-farmer exchanges SIMLESA, 2010
Governance and Organization ASAREC MoA A CIMMYT Tanzania IIAM ICRISAT- Mozambi TL2 q MoA Malawi KARI Australian Kenya Partners Project Steering EIAR Committee South AfricanEthiopia Project Management: Partners CIMMYT
Objective 1: Major achievements-2010Household baseline survey• Baseline survey completed in all the five countries and on-going in Malawi• Interviewed 4600 farm households randomly selected• 29 districts located in two agro- ecological zones and maize-pigeon pea, maize-beans, and maize- groundnuts , maize-soya beans cropping system• More than 580 villages• Community survey data collected from these villages
Achievements in Objective 2 (CA)• Ethiopia: Second season 2011/2012 progressing vey Field days ongoing• Kenya and Tanzania Season two crops mid season stage- Field days being organized• Malawi and Mozambique-First Season results reported
Objective 2: Establishment of on-farm exploratory trials by farmers Country Farmer groups # of Exploratory trials Ethiopia 12 58 Kenya 8 48 Tanzania 8 48 Malawi 6 36 Mozambique 6 36 Total 40 226
Australian partners contributions• Innovative relay & intercrop cropping systems tested for Queensland• Stress characterisation for Queensland• Capacity building • APSIM Training • NARS trained on BNF • African graduate student supervision at Australian universities • Support publications
Achievements in Objective 2 (CA) : Field Visit Kenya 16 June
Objective 03Identification of pre-release (within NVMTs) or newly released hybrids and OPVswith potential suitability for the targeted farming system Ethiopia Kenya Malawi Mozambique Tanzania Hybrids BH661 KH500-39E MH26 CZH0511 Selian H308 BH543 KDH3 MH27 Olipa Selian H208 WH105 SAH779 KH500Q SAH638 KH631Q SAH636 H624 H520 KH533A KM0406 OPVs Melkassa 2 KDV1 ZM523 ZM523 SA523 Melkassa 6Q Embu Synth ZM623 Tsangano SA525 Gibe 2 KKSynth2 ZM309 Chinaca Gibe 3 WS303 ZM721 KM0403
Farmers’ assessment of newly released and pre-releasedmaize varieties• Assessment was done for newly released varieties, pre-released varieties, and farmer maize varieties• Evaluation involves socio-economists, maize breeders and agronomists in collaboration with farmers and extension staff
Capacity building• Graduate level training/scholarships -AusAID and ACIAR – 5 PhD enrolled in 2011 in Austrian Universities – 30+Msc,3 PhDs registered in local Universities – 2012 Candidates being selected• Specific short term training in – CA Principles for research ,extension, NGO,staff and farmers – socio economics, M&E, Impact assessment for NARS – breeding and seed systems – Gender Mainstreaming; APSIM
For SIMLESA to succeed, it must align with realistic value chains• Seed supply• Fertilizer supply• Equipment for CA based technologies• Postharvest technologies• Insurance providers• Price information providers• Traders and processors …Do you know them? Are the appropriate providers involved?
For SIMLESA to succeed, it must draw on appropriate component technologies• CA based practices• Drought tolerant maize• More productive legume varieties• Postharvest technologies• Improved integration of livestock options• Cell-phone managed insurance approaches The Challenge:How do we combine them so they optimize food security, incomes, resilience and sustainability?
Looking at the bigger picture:What are we targeting? – Farms that strongly base their food and income security on maize and legumesWhat do we do? – Interventions that maximize farm-level productivity, income, resilience and sustainability in these farming systems, based on farmers own resources and long realistic value chains.How do we work? – Innovation systems approach which means strong partnership with relevant actors
African Maize systems are different than Asian Systems “In east Asia, if you invent an improved rice variety, every farmer for hundreds of miles around can use it because the land and climate are much the same. In Africa,soil and climatic conditions are much more diverse and farmers a few hundred yardsapart may need different seeds.” Larson, World Bank on The Economist Feb 24 issue 2011 The African maize system • Maize is a major staple food • Characterized by mostly uni- modal rainfall • Maize- legume intercropping and rotation is common system • Production of single crop per year. • Small scale irrigation development is at stage of infancy • Average yields less than 3t/ha, • Seeds and fertilizer access and availability is a major constraint
Asian Maize Systems• Maize-legume intercropping system with maize as main crop clearly revealed the yield advantages (over sole maize cropping) as well as soil nitrogen enrichment• Maize dominated cropping systems were found in the mountain and hill regions of Nepal, whereas paddy dominated the cropping system in the plain (terai) region• The drivers of Asian maize production systems are the increased demand for maize for feed• system is most dynamic in the low land rice based systems(Gulati and Dixon, 2008) where rice is the cultural crop as maize is for Africa.• . Research undertaken in some of the Asian countries also led to identification of specific legumes that fit well as an intercrop in the maize-legume systems.• In Asia the constraint might be inputs quality rather than access
Initial Lessons from SIMLESA• The systems and participatory approaches - are not new for Asia• Recognizing management of system integration is a necessary condition to properly implement maize legume intensificationSIMLESA’s 3Is are relevant to an Asian SIMLESA in a different way: How can we to develop it?• Adopt the value chain approach from the start; link together input value chains, farmers, output chains• Implement a systems diagnostic process as early as possible• Start the project by including the private sector early- because you need them to develop and agree on a seed road map
Initial Lessons from SIMLESA• Undertake PVS and farmer evaluation methods to enhance and speed up release of farmer accepted and preferred maize and legume varieties and• Promote sustainable agronomic practices including CA options• Cognizant that input access and availability is not a major constraint in Asia, there is a need insure that farmers use the right/optimum amount and quality of inputs.• Conduct studies on the economics of input use
What could an Asian SIMLESA look like?• Maize-rice collaboration projects base on SIMLESA framework• Maize-rice-legumes + livestock in some places?• Maize-legume System opportunities: South Asia (Bangladesh- Nepal-eastern India under CA)• Mekong (Laos-Cambodia-Vietnam-Thailand) Philippines; Indonesia
ConclusionsSIMLESA’s initial findings reveal that and an integratedsystems approach in designing and promoting technologies inpartnership with a range of stakeholders using innovationplatforms framework, supported by science and partnerships,would contribute to a productive, sustainable and resilientmaize –legume production systems. For an ASIA SIMLESA to succeed we need to:• Anchor it on a stronger leadership from agribusiness• Support role of public sector and• Ensure that it is farm income oriented to lead to poverty reduction.
Kevin Rudd Australia’s Foreign Affairs Minister praises SIMLESA achievements in Africa Addressing the 5th WCCA Brisbane 26-29 Sept.2011“This particular project is helping to develop drought and disease-tolerantmaize and legume varieties and to educate farmers about new farmingtechnologies in conservation agriculture in five African countries. In the firsteighteen months of the program, we’ve helped train more than 150 agriculturalresearchers from Malawi, Mozambique, Kenya, Ethiopia and Tanzania andtrialled conservation agriculture in 215 fields owned by local farmers. It’s ontrack to reaching its target of increasing crop productivity of maize andlegumes by 30% on around half a million African small farms within 10 years.”“We need a new Agricultural Revolution of the 21st century if we are to feed afurther 3 billion members of the human family. As a responsible global citizen,Australia stands ready to play our part” Kevin Rudd