S5.1 Maize HarvestPlus: Biofortifying maize with Provitamin A carotenoids

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Presentacion de 11th Asian Maize Conference which took place in Beijing, China from November 7 – 11, 2011.

Presentacion de 11th Asian Maize Conference which took place in Beijing, China from November 7 – 11, 2011.

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  • 1. Maize HarvestPlus: Biofortifying maizewith Provitamin A carotenoids Kevin Pixley, Natalia Palacios, Raman Babu & Abebe Menkir (CIMMYT & IITA) 11th Asian Maize ConferenceNovember 7-11, 2011; Nanning, China
  • 2. Dietary sources Vitamin A – Meat (esp. liver) – Vegetables (carrot, sweet potato, spinach) Iron – Red meat, fish, poultry – Lentils, beans, leafy vegetables Zinc – Oysters, animal proteins, – Beans, nuts, whole grains $$ $ $$$$ $$$
  • 3. Business5 January 2011 Last updated at 14:42 ETWorld food prices at fresh high, says UNThe FAOs Abdolreza Abbassian warnedover low level food reservesGlobal food prices rose to a fresh high in The FAOs AbdolrezaDecember, according to the UNs Food Abbassian warned overand Agricultural Organisation (FAO). low level food reservesIts Food Price Index went above theprevious record of 2008 that saw pricesspark riots in several countries.
  • 4. As India‟s economy grows bysome 9% a year, food pricesare soaring.In late December …foodinflation had reached 18.3%,with pricey vegetables most toblame. “…he offers pyaz, a staple for much Indian cooking, for 60 rupees ($1.33) a kilo, the most he can remember.” Jan 6th 2011
  • 5. The “Tortillazo” is coming…– 50% increase to price of tortillas
  • 6. Middle East29 January 2011 Last updated at 06:44 ET29 January 2011 Last updated at 06:44 ETEgypt protests: Hosni Mubarak faces fifthday of rageThe unrest in Egypt followsan uprising in Tunisia twoweeks ago, in whichPresident Zine al-AbidineBen Ali was toppled after 23years in power.The Tunisian upheaval beganwith anger over rising foodprices, high unemploymentand anger at official corruption - problems which have also left manypeople Egypt feeling frustrated and resentful of their leadership.
  • 7. Biofortification of staple food crops• Micronutrients available in staple foods – Sustainable, affordable – Accompanied by dietary/nutrition information – Complemented by supplementation and fortification • Acute malnutrition• Equal or better agronomic performance of biofortified crops – Yield, disease resistance, drought tolerance…
  • 8. Yan et al., Nature Genetics 2010
  • 9. ProA (ug/g) in 9 genotypic classes of 6crosses LycE HydB Pop 1 Pop 2 Pop 3 Pop 4 Pop 5 Pop 6 4 1 12.03 9.97 6.15 5.74 11.94 9.70 6.12 5.75 4 2 4.27 3.46 3.99 3.90 4.09 3.57 4.08 3.74 4 H 5.60 6.17 4.78 7.42 5.74 4.73 7.51 2 1 7.41 11.11 7.19 6.25 5.10 7.40 10.74 6.92 6.19 5.09 2 2 2.08 3.36 3.73 2.60 4.28 3.31 2.06 3.34 3.71 2.50 4.33 3.29 2 H 4.16 4.07 5.30 3.88 4.42 3.88 4.11 4.07 5.40 3.89 4.43 3.93 H 1 9.45 12.96 9.47 13.20 H 2 3.58 4.14 3.95 3.59 4.21 4.13 H H 4.83 6.82 5.08 5.41 3.64 4.87 6.80 4.98 5.41 3.60
  • 10. Seed genotyping pre-planting Dry chipping using dog nail clippers ≈10,000 seeds genotyped pre-planting each season
  • 11. Seedling genotyping Leaf genotyping and transplanting allows more time to complete the work, without delaying the season Plants can be also genotyped in the field  Incurs costs for 50% or >>50% of plants to be discarded
  • 12. Favorable CrtB1 allele  2x - 3x ProA CrtB1 ProA Pedigree Adaptation favorable (ug/g DW) alleleKUI carotenoid syn-FS11-1-1-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B Sub-trop/Early 5.3Carotenoid Syn3-FS8-4-3-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B Sub-trop/Early 5.5(KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-2-B-B-B/(KU1409/ Sub-trop/Early 17.3 +DE3/KU1409)S2-18-2-B)-B-1(MAS:L4H1)-5-B-B(KUI carotenoid syn-FS11-1-1-B-B-B/(KU1409/ Sub-trop/Early 16.5 +DE3/KU1409)S2-18-2-B)-B-1(MAS:L4H1)-1-B-B(CML297/(KU1409/DE3/KU1409)S2-18-2-B)-B- Sub-trop/Late 15.7 +1(MAS:L4H1)-1-B-B(CML297/(KU1409/DE3/KU1409)S2-18-2-B)-B- Sub-trop/Late 11.0 +2(MAS:L4H1)-4-B-B(Florida A plus Syn-FS2-2-1-B-B/(KU1409/ Sub-trop/Early 7.3 +DE3/KU1409)S2-18-2-B)-B-3(MAS:L4H1)-2-B-BCML300 Sub-trop/Late 7.3CML297 Sub-trop/V Late 6.3
  • 13. Methods for carotenoid screening 14.00 12.00 10.00 β-cryptoxanthin ug/g (ppm) 8.00 6.00 4.00HPLC 2.00 β-carotene30/d 0.00 BC1 S2 Lines UPLC >100/d NIR (?)
  • 14. Cross high proA x good drought tolerance…
  • 15. 2nd Dose (of high proA) F1’s 2nd Dose S1‟s X XX
  • 16. What happens to provitamins A duringcooking? 9th ARMW, Beijing „05 Photo: N. Palacios ≈25-35% loss Photo: H. De Groote
  • 17. What happens to provitamins A afterwe eat them? In vitro assessment of bioaccessibilty of carotenoids from foods Mark Failla Department of Human Nutrition Parker, FASEB J, 1996
  • 18. Bioavailability promoters in plant foods Substance Nutrient Major Sources Certain amino acids (e.g., cysteine, Fe/Zn Animal meats histidine) Fats & lipids Vitamin A Animal fats, vegetable oils Zn, Fe Vitamin A Animal meats -carotene, provitamin A carotenoids Fe/Zn Orange & green vegetables Non-digestible carbohydrates (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn Onion, garlic, whole wheat grain, inulin, resistant starch, raffinose) common beans Vitamin E Vitamin A Vegetable oils, green leafy vegetablesRoss Welch
  • 19. Fe bioavailability as affected by ß- carotene supplement 9th ARMW, Control with no ß-carotene added Beijing „05Only 5% of Fe (Garcia-Casal et al., 1998)is bioavailable
  • 20. Fe bioavailability: 3 trials @ 2-3 sites Fe GrYld• Significant genotypic effects Trial 1 FerFe -0.53* 0.16 – Significant GCA effects Trial 2 -0.71** -0.05 – Non-significant SCA effects Trial 3 -0.39 -0.29• Large environmental effects• Small GxE effects Trial 1 FeraaFe -0.71** 0.26 Trial 2 -0.80** -0.07 Trial 3 -0.59* -0.22 GrYld -0.63* -0.43 0.02Pixley et al., 2011(Field Crop Res 123:153-160)
  • 21. KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-1-B-B/(CML-239 x GWIC) -1-7TL-1-1-1-B 17.9 34.8 0.3 Combining proA and Zn KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-1-B-B/CML356-B 20.5 41.1 0.5 KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-1-B-B/(CML-356 x GWIB) -1-23TL-1-2-1-B dehydrogenase 21.1 37.7 0.5 Vision retinol retinal  Zn in the action of retinol dehydrogenase Zn carotenoid syn-FS17-3-2-B-B/CML353-B KUI 19.7 32.0 0.3 monooxygenase (retinol to retinal); essential pigment for KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-2-B-B/(CML-239 x GWIC) -1-7TL-1-1-1-B Digestion -carotene 2 retinal vision 18.7 32.5 0.5 Zn KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-2-B-B/CML355-B  Zn is a probable co-factor for b-carotene0.2 15.8 29.8 KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-2-B-B/CML356-B mono-oxygenase (cleaves proA to vitA) 2.0 22.4 35.2 Protein synthesis  Zn deficiency depresses synthesis of the KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-2-B-B/(CML-356 x GWIB) -1-23TL-1-2-1-B 23.1 33.2 2.0 Zn retinol binding protein (RBP) retinol:RBP in blood carrier protein of vitA => lower plasma 2.0 KUI carotenoid syn-FS25-3-2-B-B/CML353-B 22.9 33.0 KUI carotenoid syn-FS25-3-2-B-B/(CML-239concentrations retinol x GWIC) -1-7TL-1-1-1-B 22.0 31.9 2.1 KUI carotenoid syn-FS25-3-2-B-B/P903 C0 H364-1-8TL-3-2-1-1-B-B-B-B-B -B Pedigree 19.8 Fe 29.3 Zn 0.3 Al KUI carotenoid syn-FS25-3-2-B-B/(CML-356 x GWIB) -1-23TL-1-2-1-B ppm ppm ppmTanumihardjo et 22.6 29.8 0.5 KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-1-B-B/CML353-Bal., JAFC 2010 Carotenoid Syn3-FS5-1-5-B-B/CML353-B 18.1 33.3 0.6 20.5 28.6 0.6 KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-1-B-B/(CML-239 x GWIC) -1-7TL-1-1-1-B 17.9 34.8 0.3 Carotenoid Syn3-FS5-1-5-B-B/CML355-B KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-1-B-B/CML356-B 32.0 32.9 0.6 20.5 41.1 0.5 CML-305-B-B/CML356-B KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-1-B-B/(CML-356 x GWIB) -1-23TL-1-2-1-B 17.2 21.1 23.1 37.7 0.4 0.5 CML-304-B-B/CML353-B KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-2-B-B/CML353-B 14.5 19.7 26.0 32.0 0.3 0.3 Average KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-2-B-B/(CML-239 x GWIC) -1-7TL-1-1-1-B 18.7 31.6 0.8 20.4 32.5 0.5 KUI carotenoid syn-FS17-3-2-B-B/CML355-B 15.8 29.8 0.2
  • 22. Obatanpa-ProA
  • 23. Trials 2009-10Mpungwe, SeedCoMsekera, ZARIG.Valley, ZARILusaka N, ZamSeedLusaka W, SeedCoHarare, CIMMYTART, CIMMYT
  • 24. 8 promising proA hybrids: 5 sites in Zambia + 2 sites in Zimbabwe ProA (ug/g) Best hybridTons per hectare Hybrid 1: 8.9 check Hybrid 2: 7.1 Hybrid 3: 6.3 Hybrid 4: 6.5 Hybrid 5: 7.4 Hybrid 6: 5.7 Hybrid 7: 6.9 Hybrid 8: 5.9
  • 25. Zambia NPT results, seven sites 2010-2011 Approx. LSD (P<0.05)Mg ha-1 Mean of 8 commercial hybrids Masumba Mutanda Msekera SCCI Misamfu GValley Chiawa Site
  • 26. Will consumers and farmers consume/grow biofortified crops?• ProA maize is orange; consumers prefer white• Will farmers choose to grow orange maize varieties?• Will seed companies market the new orange varieties?
  • 27. H+ stakeholder consultation, ZambiaMadson Chisi, Zambia Agricultural Research Institute – Nshima from finger millet is red; from sorghum is grey… and people eat them; color is not a big problem. – Technology should be neutral or labor reducing (cooking, processing, etc.) – Find ways to involve farmers as soon as possible PhotoMarx Mbunji, SeedCo credit: H. – Crop needs to be high yielding; don‟t DeGroote focus on “micro” things…
  • 28. H+ stakeholder consultation, ZambiaMatthias Kanyemba, Ministry of Agriculture – We need to advise the health benefits of orange maize to make it accepted – MoA has nutrition workers at all levels – Provincial to VillageFordson Nyerenda, Ministry of Health: – Use nutrition, education and communication unit from the Ministries to promote the orange maize – Training of partners on Biofortification: Need information and education for policy makers, extensionists, nutritionists, farmers...Beatrice Kawana National Food and Nutrition Commission: – Nutrition education and communications unit which helps to produce documentaries, posters, and other information
  • 29. Raising awareness; creating demand DELICIOUS &A. M. Ball NUTRITIOUS!!!
  • 30. Will consumers buy & consume biofortified maize?Mr. M. Ililonga, Zambia Consumer Association – Consumers are very sensitive about cost (should be affordable); cost of staple food is of concern to people $$ $ $$$$ $$$
  • 31. Multi-disciplinary approaches 0.12 5.473 0.10 16.246 0.08 10.578 7.024 0.06 7.957 AU + 3.961 + 7.217 ++ 18.859 4.485 11.517 13.698 6.717 4.750 9.183 0.04 3.332 0.02 0.00 -0.02 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 22.00 24.00 Minutes Molecular Plant biochemistry Plant breeding Agronomy biology + + + + + +Education & Socio-economics Nutrition Food technology Farmer participation marketing Healthy children
  • 32. Bonus Slide: Research question Carotenoids and mycotoxins – Carotenoids in grain  less mycotoxin production • The results indicate that the presence of carotenoids in endosperm may decrease the amount of aflatoxin produced by A.flavus. – Carotenoids in food  lesser carcinogenic effect of toxins • Carotenoids and vitamin A work via multiple mechanisms that provide protective support against cancer initiation and pathogenesis of other mutation-related diseases.Norton, Phytopath, 1997Flora et al., Mutagenesis, 1999
  • 33. Xie xie!