Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
S3.2. Yield gains and agronomic traits of maize varieties released in China during the past six decades
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

S3.2. Yield gains and agronomic traits of maize varieties released in China during the past six decades

590
views

Published on

Presentacion de 11th Asian Maize Conference which took place in Beijing, China from November 7 – 11, 2011.

Presentacion de 11th Asian Maize Conference which took place in Beijing, China from November 7 – 11, 2011.

Published in: Education

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
590
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Yield gains and agronomic traits ofmaize varieties released in Chinaduring the past six decades Shihuang Zhang, Xiaoke Ci, Mingshu Li, Jiashun Xu, Degui Zhang, Xiaoling Liang (CAAS, Beijing, China) xkc-99@yahoo.com.cn Maize Center, ISC, CAAS Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 2. Maize yield12.0 America Argentina China Vietnam Myanmar10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 y=107x+974 y=38x+4586 2.0 0.0 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 07 09 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 Years Data from FAO Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 3. • Problems in maize breeding• Strategies for more effective breeding The research since 2005 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 4. materials1950s:Golden queen, Xiaolihong, Yinglizi, Baimaya1960s:Sishuang 1,HD409, Weier156,US131970s:Xindan 1, Zhongdan 2, Zhengdan2, Qundan105, Jidan1011980s:Yedan 4, Huang417, Shendan 7,Danyu13,Yedan 2, Nongda60, Tiedan 41990s:Benyu 9, Yedan13, Sidan19, Zhengdan14,Yedan19, Jidan159, Nongda3138, Nongda108, Ludan50, Jidan1802000s:Zhengdan958,Xianyu335,Shendan16,Ludan981, Denghai 9 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 5. design• The trial design was a randomized complete block in a split plot arrangement with density as main plot and hybrid as subplot.• Subplots consisted of two rows 0.6 m apart and 4 m long. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 6. Year Densities 30 000 plants/ha2005-2006 45 000 plants/ha 60 000 plants/ha 15 000 plants/ha2007-2009 45 000 plants/ha 75 000 plants/ha Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 7. LocationsUrumchi Shenyang Beijing Xinxiang Sanya Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 8. ObjectivesⅠ yield gains and its association with plant densitiesⅡ agronomic trait changes accompanied with yieldⅢ N utilization and its association with released decade and stay-green provide a basis for designing more effective future breeding strategies Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 9. I. Yield gain and its association with plant densities i Genetic yield gain ii Tolerance to stress Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 10. 1. Genetic contribution to total yield gains from 1970-2000 12.00 Total yield gain Yield of the 2000s hybrids at 75 000 plants/ha Gengtic yield gain 10.00 C 8.00 Yield of the 1950s OPVs at 75 000 plants/ha CD – breeding contribution B 6.00 53% 4.00 A 2.00 Yield of the 1950s OPVs at 15 000 plants/ha 0.00 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year The method from Tollenaar (2002) Ci et al. Euphytica, acceptedOpen pollination varieties (OPVs) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 11. ⅰ Genetic yield gainⅱ Tolerance to stress
  • 12. 1. Tolerance to stress Yield at different densities12.0 15 000 45 00010.0 75 000 y = 0.11 x - 205.03 R2 = 0.97 8.0 y = 0.09 x - 177.52 R2 = 0.95 6.0 4.0 y = 0.06 x - 111.74 R2 = 0.91 2.0 0.0 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 13. • Yield gain increased significantly with increasing plant densities. New hybrids have more tolerance to stress from the 1950S to 2000S. (Here, Tolerance to stress includes high densities, diseases, insects and so on) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 14. 2. Tolerance to high densities Yield in Urumchi16.0 16.00 30 000 15 000 y = 0.084x - 156 45 000 45 000 14.0014.0 R2 = 0.71 75 000 y = 0.040x - 66 60 000 R2 = 0.344 12.0012.0 y = 0.124 x - 236 R2 = 0.91 10.00 y = 0.049x - 8710.0 R2 = 0.5924 8.00 8.0 y = 0.103x - 196 6.00 y = 0.046x - 84 R2 = 0.91 R2 = 0.7079 6.0 4.00 4.0 2.00 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Ci et al. Crop Science, 2010 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 15. 30 000: y = 0.103x - 196 r = 0.96 15 000: y = 0.046x - 84 r = 0.8445 000: y = 0.124x - 236 r = 0.95 45 000: y = 0.049x - 87 r = 0.7760 000: y = 0.084x - 156 r = 0.84 75 000: y = 0.040x - 66 r = 0.58 No significant difference between regression coefficient at different densities.Hybrids improved slightly in tolerance to high densities.Hybrids did not attain greater tolerance to higher densities of 60,000 to 75,000 plants/ha as yet in China. Ci et al. Crop Science, 2010 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciencesc
  • 16. 3. The Contribution of Stress ToleranceLocations Environment Genetic yield gain Beijing a typical environment  increased efficiency in with serious biotic and grain production abiotic stress  improved tolerance to stress  increased efficiency in abundant sunshine and grain productionUrumchi few diseases and insects  improved tolerance to High densities Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 17. compare Beijing Xinjiang30 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.064x - 121 y = 0.103x – 19645 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.116x - 222 y = 0.124x - 23660 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.155x - 301 y = 0.084x - 156 The contribution of stress-tolerance to genetic yield gains was 46% at 60,000 plants/ha based on the difference of regression coefficient between Beijing and Urumchi Ci et al. Crop Science, 2010 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 18. Compare Beijing Xinjiang15 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.041x – 75 y = 0.046x – 8445 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.119x – 226 y = 0.049x – 8775 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.151x - 288 y = 0.040x - 66 The contribution of stress tolerance to genetic yield gains was 74% at 75,000 plants/ha Ci et al. Crop Science, 2010 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 19. Summary• With increasing plant densities, the contribution of stress tolerance to total yield gain increased. Yield improvement has occurred at a slow pace at densities of 60,000 and 75,000 plants/ha in China.• Further increasing maize yield will be achieved through higher plant populations, and this will require breeding for greater stress tolerance. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 20. Ⅱ Agronomic trait changes accompanied with yield ⅰ Plant traits ⅱ Ear traits Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 21. 260 120 255 115 250 110Plant height (cm) Ear height (cm) 245 240 105 y = 0.85x + 105 235 R2 = 0.07 y = 3.0x + 232 100 230 R2 = 0.48 95 225 Plant height Ear height 220 90 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments, 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 22. 74 77 73 76 72 75 74 71 y = 0.74x + 68 73Days 70 R2 = 0.47 y = 0.66x + 71 72 R2 = 0.39 69 71 68 70 67 69 66 Days to anthsis 68 Days to silking 65 线性 (Days to 67 线性 (Days to 1950 1960 1970 1980 anthsis) 2000 1990 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 silking) 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 23. 10000 9000) 2Leaf area per plant (cm 8000 larger plant size and 7000 later maturity,especially y = 443x + 5526 from the 1980s 6000 R2 = 0.78 5000 Leaf area per plant 4000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 24. 50 49 48 Leaf angle 47 y = -0.76x + 50 R2 = 0.58 46 45 44 Leaf angle 43 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release(11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 25. 5.0 15 000 y = -0.02x + 2.1 r=-0.31 4.5 45 000 y = -0.07x + 2.8 r=-0.64 ★ 75 000 y = -0.19x + 3.7 r =-0.85 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 ASI 1.0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release(11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 26. 41 2540 2039 y = 0.29x + 39 15 y = -0.8x + 20 R2 = 0.35 R2 = 0.3338 1037 5 Tassel length Tassel branch number36 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 27. 18.0 12.0 15 000 y = -0.50x + 4.8 r=-0.94★ ★ 15 000 y = -1.12x + 6.4 r=-0.84 ★ 16.0 ★★ 45 000 y = -1.09x + 8.4 r=-0.72 45 000 y = -1.47x + 8.7 r=-0.92 10.0 ★ 14.0 75 000 y = -1.72x + 14.0 r=-0.88★ 75 000 y = -0.96x + 7.2 r=-0.82 12.0 8.0lodging (%) 10.0 root lodging 6.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 stalk lodging 4.0 2.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 28. Summary• Earlier maturity, shorter plant stature and more tolerance to root and stalk lodging under high density will be required for further yield improvement
  • 29. ⅰ Plant traits ⅱ Ear traitsChinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 30. 25 4.6 4.4 20 4.2 y = 0.75x + 16 15 R2 = 0.876cm y = 0.11x + 3.8 4.0 R2 = 0.83 10 3.8 5 3.6 Ear length Ear diameter 0 3.4 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 31. 15.5 45 40 15 y = 0.25x + 14 35 R2 = 0.90 30 y = 1.3x + 3214.5 R2 = 0.61 25 20 14 15 1013.5 Row number per ear 5 Kernel number per row 13 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release(11 environments , 2007-2009) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 32. 40 35 In America Kernel number per ear have noKernel weight (g) 30 increase. increased grain yield y = 1.9x + 24 25 R2 = 0.88 was contributed to increased 20 kernel weight (Duvick 2005). 15 10 In China kernel weight and kernel number 5 hundred kernel weight per plant (larger ear size). 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 33. 84 83.5 83 82.5 82 y = 0.19x + 82 R2 = 0.12 81.5 81 80.5 80 shelling percentage Percentage barrenness 79.5 线性 (shelling 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 percentage) Year of release(11 environments , 2007-2009) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 34. Grain yield per plant 250 200Grain yield per plant (g) grain yield per plant had 150 y = 23x + 82 R2 = 0.94 improved greatly, but tolerance to high 100 densities had not. This is opposite to that in the United States (Tollenaar and 50 Lee, 2002; Duvick, 2005) Yield per plant 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  • 35. Summary• Yield gain in China mainly was due to yield improvement per plant. Plant and ear traits mentioned also reflected this case.• Chinese maize yield improvement can benefit from agronomic strategies at higher densities.
  • 36. Ⅲ N utilization and its association with released decade and stay-green Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 37. 1. N requirement for 100 kg grain production (2010, Beijing) Golden Queen ZD2 YD13 ZD958 (Yuan & Mi et al., unpublished data) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 38. 2. N concentration of grain in Chinese maize hybrids (2010, Beijing) 2010 Beijing Golden Queen Grain N concentration (g/kg) ZD2 YD13 R2=0.4049 ZD958 Year of release (Yuan & Mi et al., unpublished data) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 39. 3. Stay-green degree (2010, Beijing) Yellow-type Middle-typeStay-green degree (%) Stay-green R2=0.464 Year of release (Yuan & Mi et al., unpublished data) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 40. 4. Contribution of leaf N to grain N In Chinese maize hybrids released during the past 60ys The control (2010, Beijing)Contribution of leaf N to grain N Yellow Middle Stay-green R2=0.5954 R2=0.1522(%) R2=0.0587 Stay-green (%) (Yuan & Mi et al., unpublished data) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • 41. SummaryNewer hybrids improved in N efficiency,But contribution of leaf N to grain N reducedin newer hybrids because of increased stay-green.
  • 42. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences