Adaptation of three imported wheat varieties in Rwanda


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By A.Musabyisoni*,I.Habarurema, G.Gumisiriza, M.A.Ingabire, M.Uwamahoro, A.Kayumba, and G.Nshimyimana
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Adaptation of three imported wheat varieties in Rwanda

  1. 1. Adaptation of three imported wheat varieties in Rwanda 1A. Musabyisoni*,1I. Habarurema, 1G. Gumisiriza, 1M. A. Ingabire, 1M. Uwamahoro, 1A. Kayumba, and 1G. Nshimyimana 1Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB), Kigali, Rwanda Northern Agriculture Zone Division (NAZD), PO. Box 73, Musanze, RwandaIntroductionWheat productivity is still low in farmers’ fields. The major productionconstraints are lack of appropriate varieties, low soil fertility, pests anddiseases, limited agricultural land due to high population pressure andlow farmers’ knowledge on post-harvest technology depending on end-users needs. In spite of the research efforts in the past decade to develop Days to Flower Days to maturityimproved varieties, progress has been slow partly because varieties All the varieties All the varieties attainedreleased from imported germplasm do not possess the required baking flowered and matured maturity earlier atqualities and many of them end up succumbing to diseases within a short earlier at Gicumbi than Gicumbi – Kaniga thanperiod of their release. At Kinigi. Musanze – Kinigi site. Objectives The objective was to assess the general yield characteristics of 3 imported varieties, and more importantly, to determine their reaction to major diseases in Rwanda compared to the local check, EN 161. Methodology Plant Height Flag LeafThree wheat varieties: Nduna, Shine, and Shield, were imported The cultivars at Kinigi All the varieties alsofrom Zambia Seed Company and tested at 2 sites in Rwanda namely, were less vigorousKinigi (high altitude, high rainfall, low temperature) and Gicumbi and shorter than at had longer flag leaves at(high altitude, moderate rainfall, moderate temperature), during the Gicumbi. the Gicumbi site.2011B season, starting from March to July. The local check was EN 161.Data collectionPlant characteristics associated with yield (days to flowering, days tomaturity, plant height, spike length, number of spikelet on the mainspike, length of flag leaf, and grain yield) were assessed. Spike Length Spikelets per SpikeDisease reaction to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), stem rust The spikes of EN 161 The number of spikelets(Puccinia graminis) and leaf spot (Helminthosporium spp) was compared were longer than the per spike was higher atamong the 3 varieties and EN 161. spikes of the other Gicumbi than at Kinigi, varieties at both sites. for all four varieties.Disease assessmentAt Gicumbi, all varieties were attacked by Helminthosporium. Ndunashowed no stripe or stem rust, but symptoms of stripe rust were observed Estimated grain yieldon Shield, while Shine showed susceptibility symptoms to stem rust. At EN 161 had higher yieldsKinigi, the check variety EN 161 was badly attacked by stripe rust. The than the 3 importedthree new varieties also progressively succumbed to this disease, with varieties at both sitesShield being the most seriously affected. Shine was attacked byHelminthosporium, and towards grain filling all leaves were gone, andthe disease progressed to the ears. Conclusions and recommendations The 3 varieties Nduna, Shine and Shield imported byDiscussion Bakhresa from Zambia performed worse than ENAt Gichumbi, the check variety EN161 was clearly susceptible to stripe 161the check variety, in terms of grain yield andrust. The variety Nduna was susceptible to Helminthosporium leaf spot associated plant characteristics. They do not seem toand was not recommended for further production. Shield was more be resistant to the major diseases in the typicaltolerant to Helminthosporium but at Kinigi, it was seriously attacked by wheat growing areas of Rwanda.Stripe rust Shine on the other hand, showed mild symptoms of stem rustand needed to be watched carefully. If symptoms of this rust persist andpoint towards susceptibility in further trials, this variety will also bewithdrawn and replaced with a more resistant variety. Otherwise, For further information: Musabyisoni Aloyswithout stem rust, the variety Shine looked the best. These observations Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB)/ Kigali, Rwandawere very similar to those made at Kinigi. Yield chatacteristics differed National Agriculture Zone Division (NAZD)between varieties as shown in the graphs below. P.O Box 73, Musanze, Rwanda/ Phone: +250-788584613 E- mail: