Necessary Policies
Per Pinstrup-Andersen
Celebrating 100 Years of Dr.
Norman Borlaug
Obregon, Mexico, 25-28 March 2014
Future yield increases will come from
1/3 Breeding
1/3 Agronomy
1/3 Policy
Future yield increases will come from
1/3 Breed...
What do we want from food
and agricultural systems?
 Food Security and good nutrition
What do we want from food
and agricultural systems?
 Food Security and good nutrition
 Efficient and Sustainable Resourc...
What do we want from food
and agricultural systems?
 Food Security and good nutrition
 Efficient and Sustainable Resourc...
What do we want from food
and agricultural systems?
 Food Security and good nutrition
 Efficient and Sustainable Resourc...
What do we want from food
and agricultural systems?
 Food Security and good nutrition
 Efficient and Sustainable Resourc...
What do we want from food
and agricultural systems?
 Food Security and good nutrition
 Efficient and Sustainable Resourc...
What do we want from
agricultural research?
 More food and non-food per unit of land,
water, labor and capital
What do we want from
agricultural research?
 More food and non-food per unit of land,
water, labor and capital
 Lower un...
What do we want from
agricultural research?
 More food and non-food per unit of land,
water, labor and capital
 Lower un...
What do we want from
agricultural research?
 More food and non-food per unit of land,
water, labor and capital
 Lower un...
What do we want from
agricultural research?
 More food and non-food per unit of land,
water, labor and capital
 Lower un...
What do we want from
agricultural research?
 More food and non-food per unit of land,
water, labor and capital
 Lower un...
Annual Average Population
Growth Rate, %
Billions of Middle Class Asians
and Percent of the
Global Middle Class 2009-2030
Year Billions Percent
2009 0.5 28
2020 1....
The Asian Middle Class’ Purchasing
Power (Billions 2005 PPP Dollars)
and Percent of the World’s Middle
Class’ Total Purcha...
Suggested Policy Priority 1
 Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic
markets and Human Resources
Suggested Policy Priority 1
 Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic
markets and Human Resources
 Feeder roads
Suggested Policy Priority 1
 Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic
markets and Human Resources
 Feeder roads
 A...
Suggested Policy Priority 1
 Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic
markets and Human Resources
 Feeder roads
 A...
Suggested Policy Priority 1
 Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic
markets and Human Resources
 Feeder roads
 A...
Suggested Policy Priority 1
 Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic
markets and Human Resources
 Feeder roads
 A...
Suggested Policy Priority 2
 Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to
invest in agriculture and the supply ch...
Suggested Policy Priority 2
 Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to
invest in agriculture and the supply ch...
Suggested Policy Priority 2
 Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to
invest in agriculture and the supply ch...
Suggested Policy Priority 2
 Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to
invest in agriculture and the supply ch...
Suggested Policy Priority 2
 Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to
invest in agriculture and the supply ch...
Suggested Policy Priority 2
 Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to
invest in agriculture and the supply ch...
Suggested Policy Priority 2
 Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to
invest in agriculture and the supply ch...
Suggested Policy Priority 3
 Remove international trade distortions (both
import and export restrictions)
Suggested Policy Priority 3
 Remove international trade distortions (both
import and export restrictions)
 Regulation of...
Suggested Policy Priority 3
 Remove international trade distortions (both
import and export restrictions)
 Regulation of...
Suggested Policy Priority 3
 Remove international trade distortions (both
import and export restrictions)
 Regulation of...
Suggested Policy Priority 3
 Remove international trade distortions (both
import and export restrictions)
 Regulation of...
Suggested Policy Priority 3
 Remove international trade distortions (both
import and export restrictions)
 Regulation of...
The Policy-Maker’s
Temptation: Price Policy
 Keeping food prices low
The Policy-Maker’s
Temptation: Price Policy
 Keeping food prices low
 Price stabilization
Price Volatility
Source: Minot, N. (2013). How Volatile Are African Food Prices?
IFPRI Research Brief 19, IFPRI, Washingto...
The Policy-Maker’s
Temptation: Price Policy
 Keeping food prices low
 Price stabilization
 Social safety nets, (un)targ...
The Policy-Maker’s
Temptation: Price Policy
 Keeping food prices low
 Price stabilization
 Social safety nets, (un)targ...
The Policy-Maker’s
Temptation: Price Policy
 Keeping food prices low
 Price stabilization
 Social safety nets, (un)targ...
Thai Rice Mountains
Source: AFP Photo/Pornchai Kittiwongsakul
India – Grain Stock
2005/06 – 2012
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
2005/06 2007/08 2009/10 2011 2012
80
Millioner
Tons
65
54
...
Surplus Grain in India 2012
Maize Stocks in Zambia 2012
Photo courtesy William J. Burke
Rotting Maize in Zambia 2012
Photo courtesy William J. Burke
Up Close:
Maize in Zambia 2012
Photo courtesy William J. Burke
Annual Maize Production in
Zambia, 2005/08 and 2010/2011
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
2005-08 2010-11
2.8
Million
Tons
1.4
Source: ...
Rhetoric
Declarations
Plans
Targets
Action
http://www.fao.org/cfs/cfs-hlpe
Necessary Policies
Necessary Policies
Necessary Policies
Necessary Policies
Necessary Policies
Necessary Policies
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Necessary Policies

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Presentation delivered by Dr. Per Pinstrup-Andersen (Cornell University, USA) at Borlaug Summit on Wheat for Food Security. March 25 - 28, 2014, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico.
http://www.borlaug100.org

Published in: Science, Technology, Business
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Necessary Policies

  1. 1. Necessary Policies Per Pinstrup-Andersen Celebrating 100 Years of Dr. Norman Borlaug Obregon, Mexico, 25-28 March 2014
  2. 2. Future yield increases will come from 1/3 Breeding 1/3 Agronomy 1/3 Policy Future yield increases will come from 1/3 Breeding 1/3 Agronomy 1/3 Policy Hans Braun’s Assessment
  3. 3. What do we want from food and agricultural systems?  Food Security and good nutrition
  4. 4. What do we want from food and agricultural systems?  Food Security and good nutrition  Efficient and Sustainable Resource Use
  5. 5. What do we want from food and agricultural systems?  Food Security and good nutrition  Efficient and Sustainable Resource Use  Reasonable incomes for farmers
  6. 6. What do we want from food and agricultural systems?  Food Security and good nutrition  Efficient and Sustainable Resource Use  Reasonable incomes for farmers  Reasonable prices for consumers
  7. 7. What do we want from food and agricultural systems?  Food Security and good nutrition  Efficient and Sustainable Resource Use  Reasonable incomes for farmers  Reasonable prices for consumers  Meeting Non-food Demands
  8. 8. What do we want from food and agricultural systems?  Food Security and good nutrition  Efficient and Sustainable Resource Use  Reasonable incomes for farmers  Reasonable prices for consumers  Meeting Non-food Demands  Support of general economic growth
  9. 9. What do we want from agricultural research?  More food and non-food per unit of land, water, labor and capital
  10. 10. What do we want from agricultural research?  More food and non-food per unit of land, water, labor and capital  Lower unit-costs of production and mktg.
  11. 11. What do we want from agricultural research?  More food and non-food per unit of land, water, labor and capital  Lower unit-costs of production and mktg.  Adaptation to climate change
  12. 12. What do we want from agricultural research?  More food and non-food per unit of land, water, labor and capital  Lower unit-costs of production and mktg.  Adaptation to climate change  Reduced poverty and malnutrition
  13. 13. What do we want from agricultural research?  More food and non-food per unit of land, water, labor and capital  Lower unit-costs of production and mktg.  Adaptation to climate change  Reduced poverty and malnutrition  Appropriate response to diet transition
  14. 14. What do we want from agricultural research?  More food and non-food per unit of land, water, labor and capital  Lower unit-costs of production and mktg.  Adaptation to climate change  Reduced poverty and malnutrition  Appropriate response to diet transition  Stability in production and prices
  15. 15. Annual Average Population Growth Rate, %
  16. 16. Billions of Middle Class Asians and Percent of the Global Middle Class 2009-2030 Year Billions Percent 2009 0.5 28 2020 1.7 54 2030 3.2 66 Source: Kharas 2010
  17. 17. The Asian Middle Class’ Purchasing Power (Billions 2005 PPP Dollars) and Percent of the World’s Middle Class’ Total Purchasing Power Year Billions Percent 2009 5.0 23 2020 14.8 42 2030 32.6 59 Source: Kharas 2010
  18. 18. Suggested Policy Priority 1  Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic markets and Human Resources
  19. 19. Suggested Policy Priority 1  Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic markets and Human Resources  Feeder roads
  20. 20. Suggested Policy Priority 1  Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic markets and Human Resources  Feeder roads  Appropriate institutions  Farmer associations  Public sector institutions (contract enforcement, weights and measures, etc.)
  21. 21. Suggested Policy Priority 1  Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic markets and Human Resources  Feeder roads  Appropriate institutions  Farmer associations  Public sector institutions (contract enforcement, weights and measures, etc.)  Market information, access to inputs, e.g. seed, fertilizers
  22. 22. Suggested Policy Priority 1  Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic markets and Human Resources  Feeder roads  Appropriate institutions  Farmer associations  Public sector institutions (contract enforcement, weights and measures, etc.)  Market information, access to inputs, e.g. seed, fertilizers  Water management infrastructure
  23. 23. Suggested Policy Priority 1  Investments in rural infrastructure, domestic markets and Human Resources  Feeder roads  Appropriate institutions  Farmer associations  Public sector institutions (contract enforcement, weights and measures, etc.)  Market information, access to inputs, e.g. seed, fertilizers  Water management infrastructure  Primary education, health care and improved sanitation
  24. 24. Suggested Policy Priority 2  Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to invest in agriculture and the supply chain
  25. 25. Suggested Policy Priority 2  Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to invest in agriculture and the supply chain  Savings and credit institutions for farmers and traders
  26. 26. Suggested Policy Priority 2  Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to invest in agriculture and the supply chain  Savings and credit institutions for farmers and traders  Risk management tools for farmers and traders (for market and production risks)
  27. 27. Suggested Policy Priority 2  Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to invest in agriculture and the supply chain  Savings and credit institutions for farmers and traders  Risk management tools for farmers and traders (for market and production risks)  Public goods investments, including research
  28. 28. Suggested Policy Priority 2  Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to invest in agriculture and the supply chain  Savings and credit institutions for farmers and traders  Risk management tools for farmers and traders (for market and production risks)  Public goods investments, including research  Strengthen the purchasing power of small-holders
  29. 29. Suggested Policy Priority 2  Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to invest in agriculture and the supply chain  Savings and credit institutions for farmers and traders  Risk management tools for farmers and traders (for market and production risks)  Public goods investments, including research  Strengthen the purchasing power of small-holders  Establish competitive funds for technology development
  30. 30. Suggested Policy Priority 2  Enhanced policy incentives for the private sector to invest in agriculture and the supply chain  Savings and credit institutions for farmers and traders  Risk management tools for farmers and traders (for market and production risks)  Public goods investments, including research  Strengthen the purchasing power of small-holders  Establish competitive funds for technology development  Assure incentives for private sector innovation
  31. 31. Suggested Policy Priority 3  Remove international trade distortions (both import and export restrictions)
  32. 32. Suggested Policy Priority 3  Remove international trade distortions (both import and export restrictions)  Regulation of Land Grabbing
  33. 33. Suggested Policy Priority 3  Remove international trade distortions (both import and export restrictions)  Regulation of Land Grabbing  Clarity on water and land tenure
  34. 34. Suggested Policy Priority 3  Remove international trade distortions (both import and export restrictions)  Regulation of Land Grabbing  Clarity on water and land tenure  Reduce food waste and losses
  35. 35. Suggested Policy Priority 3  Remove international trade distortions (both import and export restrictions)  Regulation of Land Grabbing  Clarity on water and land tenure  Reduce food waste and losses  Move towards full costing
  36. 36. Suggested Policy Priority 3  Remove international trade distortions (both import and export restrictions)  Regulation of Land Grabbing  Clarity on water and land tenure  Reduce food waste and losses  Move towards full costing  Pursue multiple-win solutions
  37. 37. The Policy-Maker’s Temptation: Price Policy  Keeping food prices low
  38. 38. The Policy-Maker’s Temptation: Price Policy  Keeping food prices low  Price stabilization
  39. 39. Price Volatility Source: Minot, N. (2013). How Volatile Are African Food Prices? IFPRI Research Brief 19, IFPRI, Washington, DC. World Market Selected African Countries
  40. 40. The Policy-Maker’s Temptation: Price Policy  Keeping food prices low  Price stabilization  Social safety nets, (un)targeted subsidies
  41. 41. The Policy-Maker’s Temptation: Price Policy  Keeping food prices low  Price stabilization  Social safety nets, (un)targeted subsidies  Protecting food in an eco-economy
  42. 42. The Policy-Maker’s Temptation: Price Policy  Keeping food prices low  Price stabilization  Social safety nets, (un)targeted subsidies  Protecting food in an eco-economy  Fiscal costs, supply response and surpluses
  43. 43. Thai Rice Mountains Source: AFP Photo/Pornchai Kittiwongsakul
  44. 44. India – Grain Stock 2005/06 – 2012 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2005/06 2007/08 2009/10 2011 2012 80 Millioner Tons 65 54 25 15
  45. 45. Surplus Grain in India 2012
  46. 46. Maize Stocks in Zambia 2012 Photo courtesy William J. Burke
  47. 47. Rotting Maize in Zambia 2012 Photo courtesy William J. Burke
  48. 48. Up Close: Maize in Zambia 2012 Photo courtesy William J. Burke
  49. 49. Annual Maize Production in Zambia, 2005/08 and 2010/2011 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 2005-08 2010-11 2.8 Million Tons 1.4 Source: Jayne et al., 2011
  50. 50. Rhetoric Declarations Plans Targets Action
  51. 51. http://www.fao.org/cfs/cfs-hlpe
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