Transferring researchfindings into industry application Dr. Craig F. Morris, Director USDA-ARSWestern Wheat Quality Laboratory Pullman, Washington, U. S. of A.
Need for new raw materials, consumer foods, and solutions to processing problems Consumer Food Manufacturer Miller Merchandizer Farmer Breeding Research
Research, new traits and new varieties – new and more consistent raw materials Research Breeding Farmer Merchandizer Miller Food Manufacturer Consumer
Wheat is used in a nearly limitless variety of foods and is theleading cereal for human consumption
Humans have „interacted‟ with wheat for thousands of years We have influenced wheat evolution and wheat has influenced us We have learned to exploit geneticvariation in wheat to make different foodsWe now manipulate wheat to expand the ways in which we can utilize it
Milling and end-usequality of wheat resultsfrom the compositionof the kernel, andespecially theendosperm, but thebran is becoming moreimportant
Grain composition and physical features also result from aninteraction between the „genotype‟ and the environment in which the plant grows
We should think of milling andend-use quality as „phenotypes‟ that are genetically based, and that we can understand and manipulate in the same way as, say, disease resistanceBreeding for quality should be nomore mysterious than breeding for rust resistance
There is no absolute definition of wheat or flour quality End-use quality of wheat is definedby milling performance, processing efficiency, and specific end-uses for example, bread vs. noodles vs. cake
We often want to measure wheat „quality‟ -- to quantify the physical and chemical differences Measurement of quality always involves some error and depends on the instrument/method being used
Our aim is to predict commercial processing and end-product quality through small-scale laboratory testsThese tests may target one constituent/trait or aim to sum a number of traits
Major end-use quality traits of wheat* kernel texture - „hardness‟ also kernel color, size, shape* milling performance - particle size, starch damage, flour yield, etc.* gluten strength & amount* water absorption* arabinoxylans - „pentosans‟* starch pasting / amylose content* pigments / color* enzymes - PPO, α-amylase, etc.
Genetic „cascade‟ for quality example: puroindoline gene expressionpuroindoline haplotype (Pina-D1 / Pinb-D1)→ puroindoline a and b expression→ kernel texture differences→ flour starch damage/granularity→ dough water relations→ processing and baking performance→ end-product quality
Two examples of transferring research findings into industry application (and applying an understanding of industry needs into research activities) Both involve challenging somepre-conceptions of kernel texture and quality* An end-use quality model for soft wheat* Development of soft durum
Why soft wheat? Why hard wheat? When hexaploid wheat was first formed, it was soft, and soft wheats reached Europe, China, Japan, Canada, the U.S., and Australia first So why hard wheat? The answer has almost nothing to do withquality, and yet everything to do with quality
Historical context: When people migrate, they usually take their possessions with them, including their cropsRaising something is better than raising nothing Disease resistance, and adaptation to other biotic and abiotic stresses is key to growing food
Hard wheats ascended because: 1) they were disease resistant and well adapted to heat and drought (not because they were hard)2) they also happened to have stronger gluten and made superior bread 3) invention of the purifier, “high milling” and then the steel roller mill facilitated their technological adoption
The current model for soft wheat quality: Soft kernel High break flour yield Low pentosans (arabinoxylans)These tend to produce fine-textured flours with low starch damage and low water absorption (cf. large AACCI cookie diameters) What else would we like?
Gluten strength? Sometimes weak, but not always Good cake quality?difficult to define/predict –must bake a cake White bran? Generally preferred, but preferred in hard wheats, too Low PPO? Good for soft and hard wheats
Partial waxy/reduced amylose? Depends on the use --For udon soft bite noodles, absolutely Pigments? Consumer preference (cf. pasta/semolina)
What else? How about price?!Aug. 2012 local delivery, Pullman, Washington:Soft white $327/metric ton Hard red winter $351 Hard red spring $379
What are you paying for? Kernel hardness?No. First, wheat that will process on your mill, but more importantly, gluten strength Local Washington prices:Hard red spring wheat –target of 14% protein For each 1% above, +$3/ton For each 1% below, -$10/ton
So the baker should be thinking:“What is the cheapest way to buy gluten strength?” “How much strength do I really need?”
Gluten strength has little if anything to do with kernel texture
Evolving model for soft wheat qualityAre soft wheats going to get stronger? Yes.Do we need some weak-gluten wheats? Yes. The question will be,“How will we segregate the market?”
Second example of transferring research findings into industry application Development of soft durumAcknowledgements: Leonard Joppa, Marco Simeone, Domenico Lafiandra, Jeff Casper, Jodi Engleson
Durum is characterized by its very hard kernel texture
Kernel texture influences damaged starch and flour granularitySoft hexaploid Hard hexaploid Durum semolina
Conventional thinking:“Durum wheat is used to make pasta because of its hard nature, which produces a firm cooked product. Semolina is coarsely ground durumwith a texture somewhat like sugar. It is the best product for pasta.” - U.S. National Association of Wheat Growers
Current situation:Most durum is milled into semolina Semolina has 4-5% damaged starch Semolina particle size is about 3-4x that of regular flour Semolina is expensive
Issues with standard durum:* Larger particles require longer hydration times* Reducing particle size creates higher starch damage* Higher starch damage requires increased water* High water absorption increases production costs, mixing and drying times, and energy requirements* Non-uniform particle size results in uneven hydration and pasta defects
So why is durum hard? By design? No.It was an accident of natureCan we make durum soft? Absolutely!
Soft durum milling properties are similar to soft wheat* Commercial milling trial has been conducted* Soft durum mills like soft wheat* SDF has the particle size distribution of soft wheat flour with similar low starch damage* Ash content equivalent to soft wheat flour* Power required to mill is significantly reduced* No need for complex milling flow required to produce semolina
Durum flour Soft Durum Flour500 μm 500 µm100 µm 100 µm
Pilot Scale Pasta Tests* Wheat SKCS = 24.0* 17% wheat protein; 15.5% flour protein; ash 0.57%* Median flour particle size 57 microns* The SDF had starch and gluten that was similar to semolina based on testing in the Farinograph, Alveograph, and Rapid Visco Analyzer* Optimum paste water absorption 28-29% (14% m.b.) vs. 32% for semolina
This shows defects of normal commercialsemolina at the very low 28-29% water absorption …note the white strands with uneven water absorption.This defect was not observed in the SDF
Checking observed in semolina pasta but not SDF
Soft durum makes high quality pasta* Pasta can be produced with 10-15% less water* Drying rates are similar; lower absorption translates into shorter drying times and energy savings* Pasta trials: SDF is as good as or better than semolina* Lower cooking loss* Firmer cooked product over longer cook times (cooking tolerance)* Reduced propensity for checking (packaging)
Soft durum can make novel bakery productsSoft durum flour can be used to make bakeryproducts with novel yellow color, richer flavorand chewier texture than traditional baking floursGluten strength of SDF is the same as durumwheat in general (no D-genome)
Key benefits of Soft Durum:To millers: - Do not need dedicated durum assets; higher throughput, higher yields(?)To pasta manufacturers: - Reduced energy consumptionTo bakers: - New and appealing artisan breads, pizza products , etc.