Optimizing the Baking Quality in Common Wheat: The Case of Cameroon
BY MICHAEL NGIGUNG TAYOR
World production =29-30% of total cereal production while range of cultivation(670 N-45 0 S ) storage protein =7-22% wild elite genotypes 17% - 28% protein Today, consumers prefer wheat-based food products Wheat has an advantage of yielding a harvest that provides long-term storage of food
• Cameroon is considered Africa in miniature due to its agro-ecological diversity.• According to CIMMYT classification of ME suitable for wheat production, Cameroon falls within 3 MEs.• Presently, Cameroon imports over 230000 metric tons of wheat annually.• Finally Cameroon produce no commercial wheat; why?
• SODEBLE a wheat company created in 1975 was expected to produce and promote wheat production in Cameroon.• It collapsed in 1988 with no achievement and the collapse has been greatly debated.• IFPRI (2007) project a global rise in wheat demand by 2020 to be about 40 percent.• The government has shown little interest in wheat production.
Describe the food chain of wheat in Cameroon. -Analyze quality traits in a set of wheat varieties selected to have large variability in the main quality traits grown at two locations in Norway. -Study the interrelationships of different quality traits
• - provide important background information on the wheat situation in Cameroon• - Possible approaches to increase the domestic production of high quality wheat in Cameroon• - analyze local variety and flour quality use in Cameroon and propose how it can be improved upon• - provide knowledge for further studies
Two Parts Part 1: Study of the wheat value chain in Cameroon Part2: Investigation of wheat quality traits in wheat lines of diverse origin
Two set of semi structure questionnaires used selected flour milling companies (8) 56 questionnaire for bakeries in town and villages
for milling companies, simple conclusions were drawn based on their responses. - Descriptive statistic calculations, using Excel program, were used to analyze the rest of the questionnaire
the flour companies were not ready to review the quantity imported. The flour companies were not willing to provide sample of their flours for analyses Inconsistence data from some bakeries Little knowledge on baking quality by local bakeries
Wheat products and consumption in Cameroon• Wheat is process in to bread flour and spaghetti while the bran is used for animal feed• flour mostly for bread is also used for a variety of local products such as Puff-Puff, cakes, fish-pie, chin-chin etc• High demand for bread in Cameroon• Wheat products are a source of livelihood
Company Wheat sourceGolden Flour France, USA, GermanyGrand Moulin France, Canada, Germany and USASAM France, Germany, Belgium, USASITRABCAM France, Germany, Belgium, USALa Pasta France, Canada, Argentina, Germany, etcSCTB SA France, USA, Germany,
Queue in Yaoundé bakery early in the morning struggling to buy bread
Marketing of bread on streets by youth as a means of livelihood
Millershave no influence on importers No cooperation among millers Bakeries have no influence on the millers No collaboration among the bakeries Bakeries rely on the experience of their workers Bakeries carry no test on flour
Company Protein Falling SDS HMW-GS content number sedimentatio nSGMC 11.7 420 87 null, 7+9 5+12La Pasta 10.6 369 85 Not possibleSilver Grow 10.7 294 76 1, 7+9 5+10SCTB SA 12.6 465 70 2*, 6+8 2+12SITRACAM 11.3 366 66 Not possible
CIMMYT germplasm of IBWSN and HRWSN varieties have been tested in Cameroon
A local wheat variety grown in Nkongle-Cameroon by smallholderfarmers.
Gov’t policies towards wheat production.Lack of awareness.Lack of research on wheat.Lack of neccessary infrastructures.
• All Cameroonians consume wheat in one form or the other• Wheat consumed in Cameroon is imported .• There is steady increase in wheat demand.• Wheat imported into Cameroon has less than 12% protein content.• most likely that low quality wheat will be exported to Cameroon.• increase prices means bakeries will continue to bake poor quality products to the consumers.• Finally there is need for strong collaboration and cooperation among the major miller /bakeries
The government should intensify initiatives on wheat research The government to encourage and empowered farmers, common initiative groups (CIGs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) interested in wheat production. The various existing CIGs and NGO involved in wheat production has to group themselves together. The milling companies need to work closely with wheat farmers. Research has to focus on end-use product.