Rapid Variety Replacement: A strategy to Contain Wheat Rust Diseases in Ethiopia

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Presentation by Dr. Firdissa Eticha (EIAR, Ethiopia) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 9, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Presentation by Dr. Firdissa Eticha (EIAR, Ethiopia) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 9, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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  • 1. Outline1. Introduction to wheat and production constraints2. Fast track release of rust resistant bread wheat varieties in Ethiopia3. Examples in rapid seed multiplication of rust resistant wheat varieties & variety promotion activities4. Conclusion
  • 2. IntroductionWheat in Ethiopia (CSA, 2000-2011)
  • 3. IntroductionWheat production in Ethiopia is Historical rust epidemics in Ethiopia:constrained by several factors. Among themost important ones are: Year Variety Virulence Estimated against loss (%) • wheat stem, leaf and yellow 1974 Laketch Sr? rusts, 1988 Dashen Yr9 58 1994 Enkoy Sr36 67-100 • septoria blotch & fusarium scab 2010 Kubsa Yr27 Up to 100
  • 4. Introduction• Dominant bread wheat varieties of Ethiopia are susceptible to the stem rust race Ug99• Fast track variety release & rapid seed multiplication activities were initiated in 2008 to rapidly address the prooblem  Here we report success stories in fast variety release, rapid seed multiplication & variety replacement
  • 5. 1. Fast track release of rust resistant bread wheat varieties in Ethiopia
  • 6. Example: Approaches used for the release of Ug99 varieties: Danda’a & KakabaIntroduction of Year 1 (2009): Offseason Main-season 2009:Ug99 resistant at DZARC & KARC : 1) Multi-location verification trialslines from Evaluation for local (10mx10m) on 25 locationsCIMMYT (5 lines) races of rusts and (research station & 2 on-farm) (KU,DRRW-Eth agronomic performance BJ, AS, AN, AR, SG, DH, DNB, HO, AD, SN) 2) Pre-release seed increase (same Use of nursery data from year) on 5 ha at Kulumsa (USAID) ETH & data from CIMMYT Njoro, KEN 3) Application for release to NVRC 4) Field visit by variety release technical committeeFurther seed increase in 2011 offseason:Upper Awash, Werer, Robani farm, KogaMain-season (2010) April 2010: 2nd year: 2010 off-season : Pre-• Demonstration of - Variety release defense release seed multiplication at WererKakaba & Danda’a s - Danda & Kakaba on 100 ha.at national level released• Deliver initial seedto seed growers
  • 7. Table 1: Germplasm introduced from CIMMYT & ICARDA for fast trackvariety release of Ug99 resistant varieties during 2009 Lines Pedigree Seed Source Seed imported (kg)* 1 CHONTE #1 SERI.1B*2/3/KAUZ*2/BOW//K CIMMYT 100 AUZ/4/PBW343*2/KUKUNA 2 DANPHE #1 KIRITATI//2*PBW65/2*SERI.1 CIMMYT 100 B 3 MUNAL #1 "s" WAXWING*2/KIRITATI CIMMYT 100 4 PICAFLOR #1 KIRITATI//SERI/RAYON CIMMYT 100 5 QUAIU #2 BABAX/LR42//BABAX*2/3/VI CIMMYT 100 VITSI 6 FLAG 3 PYN/BAU//MILAN ICARDA 100 7 FLAG 5 PYN//BAU/MILAN ICARDA 50 8 AMIR-2 CHAM-6/WW 1402 ICARDA 100 Total 750
  • 8. Results Figure 1: Box plot showing grain yield Figure 2: 10 years rainfall (June distribution of the genotypic at selected – October) at Dhera 2009 locations (summer 2009)
  • 9. Table 2: Mean grain yield and other traits (10 locs) Heading Maturity YLD, TKW, Genotype (days) (days) kg/ha G1 Local check 71.5a 124ab 2720.6b 32d2 Chonte#1 71.4a 122bc 3109.2a 36c3 Danphe#1 71.3a 125a 3295.8a 39a4 Munal#1 70.6b 121c 3110.3a 36c5 Picaflor#1 61.4e 112d 3121.6a 36c6 Quiau#2 68.5d 120c 3159.9a 38b7 Standard check 69.6c 124ab 3140.3a 36c Mean 69 121 3094 36 LSD 0.46 1.96 190.5 C.V., % 1.17 2.8 10.68 R2 0.998 0.988 0.977
  • 10. Figure 3: Grain yield of Ug99 resistant candidate varieties in selected sites(2009)
  • 11. Figure 4: Yield advantage over standard checks
  • 12. Figure 5: Cluster of wheat lines based on agronomic data(Ward’s similarity index)
  • 13. Table 3: Reactions to stem and yellow rusts and septoria; data from ETH & CIMMYT Njoro, KEN Ethiopia 2009 Njoro, Kenya SR data MAIN SRNo. Genotype Yellow OFS Stem rust Septoria Season resistance rust 29/03/07 11/10/07 type1 ST CK 50SMS 20S 632 CHONTE#1 25MRMS 15S 74 20MS 10MS R-MR3 DANPHE#1 15MS 20MS 75 10MS 20MSS R-MR4 MUNAL#1 50SMS 30S 75 20M 15M MR5 PICAFLOR#1 40MSMR 20MS 86 20M 20M MR6 QUIAU#2 20MSMR 15S 88 50MR 40M srTmp7 LOC CK 30MS 5MS 63
  • 14. What are the outputs of this work?• Danphe#1 and Picaflor#1 were finally released as ‘Danda’a’ and Kakaba, respectively during 2010.• NVC recommended Quau#2 to be tested under irrigation in low altitudes where septoria is not a problem. And it was released for irrigated lowland areas as Gambo. Kakaba Danda’a KIRITATI//SERI/RAYON KIRITATI//2*PBW65/2*SERI.1B
  • 15. Other success stories in variety release (Year 2011) Gambo (BABAX/LR42//BABAX*2/3/VIVITSI) HOGGANA = FLAG-5 = PYN/BAU//MILAN SHORIMA = HULUKA =UTIQUE96/3/PYN/BAU//M UTIQUE96/3/PYN/BAU//MIL ILAN AN
  • 16. Year 2012HIDASE OGOLCHOYANAC/3/PRL/SARA//TSI/VEE#5/4/CR WORRAKATTA/2*PASTOROC-1/AE.SQUAROSA(224)//OPATTA
  • 17. Summary on adaptation zones and yield potential of new BW varieties Year of Maturity Rainfall Altitude Yield Name Height (cm) release (days) (mm) (m) (MT/ha) 1 Hidase 2012 91-110 110-125 >600 2100-2800 4.5-7.0 2 Ogolcho 2012 75-90 90-105 500-800 1500-2100 3.3-5.0 3 Hulluka 2012 133 104 >600 2200-2800 3.9-7.1 4 Gambo 2011 88-113 90-145 Irrigated 650-2400 3.7-5.5 5 Shorima 2011 85-120 105-150 600-900 1900-2600 4.4-6.3 6 Hoggana 2011 85-103 121-170 800-1200 2200-2900 4.6-6.0 7 Danda’a 2010 90-113 110-145 >600 2000-2600 3.5-7.0 8 Kakaba 2010 85-100 90-120 500- 800 1500-2200 3.3-5.2
  • 18. 2. Examples in rapid seed multiplication ofrust resistant wheat varieties & varietypromotion activities
  • 19. Progresses of robust source seed multiplication• Triggered by: – Stem rust race Ug99 Variety Year of• Strategies followed: Release 1 Danda’a 2010 a) Pre-release & post release 2 Gambo 2010 seed multiplication during 3 Kakaba 2010  Off-season (irrigation) 4 Shorima 2011  Main-season (rain-fed) 5 Hoggana 2011 b) Focus on rust resistant 6 Hidasie 2012 bread wheat varieties 7 Hulluka 2012 8 Ogolcho 2012
  • 20. Table 4: Pre-release seed multiplication of candidate varieties in maincrop season of 2009 and off-season of 2010. Rain fed at Kulumsa (2009) Irrigation at Werer (2010) Amount Amount produced producedGenotype Current status Area (ha) (MT) Area (ha) (MT)Quaiu#1 Gambo 1.0 3.1 12 14.7Munal#1 Unreleased 1.0 3.5 12 10.7Chonte#1 Unreleased 0.6 2.3 24 20.8Damphe#1 Dandaa 0.9 2.5 24 18.4Picaflor#1 Kakaba 0.7 2.7 30 32.6Flag-3 Unreleased 0.5 1.4Amir-2 Unreleased 0.6 1.7Total 5.3 17.2 102.0 97.2  A total 66 MT of Danda’a, Kakaba and Gambo varieties was produced before their approval for release.  Speeded up access to seeds of these varieties after release
  • 21. Table 5: Area and quantity of Danda’a and Kakaba produced using irrigationduring off-season in 2010 by different institutions-Crush ProgramLocation Variety Area planted Seed Seed source Responsible (ha) produced organization (MT)Werer/Middle Awash Danda’a 30 35.3 Kulumsa RC EIARWerer/Middle Awash Kakaba 60 49.1 Kulumsa RC EIARRobani Farm/Upper Kakaba 30 34.0 Kulumsa RC EIARAwashKoga/Gojam Kakba 70 80.0 Kulumsa RC ESEMerti/Upper Awash Kakaba 126 Kulumsa RC ESE 68.4Nura-Era/Upper Kakaba 140 Kulumsa RC ESEAwash 76.0Nura-Era/Upper Danda’a 40 Kulumsa RC ESEAwash 21.7Total 496 364.5
  • 22. Table 6: Amount of seed of rust resistant bread wheat varietiesproduced (MT) in the Kulumsa during 2011/12 main-seasonVariety* Breeder Pre-basic Basic TotalKakaba 2.9 17.7 129.6 150.2Danda’a 3 65.5 133.4 201.9Digelu 1.8 38.5 43.7 84.0Hoggana 1 - - 1.0Hulluka 3 - - 3.0Shorima 3.4 - - 3.4Gambo 1.8 - - 1.8Total 16.9 121.7 308.9 445.3 *New varieties have replaced older varieties in seed sector
  • 23. Table 7: Volume of pre-basic seed produced on rust resistant bread wheatvarieties under irrigation at Werer Research Center in 2011/12. Varieties are wellVariety Seed amount (MT) disseminated throughDandaa 25.0 pre-scaling up programShorima 2.8 Majority of seedHulluka 7.5 produced has beenGambo 8.0 distributed to public seed enterprises such asTotal 68.0 OSE, ASE, SSE, BADE.
  • 24. Table 9: Volume of pre-basic & Table 10: Volume of certifiedbasic seeds produced (MT) by public seed (MT) produced byseed producers (ESE, OSE, ASE, public seed producers inBADE) during 2011/12 main 2011/12.season. Amount Variety TotalVariety (MT) Dandaa 2,252.0Kakaba Pre-basic 6.0Kakaba Basic 296.7 Digelu 9,172.7Danda‘a Basic 130.5 Kakaba 3,211.0 Total 433.2 Total 14,635.7 14,600 tons of seed is enough to cover 97,000 ha of land (6.5 % of wheat area in Ethiopia).
  • 25. Promotion of Rust Resistant VarietiesBy the involvement of variousactors & projects:• National scaling up – EIAR, RARIs, HLIs, MoA/ BoA• Rapid deployment of rust resistant and high yielding varieties for achieving food security in Ethiopia• EAAPP-WRCoE• AGRA wheat• NGOs
  • 26. Promotion of Rust Resistant Varieties: field days/visits
  • 27. Conclusion• Fast track variety release has become the best approach for fast replacement of rust resistant wheat varieties in Ethiopia• Pre-release seed multiplication of promising lines accelerates varietal accessibility right at the time of their release• The current paradigm on seed multiplication using main season & offseason irrigation is a vital solution for increasing seed availability of new varieties
  • 28. Acknowledgements• CIMMYT & ICARDA for providing elite germplasm & data on germplasm• USAID for funding rapid seed multiplication activities• B&M Gates• DRRW project• CORNEL UNI• WB for funding wheat project through EAAPP• SEED GROWERS / ESE, OSE, ASE, SSE