Wheat research in South Africa:    Helping farmers grow their crop    Vicki L. Tolmay    On behalf of ARC-Small Grain Inst...
Introduction• The challenges facing agriculture and agricultural researchers in  South Africa are diverse and enigmatic• W...
• South Africa has the potential to produce most of its local wheat  requirement• We don’t – this has a lot more to do wit...
•   ARC-Small Grain Institute is doing                                                                                 Imp...
Three distinct production regions:1.     Mediterranean climate, winter rain, spring dryland wheat     October 2012        ...
Western & Southern CapeOctober 2012   Wheat for food security in Africa   6
Three distinct production regions: 1. Mediterranean climate, winter rain, spring dryland wheat 2. Summer rain, winter / in...
Dryland Free StateOctober 2012       Wheat for food security in Africa   8
Three distinct production regions: 1. Mediterranean climate, winter rain, spring dryland wheat 2. Summer rain, winter / in...
Irrigation regionsOctober 2012      Wheat for food security in Africa   10
Cultivar EvaluationOctober 2012       Wheat for food security in Africa   11
Cultivar EvaluationOctober 2012       Wheat for food security in Africa   12
Specific area                                                   and planting                                              ...
Highest three year average 2.68 t/ha               Lowest three year average 1.81 t/ha                      Difference of ...
Wheat Quality determines grade• Milling and bread making quality is an  important focus• Cultivars for all three areas hav...
Biotic    stresses•   Stem rust•   Leaf rust•   Stripe rust•   Bollworm                               • Different producti...
Rust and RWA surveysTrap nurseries → Collect samples → Identify racesOctober 2012        Wheat for food security in Africa...
Number of        Number ofRWA          RWA & Rust resistance       Sr35    Sr24   Lr34/Yr18                               ...
Fusarium Head Blight / SCAB• Irrigated spring wheat• Problematic due to double cropping  with maize and wheat and tillage ...
Bio-insecticides                • Bollworm is a sporadic pest which                  influences both yield and grade      ...
Conservation Agriculture• Do ammonium sulphate containing adjuvants have the                100                90  same ef...
New cultivarsKwartel         Ratel
New cultivars
New cultivars
New cultivars
New cultivarsTamboti        Timbavati
New oat cultivarsTowerberg      Simonsberg
Population distribution in SAOctober 2012   Wheat for food security in Africa   31
Science for the future• As scientists we must be committed to see our research  results translated to food security not on...
October 2012   Wheat for food security in Africa   33
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Wheat research in South Africa: Helping farmers grow their crop

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Presentation by Dr. Vicki L. Tolmay (ARC-Small Grain Institute, South Africa) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 9, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Wheat research in South Africa: Helping farmers grow their crop

  1. 1. Wheat research in South Africa: Helping farmers grow their crop Vicki L. Tolmay On behalf of ARC-Small Grain InstituteOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 1
  2. 2. Introduction• The challenges facing agriculture and agricultural researchers in South Africa are diverse and enigmatic• We aim to develop technologies that will – assist producers to farm profitably within a globalised-marketing environment – act to improve household food security and – help make South Africa self-sufficient in food production• 2011: Smallest area (ha) of wheat planted in the past 20 years• South Africa expects to import >50% of its wheat requirement in 2012October 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 2
  3. 3. • South Africa has the potential to produce most of its local wheat requirement• We don’t – this has a lot more to do with economics and politics than the skills and capability of our farmers• In 1996 the single channel wheat marketing system was replaced with unprotected competition on the international market, in which the forces of supply and demand determine price• Farming wheat profitably became non-negotiable, it’s a business• Industry initiated a levy per ton of wheat milled, which has been used to fund research• Producers use research-outputs to surviveOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 3
  4. 4. • ARC-Small Grain Institute is doing Improved ability of research on 50 different wheat the sector to Enhance manage and related projects mitigate nutrition, food agricultural risks• Research is executed by 26 security & safety scientists and 16 technicians• Five research divisions: Sustainable use & management – Germplasm Development of natural resources Transformed – Breeding agrarian – Production Systems landscape – Crop Protection – Farmer supportOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 4
  5. 5. Three distinct production regions:1. Mediterranean climate, winter rain, spring dryland wheat October 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 5
  6. 6. Western & Southern CapeOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 6
  7. 7. Three distinct production regions: 1. Mediterranean climate, winter rain, spring dryland wheat 2. Summer rain, winter / intermediate dryland wheat October 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 7
  8. 8. Dryland Free StateOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 8
  9. 9. Three distinct production regions: 1. Mediterranean climate, winter rain, spring dryland wheat 2. Summer rain, winter / intermediate dryland wheat 3. Irrigated spring wheat October 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 9
  10. 10. Irrigation regionsOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 10
  11. 11. Cultivar EvaluationOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 11
  12. 12. Cultivar EvaluationOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 12
  13. 13. Specific area and planting date: Yield Hectolitre mass Protein Falling numberOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 13
  14. 14. Highest three year average 2.68 t/ha Lowest three year average 1.81 t/ha Difference of 0.87 t/ha by choosing the cultivar best adapted to your areaOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 14
  15. 15. Wheat Quality determines grade• Milling and bread making quality is an important focus• Cultivars for all three areas have superior characteristics• 73 000 analyses / year• Mill with Junior Quadromat or Bühler• Rheology → MixSmart, Alveograph and MixoLab for dough properties, HPLC for protein composition• Selection at early generation possible (F3 or F4)October 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 15
  16. 16. Biotic stresses• Stem rust• Leaf rust• Stripe rust• Bollworm • Different production regions• Russian wheat aphid have different problems and• Stripe rust prevalent stressors• Take-all • Often need combinations of different resistances – must also• Fusarium Head Blight be combined with adaptation• Leaf rust• Leaf miner and end-use quality• Take-allOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 16
  17. 17. Rust and RWA surveysTrap nurseries → Collect samples → Identify racesOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 17
  18. 18. Number of Number ofRWA RWA & Rust resistance Sr35 Sr24 Lr34/Yr18 plants (A) plants (B) . R AA + AA 2•R R Aa + AA Getting very complicated AA + Aa 1 1 1•R Numerous RWA biotypes Aa + Aa 1 R AA - AA 2•R Numerous rust pathogens & races Aa - AA 1 2 R AA - Aa 3•R Combine MAS and phenotyping Aa - Aa 6MR AA + AA 5•MR Making progress Aa + AA 1 4•MRMR AA + Aa 64 high potential lines identified Aa + Aa 7 3MR AA - AA 6MR Aa - AA 6MR AA - Aa 1MR Aa - Aa 10 1October 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 18
  19. 19. Fusarium Head Blight / SCAB• Irrigated spring wheat• Problematic due to double cropping with maize and wheat and tillage practices• Mycotoxin management concern• International and local collaboration• Pre-breeding with diverse resistant lines using MAS and phenotypic Field evaluation is best evaluation for Type 1 and Type 2• As yet no resistant cultivars resistance with local pathotypes availableOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 19
  20. 20. Bio-insecticides • Bollworm is a sporadic pest which influences both yield and grade 20 Food intake over 14 days 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 NR INF37 VIRUS R269 R444 SGI176 SASRI1174 ControlOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 20
  21. 21. Conservation Agriculture• Do ammonium sulphate containing adjuvants have the 100 90 same effect on Roundup Turbo® efficacy (500ppm 80 CaCl2) 70 % Control 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Ammonium SulphateOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 21
  22. 22. New cultivarsKwartel Ratel
  23. 23. New cultivars
  24. 24. New cultivars
  25. 25. New cultivars
  26. 26. New cultivarsTamboti Timbavati
  27. 27. New oat cultivarsTowerberg Simonsberg
  28. 28. Population distribution in SAOctober 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 31
  29. 29. Science for the future• As scientists we must be committed to see our research results translated to food security not only published in scientific journals• It’s complicated and sometimes difficult• Need more than just scientific know-how• But that emphasises just how important this dialogue is that we are busy with …October 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 32
  30. 30. October 2012 Wheat for food security in Africa 33

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