New durable rust resistant wheat varieties: What they mean for small farmers in Ethiopia

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Presentation by Dr. Bedada Girma (EIAR, Ethiopia) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 9, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Presentation by Dr. Bedada Girma (EIAR, Ethiopia) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 9, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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  • 1. Bedada Girma, Firdissa Etich1, Solomon Gelalcha, Ayele Badebo, Getaneh Woldeab, Fekadu Fufa, Bekele Abeyo, Ravi Singh, Sridhar Bhavani, Osman Abdala, and Gordon Cisar
  • 2. Introduction Wheat production in Ethiopia  Major food-security crop produced on about 1.5 ml ha  Wheat is faced with serious periodical threats from rusts  Yellow & stem rusts are major threats in East Africa  The 2010 yellow rust epidemic in Ethiopia caused considerable yield losses
  • 3. IntroductionWheat producers  95% of wheat producers in Ethiopia are small farmers  Small farmers suffer from limited use of improved technologies and low productivity  Small farmers are not fully protected from the rusts  The cheapest means to protect farmers: Rust resistant/ tolerant varieties
  • 4. Development ofrust resistantwheat varieties:Approaches Crossing, introduct’n,screening, selection,testing Two cycles per season Joint evaluation &advancing PVS, VVT, release, seedincrease Int’l & Natl wheat scientists at Kulumsa station, Oct 2011
  • 5. Development of rust resistant wheat varieties: Approaches Regular & seasonalvisits from Int’lscientists facilitatesharing of experiencesand information ICARDA and Ethiopian breeders happy with performance of advanced lines at Kulumsa, Ethiopia
  • 6. Participatory variety selection: Approaches PVS at Kulumsa station (L) and on-farmer at Huluko village (R), Munessa district, 2010PVS Groups: Superior lines: Candidates for  Women farmers, further testing or release  Young farmers,  Elder farmers
  • 7. Participatory variety selectionWomen PVS group in Burkituvillage Selection criteria  Yield potential  Spike length  Number of seeds/spike  Plant height- straw factor  Seed color- market value  Baking quality  Disease resistance- stay green  Frost resistance  Earliness for low moisture stress area
  • 8. Tech. promotion approachesDemonstration on station Demonstration on-farm
  • 9. Training and promotion of rust resistant wheatvarieties: ApproachesTraining : Gimbichu district Training: Digelutijo district  60-130 farmers/district Training of farmers, development  1-2 DA/village + supervisor agents, and supervisors is key to  Gender sensitive success of new technology promotion
  • 10. Training areas Variety development and selection Agronomic practices Crop management Post harvest care Gender issues Marketing & saving
  • 11. Farmer-preferred rust resistant wheatvarietiesHighland types Mid to lowland types Digalu Danda’a  Kakaba ET-13  Pavon-76 Madawalabu  Shorima Huluka  Ogolcho Hidasse
  • 12. Promotion of rust resistant wheatvarieties: ApproachesSeed multiplication: Digalu Seed multiplication: Danda’a
  • 13. Promotion of rust resistant wheat varieties: ApproachesHousehold head farmer in Well managed Digalu varietyher field- Gimbichu district near Inawari town
  • 14. Farmers come from far places to attend field days
  • 15. Technology promotion: Farmers’ field days
  • 16. Outputs and impactsTraining produced cadre ofsmall farmers ready for  Many copy farmers- neighborschange and beyondPVS, based on peerdiscussion, enhanced  Improved yield and quality fromintegration and community new varieties; seed access attogetherness village levelFarmer preferred newvarieties  Well managed fields; high yields & market focused production
  • 17. Outputs and impacts Yield performance of Danda’a Yield performance of KakabaFarmer, Plot, Yield/plot, t/ha Farmer Plot, Yield/ t/ha ha ton ha plot, tMalasa A. 0.25 2.6 10.4 Kabada G. 0.25 1.6 6.4Getu W. 0.25 2.4 9.6 Kabada J. 0.25 1.2 4.8Dabale S. 0.25 1.8 7.2 Gamada D. 0.25 1.15 4.6Sisay T. 0.25 1.6 6.4 Worknesh A. 0.25 1.1 4.4Batrii E. 0.25 1.5 6.0 Amino U. 0.25 1.1 4.4
  • 18. Seed yield data from farmers’ fields in 2011District Variety #farmers Total Yield Mean Seed for area, ha range, ton yield, t/ha 2012, tonArsirobe Danda’a 10 2.5 1.05-2.6 6.38 16Digelutijo Danda’a 10 2.5 1.2-1.6 5.96 15Gimbichu Danda’a 10 2.5 1.32-1.52 5.73 14Arsirobe Kakaba 5 1.25 1.0-1.6 4.76 6Total 35 8.75 51
  • 19. Certificate of appreciation
  • 20. Conclusions International research collaboration has effectively slowed down the spread of Ug99 across the globe and avoided catastrophic damage to wheat production. Free access to int’l wheat germplasm, testing network across regional countries, and enhancing national wheat breeding programs will contribute to generation of wheat technologies for the small farmers. Small farmers can make a difference in ensuring food security for the households and the community if given the minimum support they need.
  • 21. Conclusions “Our farmers are easily getting 6-7 t/ha after you introduced Digalu variety to our district in 2009”. Mr. Getu, Head, Arsirobe District Bureau of Agriculture “We have more than tripled our yields after we started using the new rust resistant varieties, thank you for the training and support; 2-3 t/ha is now history”. Small farmers of Arsirobe district, 2011 Field Day “Investing in small farmers is the most powerful way to fight hunger and poverty”. Bill Gates
  • 22. So for the small farmers, the NEW VARIETES mean: Rust protection High yield High income Food security Improved livelihood
  • 23. Special meal for special guests
  • 24. acknowledgements EIAR Mgmt / KARC for administrative support BMGF/ Cornell/ DRRW CIMMYT/ICARDA/ USAID/FAO/AGRA/EAAPP Farmers & wheat researchers Extension staff of 9 districts Seed producers- private and public Mr. Asefa W/Michael (pensioner, now deceased):- disseminated resistant wheat varieties into Munessa district & saved thousands of small farmers from the 2010 yellow rust epidemic.
  • 25. Technical experts & advisors to small farmers
  • 26. THANK YOU