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Variation and agronomic potential of semi-arid wheat germplasm in the Limpopo Province of South Africa
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Variation and agronomic potential of semi-arid wheat germplasm in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

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Presentation by prof. Hussein Shimelis (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 9, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Presentation by prof. Hussein Shimelis (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 9, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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  • 1. Variation and agronomic potentialof semi-arid wheat germplasm in the Limpopo Province of South Africa H. Shimelis and M.D. Laing African Centre for Crop Improvement (ACCI)School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences University of KwaZulu-Natal Republic of South Africa shimelish@ukzn.ac.za
  • 2. IMPORTANT POINTS 47 CIMMYT Drought Tolerant (DT) lines & 2 local wheat cultivars screened for yield and components in a semi-arid agro-ecology in the northern South Africa Best yield at 8.6 t ha -1 vs. 3.74 t ha -1 of local check 5 DT lines with excellent yield and agronomic traits are selected for direct production in Limpopo, South Africa Several lines with extreme performance on important traits to be used as donor parents in backcross breeding
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Drought is a major limiting factor of wheat production globally Successful breeding for drought resistance would be extremely valuable Different traits are available that are consistently associated with higher grain yield under drought conditions
  • 4. INTRODUCTION Drought is one of the major constraints of wheat production in South Africa. Limpopo Province - semi-arid = 300-400 mm p.a. rainfall, restricting wheat production. CIMMYT has developing candidate genotypes for semi-arid and unfavorable environments. Exploiting the genetic potential of these germplasm for improved drought and heat resistance is important for SA.
  • 5. OBJECTIVES1. To determine genetic variation and potential of semi-arid wheat germplasm for yield and important agronomic traits in Limpopo Province.2. Select suitable parents and introgress traits into desirable genetic background to develop drought and heat stress resistant cultivars.
  • 6. MATERIALS AND METHODS OBJECTIVES49 diverse bread wheat lines used; 47bred for semi-arid environments andtwo commercial local checks(SST822, SST825) included ascomparative controls.
  • 7. MATERIALS AND METHODS Field experiments conducted (2007 and 2008) in Limpopo Province at the Experimental Farm of the University of Limpopo.
  • 8. MATERIALS AND METHODS Design: partially balanced lattice – 7 incomplete blocks, 3 replications Parameters measured: Yield and agronomic traits linked with Early or Terminal stress resistance Data analysis: Agrobase Gen II and SAS Lattice procedure
  • 9. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONObserved variations:• days to heading 52.62 - 98.91 days• plant height 570 – 989.5 mm• tiller numbers 8 - 24 per plant• days to maturity 126 - 147 days• spikelet length 53.3 - 130 mm• No. spikelets per spike 11 - 31• No. kernels per spike 8 - 46• hundred kernel weight 3.33 - 6.34 g• Yield 2.42 - 8.58 t ha-1
  • 10. Key performers Early Heading (days)  304=53, 338=79 vs. 301=95 ; 321=99 Reduced Plant Height (mm)  311 & 307=580, 303=640 vs. 348=980 High Tiller Numbers  319=24, 311=22 vs. 304=8 Maturity Date (days)  325=126; 302, 326=127, vs. 301=147 Spike Length (mm)  323=130; 317, 322=120 vs. 334=70 Spikelets Per Spike  323=31, 307=30, 322=27 vs. 310, 343=11
  • 11. Key performers Kernels Per Spike  323=46; 326, 334, 336=44 vs. 317=8 Hundred Kernel Weight (g)  336=6.34; 305, 322, 323, 324=5.3 vs. 321=4 High Yield (t ha-1)  336=8.6, 326=8.2; 302, 338=8 vs. 337=2.4
  • 12. • Seed yield positively correlated (P<0.01) with tiller number, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, and hundred kernel weight.• Lines 336, 326, 302, 338 and 322 selected with excellent yield and agronomic traits under semi-arid conditions and can be screened for flour quality
  • 13. Figure. Rotated principal component scores and percentexplained variance showing similarities among 49 entriesof T. aestivum
  • 14. Some lines have good agronomic attributes e.g.304 is early maturing (53 d), 307 and 311 withshort plant height (570 mm) but low tillering andlow yield. These and other lines could serve asdonor parents.Further improvement of wheat for water limitedand marginal environments is possible using thegermplasm characterized here
  • 15. Wheat trials at Syferkuil,Limpopo, 2008
  • 16. Wheat trials at Syferkuil,Limpopo, 2008
  • 17. Bird scaring ribbons
  • 18. Future ResearchFurther evaluation and selection of best lines xAgro-ecologies in the ProvinceScreen for quality traits and drought toleranceBackcrosses: earliness x good yield & agronomictraitsTest other sources of drought or heat shockresistant germplasm
  • 19. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS• The National Research Foundation (NRF)• CIMMYT• The Generation Challenge Program (GCP)
  • 20. Table 1. List and pedigree of 49 wheat lines used in the studyNo. Line/pedigree No. Line/pedigree301 SST822 326 PASTOR//TODY/BAU/3/PASTOR302 PBW343 327 RL6043/4*NAC//2*PASTOR303 CHAM 6 328 RL6043/4*NAC//2*PASTOR304 KLEIN CHAMACO 329 RL6043/4*NAC//2*PASTOR305 HIDHAB 330 RL6043/4*NAC//2*PASTOR306 DHARWAR DRY 331 CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA (224)//OPATA/3/PASTOR/4/JARU307 FRTL/CMH83.2517 332 CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA (224)//OPATA/3/PASTOR/4/JARU308 FRTL/CMH83.2517 333 ALTAR 84/AE.SQ//2*OPATA/3/PIFED309 FRAME*2/3/URES/JUN//KAUZ 334 CHEN/AE.SQ//OPATA/3/PASTOR310 SARA/THB//VEE/3/BJY/COC//PRL/BOW 335 KRICHAUFF/2*PASTOR311 ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA/3/BAU/MILAN 336 KRICHAUFF/2*PASTOR312 PASTOR/FLORKWA.1//PASTOR 337 AUS GS50AT41//HXL8246/KAUZ/3/CUNNINGHAM313 ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA/3/2*PJN/BOW//OPATA 338 WORRAKATTA/PASTOR314 CHAM6/ATTILA//PASTOR 339 KABY//2*ALUBUC/BAYA315 CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA (224)//OPATA/3/PASTOR/4/PASTOR*2/OPATA 340 ATTILA/BABAX//PASTOR CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA (224)//OPATA/3/ALTAR 84/ ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA316 341 AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA/4/PASTOR (TAUS)//OCI/3/VEE/MJI//2*TUI CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA (224)//OPATA/3/ALTAR 84/ ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA317 342 AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA/4/PASTOR (TAUS)//OCI/3/VEE/MJI//2*TUI CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA (224)//OPATA/3/ALTAR 84/318 343 MILAN/KAUZ//PRINIA/3/BABAX AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA/4/PASTOR319 ATTILA/PASTOR//PASTOR 344 MILAN/KAUZ//PRINIA/3/BABAX CNO79//PF70354/MUS/3/PASTOR/4/CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA320 ATTILA/PASTOR//PASTOR 345 (224)//OPATA CNO79//PF70354/MUS/3/PASTOR/4/CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA321 SST825 346 (224)//OPATA322 ATTILA//PGO/SERI/3/PASTOR 347 TAM200/TUI//MILAN/KAUZ/3/BABAX323 SLVS*2/PASTOR 348 BUC/MN72253//PASTOR/3/BABAX324 SLVS*2/PASTOR 349 CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA (213)//PGO/3/BABAX325 PASTOR/3/PRL/SARA//TSI/VEE#5
  • 21. Table 2. Analysis of variance of agronomic traits among 49 lines of wheat tested under partially balanced lattice design with seven incomplete blocks and three replications. Trait HDT PHT TLN MDT SLN Source of variation DF MS F-value MS F-value MS F-value MS F-value MS F-value Replication (Rep) 2 79.76 1.9ns 387.63 5.25* 522.27 605.51** 1096.41 234.67** 25.49 44.94** Line (unadjusted) 48 171.57 182.33 45.48 84.73 8.62 Rep (adjusted) 18 49.00 224.60 2.20 10.44 0.58 Residual 78 40.31 38.98 0.56 3.34 0.56 Line (adjusted) 48 166.34 4.13** 205.45 5.27** 39.30 70.85** 77.88 23.31** 8.53 15.15** Trait SPS KPS HKW YLD Source of variation DF MS F-value MS F-value MS F-value MS F-value Rep 2 84.27 55.61** 171.15 148.87** 19.67 157.57** 0.57 16.98** Line (unadjusted) 48 61.42 214.46 1.17 7.94 Rep (adjusted) 18 1.91 1.15 0.13 0.03 Residual 78 1.43 1.15 0.12 0.04 Line (adjusted) 48 56.85 39.89** 214.46 186.54** 1.15 9.32** 7.94 229.74**DF=degrees of freedom; MS=mean square; NS=non significant.*, ** denote significance differences at 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels,respectively.